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Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies
ISSN : 20891490     EISSN : 2406825X     DOI : -
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies (IJIMS): This journal should coverage Islam both as a textual tradition with its own historical integrity and as a social reality which was dynamic and constantly changing. The journal also aims at bridging the gap between the textual and contextual approaches to Islamic Studies; and solving the dichotomy between ‘orthodox’ and ‘heterodox’ Islam. So, the journal invites the intersection of several disciplines and scholars. In other words, its contributors borrowed from a range of disciplines, including the humanities and social sciences.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 41 Documents
Muslim diversity: Islam and local tradition in Java and Sulawesi, Indonesia Ali, Muhammad
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies Vol 1, No 1 (2011): Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies
Publisher : State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga

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Based on some historical and anthropological accounts, this article examines adynamic interplay between Islam and local tradition in Indonesia with specialreference to Java and Sulawesi. It explains how local Muslims differed in theirinterpretation and application of Islam. It looks at processes of religious changeas a world religion interacts with local forces. The “localization” of Islam was aconstant feature in the expansion of Islam beyond the Arab homeland, includingSoutheast Asia. Based on the framework of ‘practical Islam’, rather than ‘normativeIslam’, and on the framework of both accommodation and conflict betweenshari’ah and adat as a whole system, rather than as separate entities, it providesa greater variety of Islamic beliefs and experiences. Comparatively, Javanesepeople have been more diverse than Sulawesi people in terms of religious spectrum;Muslims in Java have incorporated animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, andIslam into their culture system. Stories about the nine saints show how earlyIslamic preachers sought to accommodate Islam with local traditions. In Sulawesi,Dato ri Bandang and the other teachers, representing the elite aristocracy whoattempted to Islamize the kingdoms and the people alike and Syeikh Yusuf, representinga strict kind of Islam, show diversity but tends to suggest a less diversepicture, when compared to Java. Despite internal diversity in Java as well as inSulawesi, Java has remained more open and tolerant with cultural diversity,whereas Sulawesi has increasingly become more legalistic. Berdasarkan kajian sejarah dan antropologis, artikel ini membahas hubungandinamis antara Islam dan budaya lokal di Indonesia dengan rujukan khusus padaJawa dan Sulawesi. Artikel ini menjelaskan bagaimana orang Islam lokal berbedadalam memahami dan menerapkan Islam. Artikel ini melihat proses-prosesperubahan keagamaan ketika agama dunia bergumul dengan kekuatan-kekuatanlokal. Lokalisasi Islam adalah ciri tetap dalam penyebaran Islam melampaui tanahArab, termasuk Asia Tenggara. Berdasarkan kerangka “Islam sebagaimana yangdipraktekkan” (‘Islam praktikal’), bukan ‘Islam normatif’ dan kerangka akomodasidan konflik antara syari’ah dan adat sebagai sistem yang menyeluruh, bukanrealitas yang terpisah, artikel ini menawarkan kemajemukan kepercayaan danpengalaman Islam. Secara komparatif, orang-orang Jawa lebih majemuk daripadaorang-orang Sulawesi dalam hal spektrum keagamaan. Orang-orang Islam diJawa memasukkan animism, agama Hindu dan Buddha, dan Islam kedalamsistem budaya mereka. Cerita-cerita tentang wali songo menunjukkan bagaimanapenyebar-penyebar Islam awal berusaha mengakomodasi Islam dengan budayabudayalokal. Di Sulawesi, Dato ri Bandang dan guru-guru lainnya, yang mewakilikaum bangsawan yang berusaha melakukan pengislaman kerajaan-kerajaan danorang-orang, dan Syeikh Yusuf yang mewakili kaum yang lebih tegas, menunjukkankeragaman keagamaan, namun tidak semajemuk di Jawa. Meskipun adakemajemukan di Jawa dan di Sulawesi, Jawa tampaknya lebih terbuka dan tolerandengan perbedaan budaya, sedangkan Sulawesi menunjukkan kecenderunganyang legalistik. Namun demikian, keagamaan jangan dipahami bersifat statis,liner, lengkap, dan selesai.
Islamic welfare system dealing with the poor in rural area Zakiyah, Zakiyah
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies Vol 1, No 1 (2011): Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies
Publisher : State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga

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This paper try to review the practice of Islamic welfare system (such as zaka,waqf, shadaqa, infaq, hibah and qurban) dealing with poor people in rural area.Then, this study looks at four main issues, namely how the structure of thecommitee, the management of such system, fund rising strategy, and peopleaccessibility to this welfare system. In order to deal with this, it is used someframeworks namely; firstly, the welfare strategy as proposed by Spicker (1995)including economic production, redistribution, and solidarity. Secondly, the conceptof welfare offered by Azmi (1991), Midgley (1997), and Zastrow (2004).This research took place in North and South Wonorejo, a village located in Magelangdistrict, Central Java. Finding of this research shows that this scheme has operatedconventionaly and has not contributed much on enhancing people welfare.There is no formal institution that organizes all element of such scheme. As thesocial welfare institution, this system ideally offers program, benefits and servicesthat help people meets those social, economic, educational and health needs.However, there is no specific program for the poor people offered by the committeeof the Islamic welfare scheme. Studi ini berusaha mengkaji praktik system kesejahteraan dalam Islam (sepertizakat, wakaf, shadaqah, infak, hibah dan qurban) dalam hubungannya denganmasyarakat miskin di wilayah pedesaan. Kajian melihat empat persoalan utama,yakni bagaimana struktur panitia, pengelolaan sistem kesejahteraan, strategipengumpulan dana, dan akses masyarakat terhadap sistem tersebut. Untukmenjawab persoalan ini, kajian mempergunakan kerangka kerja antara lain strategikesejahteraan sebagaimana diusulkan Spicker (1995) termasuk produksi,redsitribusi, dan solidaritas ekonomi, dan konsep kesejahteraan sebagaimanadikemukakan Azmi (1991), Midgley (1997), dan Zastrow (2004). Kajian inidilakukan di Desa Wonorejo Utara dan Selatan, Magelang, Jawa Tengah. Kajianini menemukan antara lain: skema kesejahteraan masih dilakukan secarakonvensional dan tidak banyak berkontribusi terhadap kesejahteraan masyarakat.Tidak ada lembaga resmi yang mengorganisir semua unsur dalam skema tersebut.Sebagai lembaga kesejahteraan sosial, sistem ini idealnya menawarkan program,manfaat dan layanan yang menolong masyarakat dalam memenuhikebutuhan-kebutuhan ekonomi, sosial, pendidikan dan kesehatan. Namundemikian, tidak ada program khusus bagi masyarakat miskin yang ditawarkanoleh pengelola skema kesejahteraan Islam.
The concept of religious pluralism in Indonesia: a study of the MUI’s fatwa and the debate among Muslim scholars Basya, Muhammad Hilaly
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies Vol 1, No 1 (2011): Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies
Publisher : State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga

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In 2005 The Council of Indonesian Ulama (MUI) issued a controversial fatwa. Thefatwa states that it is prohibited for Muslims to develop the ideas of religiouspluralism. The fatwa had provoked heat debate among Indonesian Muslim scholars.For the opponent of the fatwa, the modern Indonesian state should be supportedby the ideas of pluralism. They are disappointed with the fatwa, since itwould diminish religious pluralism in Indonesia. On the other hand, the protagonistof the fatwa said that the MUI has done good decision. The ideas of pluralismare seen by them would threaten Islamic faith. They believed that those whocampaigned for the idea of pluralism are the agent for “western” interest. Thedebate regarding the MUI’s fatwa banning Muslims to adopt pluralism ideas indicatesthat the concept of pluralism campaigned by some Muslim scholars is notmonolithic. This paper would like to explore various conceptions of religious pluralismamong Indonesian Muslim scholars.Pada 2005, Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI) mengeluarkan sebuah fatwakontroversial. Fatwa itu menyatakan haram hukumnya bagi kaum Muslim untukmengembangkan gagasan-gagasan tentang pluralisme agama. Fatwa telahmengundang perdebatan panas di kalangan sarjana Muslim Indonesia. Bagi parapenentang fatwa, Negara Indonesia modern harus didukung dengan gagasanpluralisme. Mereka kecewa atas fatwa karena telah mengurangi pluralismekeagamaan di Indonesia. Di sisi lain, para pendukung fatwa menyatakan bahwaMUI telah mengeluarkan keputusan yang benar. Bagi mereka, gagasan pluralismeakan mengancam keimanan Islam. Mereka yakin bahwa orang-orang yangmengampanyekan gagasan tentang pluralisme merupakan agen kepentinganBarat. Perdebatan mengenai fatwa MUI yang melarang kaum Muslim mengadopsigagasan pluralisme menunjukkan bahwa konsep pluralisme yang dikampanyekansebagian sarjana Muslim tidaklah monolitik. Kajian ini akan mengeksplorasiberbagai konsep pluralisme keagamaan di kalangan sarjana Muslim Indonesia. 
Prophetic social sciences: toward an Islamic-based transformative social sciences ZTF, Pradana Boy
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies Vol 1, No 1 (2011): Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies
Publisher : State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga

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This article discusses of one of the most important type of social sciences developedin Indonesian context. In the midst of debate between Western secularsocial sciences and Islamic social sciences, Kuntowijoyo offered a genuine yetcritical formula of social sciences. The formula called Ilmu Sosial Profetik (ISP)attempted to build a bridge between secular social science and Islamic inclinationof social science. This article describes the position of ISP in the context ofcritical position of Muslim social scientists on the hegemony and domination ofOrientalist tendency in studying Islam. At the end, the author offers a conclusionthat ISP can actually be regarded as Islamic-based transformative science thatcan be further developed for a genuine indigenous theory of social sciences fromthe Third World.Artikel ini membahas salah satu tipe paling penting dari ilmu-ilmu sosial yangdikembangkan dalam konteks Indonesia. Di tengah perdebatan antara ilmu-ilmusosial Barat sekuler dan ilmu social Islam, Kuntowijoyo menawarkan formulayang orisinal dan kritis dalam ilmu sosial. Formula yang kemudian disebut denganIlmu Sosial Profetik (ISP) berusaha untuk membangun jembatan antara ilmu sosial sekuler dan kecenderungan untuk melakukan Islamisasi ilmu sosial. Artikelini menjelaskan posisi ISP dalam konteks posisi kritis ilmuwan sosial Muslim padahegemoni dan dominasi kecenderungan orientalis dalam mempelajari Islam. Padaakhirnya, penulis menawarkan kesimpulan bahwa ISP sebenarnya dapat dianggapsebagai ilmu sosial transformatif berbasis Islam yang dapat dikembangkan lebihlanjut sebagai teori sosial yang berkembang dari Dunia Ketiga.
Public sphere contestation: configuration of political Islam in contemporary Indonesia Qodir, Zuly
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies Vol 1, No 1 (2011): Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies
Publisher : State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga

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Argument in this paper draws upon Habermasian understanding of the distinctionbetween private and public sphere. Public sphere is understood as openspace that various social and cultural forces seek to define and occupy by ways ofrational interests and public reason. Such attempts take place on daily basis andtaken by groups of different backgrounds and interests. Private sphere, in contrast,is conceived of as having domestic or individual characteristics and, moreor less, non-political. It is within this framework that the continuing presence ofmultiple variants of political Islam in Indonesia has been a manifestation of contestationover public sphere. Diverse variants of Indonesian political Islam revealthe difference between actors and issues in the dynamics of their contention.However, evidence makes clear that variants of both political and popular Islamhave been more dominant than other Islamic variants such progressive and neotraditionalistIslam. This study argues that mode of Islamic articulations in Indonesiais now more diverse as the it has developed not only in the articulatoryforms of modernist, revivalist and traditionalist but also progressive, neo-traditionalistand popular Islam.Tulisan ini didasarkan pada kerangka ruang publik Jurgen Hubermas yangmembedakan ruang privat dan ruang politik (publik). Ruang publik merupakanruang yang terbuka untuk diperebutkan oleh siapa pun dan kapan pun. Sementararuang privat merupakan ruang yang bersifat domestic (individual) tidak berdimensipolitik secara dominan. Dalam persepktif semacam itu, hadirnya varian-varianIslam Indonesia merupakan bentuk kontestasi atas ruang publik yang terbukauntuk siapapun. Dari varian-varian Islam Indonesia, ada perbedaan aktor danisu yang dikembangkan dalam kontestasi publik. Hanya saja kontestasi varianIslam politik dan popular mendapatkan ruang lebih dominan ketimbang varianIslam lain seperti progresif atau neo-tradisionalisme. Kajian ini menunjukkanbahwa Islam Indonesia tengah mengalami perkembangan format artikulasi yangsangat beragam. Islam Indonesia tidak hanya berkembang dalam formatmodernis, revivalis, tradisionalisme, tetapi sekaligus progresif, neo-tradisionalisdan popular Islam. 
A survey on the development of Islamic higher education in Indonesia: an epistemological review
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies Vol 1, No 1 (2011): Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies
Publisher : State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga

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Social changes, development and advancement of humans’ culture influence educationas inseparable aspect of human life. In line with Islamic higher educationmany thinkers proposed their ideas of how to formulate its appropriate epistemologicalbackground in different views. There are some notable persons forthis field, such as Iqbal, Fazlur Rahman, Afzalur Rahman, Al-Faruqi which tosome extent parallel or influence Indonesian thinkers’ such as Mukti Ali, HarunNasution, Cak Nur, Amin Abdullah, etc. Some are still at the level of speculativethought, while others have applied their ideas in educational institutions, likeAmin Abdullah and Imam Suprayoga.Perubahan sosial, perkembangan dan kemajuan kebudayaan umat manusiamemengaruhi pendidikan yang merupakan bidang yang tak terpisahkan darikehidupan manusia itu sendiri. Dalam hal pendidikan tinggi Islam, para pemikirmengajukan berbagai gagasan mereka tentang bagaimana merumuskan dasardasarepistemologinya yang paling tepat. Ada beberapa tokoh pemikir pentingyang perlu dicatat (dari luar negeri) dalam hal ini seperti Iqbal, Fazlur Rahman, Afzalur Rahman, al-Faruqi, yang dalam batas tertentu secara paralel ataumemengaruhi para pemikir Indonesia seperti Mukti Ali, Harun Nasution, Cak Nur,Amin Abdullah dan Imam Suprayoga. Sebagian dari pemikir tersebut masih padadataran pemikiran spekulatif, sementara yang lain sudah mengaktualisasikannyadalam implementasi kelembagaan pendidikan tinggi Islam, seperti Amin Abdullahdan Imam Suprayoga.
Scholarly feminist versus internet commentator on women issues in Islam Nurdin, Ahmad Ali
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies Vol 1, No 2 (2011): Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies
Publisher : State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga

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This article discusses two different types of contemporary writings both“scholarly feminists” and “internet commentators” on women in Islam;particularly issues related to gender equality such as women’s rights, statusand creation. By comparing two different groups of writers, the objective of thispaper is to discover whether there are significant differences between them onissues of women in Islam, which shed light on modern Islamic thinking. From abrief investigation of several books as representatives of scholarly feminists, andseveral websites, which publish many articles on women in Islam, asrepresentatives of Internet commentators, it is clear that both groups seem tohave similar attitude on the topic. They tried to clarify a common misperceptionof women in Islam which is commonly portrayed to be “a second class”. Moreover,it is clear that the message of ‘Internet commentators’ seem to be moreeffective and more likely to prevail.Artikel ini membahas dua tipe tulisan-tulisan kontemporer, baik dari kalangan“feminis terpelajar” maupun “komentator internet” mengenai perempuan dalam Islam; utamanya berkaitan dengan persoalan-persoalan keadilan gender, sepertihak-hak kaum perempuan, status dan penciptaan mereka. Denganmembandingkan dua kelompok penulis ini, tujuan artikel ini adalah untukmenemukan apakah ada perbedaan signifikan antara kedua kelompok ini mengenaimasalah-masalah perempuan dalam Islam yang mewarnai pemikiran Islammodern. Dari penelitian singkat atas beberapa karya yang mewakili kaum feministerpelajar dan beberapa websites yang memublikasikan banyak artikel tentangperempuan dalam Islam, sebagai representasi dari komentator internet, jelasbahwa dua kelompok ini memiliki keserupaan sikap atas topik tersebut. Merekamencoba menjelaskan kesalahpahaman umum tentang perempuan dalam Islamyang biasanya digambarkan sebagai “kelas kedua”. Juga tampak bahwa pesandari para komentator internet lebih efektif dan berhasil.
The global war on terror, American foreign policy, and its impact on Islam and Muslim societies Fanani, Ahmad Fuad
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies Vol 1, No 2 (2011): Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies
Publisher : State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga

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The global war on terror that was started after 11/9 tragedy has continued untilto date. The global war on terror not only shaped the new political balance in theinternational world, but also influenced the relationships between the U.S. andWestern countries with Muslims countries and Muslims around the world. This isbecause the war on terror has positioned Islam and Muslims in negative imageas the serious threat to the West. Many people stated that the 11/9 tragedy is theevidence of “the clash of civilizations” between Islam and the West. As a result,some observers argue that the war on terror is the war against Islam based onthe clash of civilizations thesis. However, others rebut this argument by explainingthe facts that many Islamic countries supported to the war on terror. In fact,Islam has many schools of thought and cannot be understood in single understanding.Importantly, Islamic extremist movements are not the mainstream groupin Muslims societies. This article will examine the relationship between the waron terror and the clash of civilizations thesis. It also assesses the Islamic worldand Muslims response toward this agenda. It will argue that the war on terror is not war against Islam, but the war against terrorist groups and radical Muslimswhich often hijacked Islam.Perang global atas teror yang diprakarsai Amerika Serikat sebagai tanggapanterhadap tragedi 11 September 2011 terus berlanjut hingga hari ini. Diskursus initidak hanya memengaruhi keseimbangan politik dalam percaturan international,namun juga mempunyai dampak yang signifikan terhadap relasi antara Islamdan Barat. Hal ini karena Islam dan kaum Muslim ditempatkan pada posisi yangnegatif dan menjadi ancaman nyata terhadap Barat. Berkaitan dengan itu,masyarakat banyak yang mempercayai bahwa tragedi 11 September adalah buktinyata dari tesis “benturan peradaban” antara Islam dan Barat. Dalam hal ini,banyak pengamat juga meyakini bahwa the global war on terror adalah perangmelawan Islam berdasarkan analisis benturan peradaban. Namun, sebagianpengamat membantah bahwa perang ini adalah perang melawan Islam denganmenunjukkan bukti banyak negara Muslim yang bergabung dengan agenda ini. Disamping itu, Islam juga mempunyai banyak mazhab pemikiran dan tidak bisadipahami menjadi hanya satu pemahaman. Gerakan Islam ekstremis pun, tidakmenjadi arus utama dalam masyarakat Islam. Artikel ini akan menganalisishubungan antara the global ar on terror dan benturan antarperadaban. Jugaakan dibahas respon dunia Islam dan masyarakat Muslim terhadap agenda globalini. Berkaitan dengan itu, artikel ini akan berargumen bahwa the global waron terror bukanlah perang melawan Islam, namun perang melawan teroris danMuslim radikal yang seringkali membajak Islam.
Debating shura and democracy among British Muslim organizations Rahman, Bambang Arif
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies Vol 1, No 2 (2011): Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies
Publisher : State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga

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Shura as the system of representation of the Muslim’s voice in, typically, theIslamic state is often confronted with the West representation system namelyDemocracy. Some Islamic scholars believe that Shura is still the best system forMuslims to vote for their need in the state. However, as Islam is not a monolithicdoctrine, some other Muslim groups have another alternative view to representtheir political opinion to the state by, surprisingly, practicing democracy. In brief,Shura is still placed God instructions as the reference of all decisions which aremade in the council. Otherwise, democracy merely stands its policy on the people.Both systems have a long tradition processes to find their recent way in thisglobal age. And the British Muslims have to realize that they live in a developedcountry like Britain and still have to be Muslim. Giving challenging condition, HizbutTahrir, Tablighi Jama’at, and Muslim Council of Britain, three prominent MuslimOrganizations in England, have different attitude towards democratic Britain tovoice their representation. On the one hand, Hizbut Tahrir strictly rejects the ideaof democracy as its goal is to establish the Islamic Caliphate in the world. And onanother hand, Tablighi Jama’at tends to stay away from the political issue, includingits representation, as the core of this organization is only preaching in apeaceful way. Finally, Muslim Council of Britain as the umbrella of small-medium Muslim organizations in England, in fact is involving in the system of British democracy.Shura sebagai sistem perwakilan seringkali diperbandingkan dengan sistemperwakilan Barat, yaitu demokrasi. Beberapa tokoh umat Islam percaya bahwashura masih merupakan sistem perwakilan yang terbaik untuk menyuarakankeinginan umat Islam terhadap negara. Namun demikian, karena Islam bukanmerupakan doktrin yang kaku, ada beberapa kelompok Muslim lain yang memilikipandangan berbeda di dalam mengemukakan aspirasi politiknya terhadap negara,yang justru menggunakan sistem demokrasi. Secara singkat, sistem shura masihmenempatkan ajaran-ajaran Tuhan sebagai acuan untuk memutuskan segalapersoalan dalam dewan. Sedangkan demokrasi membuat kebijakan semata-mataberdasarkan pada suara manusia. Kedua sistem ini memiliki proses tradisionalyang panjang untuk mencapai bentuknya seperti sekarang ini. Sementara itu,Muslim Inggris harus menyadari bahwa mereka hidup di negara maju dan harustetap ber-Islam. Menghadapi kondisi yang menantang ini, tiga organisasi Islamterkemuka di Inggris seperti Hizbut Tahrir, Tablighi Jama’ah, dan Muslim Councilof Britain memiliki sikap berbeda untuk menyatakan suara mereka terhadappemerintah Inggris yang demokratis. Satu sisi, Hizbut Tahrir dengan keras menolakide demokrasi dikarenakan cita-cita mereka adalah mendirikan kekhalifahan Islamdi dunia. Sementara di sisi yang lain, Tablighi Jama’ah cenderung menghindariisu politik, termasuk keterwakilan mereka. Terakhir, Muslim Council of Britainyang merupakan payung bagi organisasi-organisasi Islam kecil-menengah diInggris pada kenyataannya ikut serta di dalam sistem demokrasi Inggris. 
Democracy in Islam: comparative study of Muhammad Abid al-Jabiri and Abdolkarim Soroush’s thoughts Susanto, Happy
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies Vol 1, No 2 (2011): Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies
Publisher : State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga

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Using analytic and interpretative approaches, this research compares al-Jabiriand Soroush’s thoughts about democracy in Islam. To assess Islam’s compatibilitywith democracy, this thesis will analyze the issues of authority, sharia, andfreedom according to the two scholars. Al-Jabiri and Soroush agree that theconcept of authority in Islam cannot be interpreted simply as God’s sovereignty,but it also concerns human rights and sovereignty. A leader put justice as his/hercentral concern in practicing policies for citizens. To pursue this hope, they alsopropose that sharia should be reinterpreted in order to be harmonizing in accordancechanging circumstances and time. Al-Jabiri has different understandingwith Soroush about the relationship between religion and state. Al-Jabiri seesthat Muslims are free to choose democracy as their political life. He doesn’tagree the integration of religion and state. In this case, he doesn’t agree theimplementation of sharia in the state. Meanwhile Soroush sees that religion hasan important role in the state, so that he agrees the implementation of shariabecause according to him it supports the political process of the state.Muhammad Abid al-Jabiri dan Abdolkarim Soroush merupakan intelektual Muslimyang memandang bahwa Islam kompatibel dengan demokrasi, dan keduanyatermasuk dalam kelompok moderat. Untuk menguji apakah Islam kompatibeldengan demokrasi, artikel ini menganalisis isu-isu otoritas, syariah, dan kebebasanmenurut pandangan kedua tokoh tersebut. Kedua intelektual itu memilikipandangan filosofis yang sejalan tentang ide demokrasi dalam Islam. Misalnya,konsep otoritas dalam Islam tidak saja dipahami sebagai bentuk kedaulatan Tuhan,namun yang lebih penting bahwa konsep ini juga memerhatikan aspek hak dankedaulatan manusia. Syariah perlu direinterpretasi agar sesuai dengan konteksperubahan zaman dan dapat mengarah pada pencapaian tujuannya. Perbedaankeduanya terletak pada relasi agama-negara. Dalam hal ini, al-Jabiri memilikipandangan yang “liberal” bahwa konsep sebuah negara tidak perlu berdasarkanidentitas agama. Umat Islam diberikan kebebasan penuh untuk menjalankankehidupan politiknya, tanpa terbebani oleh rujukan teks-teks Islam yang masihdiperdebatkan. Dengan demikian, ia memandang bahwa penerapan syariah dalamsebuah negara tidak perlu karena sesungguhnya syariah belum penah diterapkansecara sempurna. Sedangkan Soroush berpandangan sebaliknya bahwa identitasagama perlu ditambatkan ke dalam ide sebuah negara (demokrasi).