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Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
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Search results for , issue " Vol 21, No 2 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan" : 4 Documents clear
PEMBUATAN PEREKAT FENOLIK DARI LINDI HITAM YANG DIPEKATKAN DENGAN TANIN ATAU FENOL KRISTAL Sudradjat, R; Pari, G; lskandar, M I
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 2 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (6274.585 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.2.99-109

Abstract

Phenol  compounds  in  waste  water  of  pulp  and  paper  industry  are  toxic  and  harmful  to  environment.  Phenol  compounds  are  also  an  expensive  chemical  with  wide  range  uses,  such  as  raw  materials  for  the  manufacture  of  phenol  formaldehyde  glue.This  experiment  was  aimed  at  looking  into  appropriate  method  to  cope  with  the  problems  of  black  liquors  phenol  by  converting  it  to  the  most  valuable  glue  largely  and  widely  used  in  the  plywood  industries,  i.e.  phenol-formaldehyde.  The  experiment  was  divided  into  three  stages,  i.e. (a)  recovery  of  phenol  from  black  liquor  after  distillation;  (b)  selecting  phenol  compounds  from  another  source  as  an  additive  to  increase  the  existing  phenol  concentration    in  the  distilled  black  liquor;  and  (c)  working  out  optimum  phenol  concentration  able  to  develop  maximum  bonding  strength  of  the  phenol-formaldehyde  glue.Phenol compounds investigated as an additive to increase  distilled phenol  concentration are  crystal  phenol  and  tannin.  The  two  additives  were  added  in  ratio  of  1:3,  1:5  and  1:7  (crystal  phenol/tannin  to  distilled  phenol).  After  that,  the  mixture  is  reacted  with  formalin  to  form  phenol  formaldehyde  glue  following  standard  procedure.  The  phenol  formaldehyde  glue  was  applied  to  plywood  and  then  was  analyzed  for  moisture  content,  density  and  bonding  strength.Results  showed  that  phenol  crystal  addition  is  better  than  tannin  due  to  lower  in  moisture,  but  higher  in  density  and  bonding  strength. At  all  mixture  ratio,  tannin  addition  gave  lower  plywood  bonding  strength  compare  to  standard  (14  kg/cm2),  but  phenol  addition  gave  higher  plywood  bonding  strength  (18-24 kg/cm2).  Further  experiment  should  be  conducted  to  use  crystal  phenol  as  an  additive  to  increase  distilled  phenol  concentration.                                                
ANALISIS TEKNIS DAN EKONOMIS PRODUKSI TERPADU ARANG DAN CUKA KAYU DARI TIGA JENIS KAYU Nurhayati, Tjutju; Sylviani, Sylviani; Mahpudin, Mahpudin
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 2 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (12548.742 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.2.154-166

Abstract

Analysis on the integrated production of charcoal and  wood vinegarhas  been conducted using the raw materials  of three wood species, i.e. mangrove (Bruguera sp.), mangium (Acacia mangium), and tusam (Pinus merkusii). As such, those three were each carbonized into charcoal through a direct burning  in a dome kiln with 2 m3 capacity;  and concurrently,  the distillation  through  the cooling of.the generated  gas/vapor fraction  was conducted to collect the wood vinegar. The resulting charcoal werefurther treated  either with or without purification process. To evaluate the qualities of the two products (i.e. charcoal and wood vinegar), the physico-chemical  and economic analyses were examined. Economic analysis covered the collection of data/information on purchasing prices of the equipment.  material-procuring cost for  the kiln, kiln-erection cost. production cost, cost of procuring auxiliary matters,  charcoal and wood vinegar prices,  and others, followed by their assessment. Results of the analysis  were as follows:Integrated production  of charcoal and the one of wood vinegar turned out to be the best with respect to their  technical  aspects and physico-chemical properties was from  the raw material of mangrove  wood species.  In this regard, the yield of charcoal and wood vinegar was the highest. Likewise, the qualities  of the charcoal could correspond to usage standard  of charcoal for iron ore. Also, the qualities of the wood vinegar could meet the Japan Standard Requirement.The implementation of purification treatment on the resulting charcoal could decrease the volatile matter content, and increase fixed carbon content and  calorific  value  without   affecting  the production of  wood  vinegar. As  such,   the  volatile  matter  contents  in mangium charcoal decreased from 27.09 percent  to  17.35   percent,  and  in tusam charcoal from 33.18  percent to 24. 79 percent.Productions of charcoal and wood vinegar for one m3  of wood were in the range of 181- 217 kg and 169 -  205 kg, respectively for mangrove wood;  110  -121 kg and 121 -  125  kg, respectively formangium wood; and 111-121 kg and 141  kg, respectively for tusam wood.Production of charcoal which is in  integration  with the one of wood vinegar can gain  a significant benefit. Such benefit can be achieved after 5 years of wood vinegar production, i.e.  82.6 percent per year from  mangrove wood, and  mangium as well as tusam wood.   Conversely, the production of  wood vinegar in integration with the one of charcoal can gain additional benefit, i.e. 39.7 percent per year from mangrove wood, and 39.9 percent per-year from mangium as well-as-tusam wood. The benefit per year of such integrated  production in the sixth year will be even greater, since the interest payment and loan can be ultimately fulfilled. All  the investment of the factory with implements an integrated production-of  charcoal and wood vinegar can be returned in one year and 3 months.
PENGARUH PEMEKATAN KONSENTRASI FENOL DARI LINDI HITAM DALAM PEMBUATAN PEREKAT FENOL FORMALDEHIDA Sudradjat, R; Yusnita, E; Kulsum, U; Kusmiati, E
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 2 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (5081.628 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.2.128-138

Abstract

This investigation was a successive series of experiments aimed at assessing the manufacture of phenol formaldehydeglue utilized the black liquor from soda-process-based pulp mill.At first,  the phenol in the black liquor was concentrated by adding crystal phenol.  The ratios in weight between crystal phenol as added and black liquor were consecutively 1:5, 1:10,  1: 15, 1:20, and 1:25,  and as such yielded the concentrated phenol in the liquor at four levels as well.The results  revealed that efficiency recovery of phenol obtained by vacuum distillation  was 12 percent.  Such efficiency was because most of the phenol  in black liquor was associated with  other elements  in  the lignin  structure  or  other  compounds. The phenol was further  reacted with formaldehyde, and the resulting phenol formaldehyde (PF) used as glue in plywood bonding.Results  revealed that moisture content  of plywood with  PF glue where the phenol was from  the mixture of concent tended black liquors  phenol  and crystal phenol  varied at  8.80  to 9.61 percent. The moisture contended to increase with the increase in the ratio of crystal phenol to the black liquor distillate.The density of plywood was about 0.5710  - 0.6431  gram per cm3,  and tended to increasewith the increase in the ratio of crystal phenol  as well.                                                                                •The bonding strength  of plywood without boiling-treatment   was in the range of 11.173-23.722 kg per cm2, where by the lowest strength occurred at implementing 1 : 20 ratio (A4) and the highest at 1 : 5(A1). Meanwhile, the bonding-strength test with boiling-treatment  revealed the value at 1.924 - 18.306  kg per cm2 in that the lowest value was at 1 : 25 ratio (A5) and the highest at 1 : 5 ratio (Al).
HUBUNGAN SIFAT PEMESINAN DENGAN BERAT JENIS DAN JUMLAH PORI EMPAT JENIS KAYU KURANG DIKENAL ASAL KALIMANTAN TIMUR Supriadi, Achmad; Rachman, Osly
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 21, No 2 (2003): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (8689.179 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2003.21.2.174-185

Abstract

Machining properties  of four lesser known wood species originated from  natural forest  in East Kalimantan  were studied.  The  relationship  between  machining defects and specific gravity  and amount of  vessel was also  analyzed. The machining operations were planing,  shaping,  boring, turning  and sanding.The result revealed that machining properties were significantly affected by wood species. The machining qualities of lansat hutan (Lansium sp.),  telisai  (Planchonia  grandis   Ridl.) and rambai punai  (Glochidion philippicum  Robins.) woods with respect to criteria were good lo very good, while those nyaling (Mastixia   trichomata  Bl.) fair to very  good.  Either specific gravity or number of vessel was significantly related  with the   machinability s  defect- free values.  Higher specific gravity tended the higher  the machining qualities. Conversely, greater number of vessels brought about the lowering of machining properties.

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