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Jurnal Ilmiah HUBUNGAN INTERNASIONAL
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114
Articles
ASEAN Political Security Community (APSC) on Counter-terrorism: Roles and Obstacles

Hendroy, Faruq Arjuna

Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional
Publisher : Parahyangan Center for International Studies

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Abstract

Terrorism issue has been transforming into a worldwide concern. Southeast Asia is undoubtedly currently facing the similar issue. During Afghan war, Southeast Asia might be only known as “the exporters” of foreign militants to Afghanistan’s conflict zone. Going into the 21st century, Southeast Asia has, in turn, become the home base for terrorism itself to grow. Thus, ASEAN, as a regional body which shades Southeast Asia member states, responded to its emergence. ASEAN regarded terrorism a huge threat and paid extremely high attention to it through the release of ASEAN Convention on Counter Terrorism (ACCT). Moreover, ASEAN enhanced its commitment as regional body by composing one pillar of cooperation in security called ASEAN Political Security Community (APSC). APSC helps to drive all ASEAN member states to commit onto ACCT by proceeding to the full ratification by each member state and applying the effective implementation in dealing with the issue. This paper examines APSC’s role  in combating terrorism within region and discusses its obstacles in implementing ACCT.Keywords: ASEAN; ASEAN Political Security Community; Terrorism; ASEAN Convention on Counter-Terrorism; Non-Interference

Kebijakan Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) Tiongkok pada Masa Pemerintahan Xi Jinping

Anam, Syaiful, Ristiyani, Ristiyani

Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional
Publisher : Parahyangan Center for International Studies

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Abstract

Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) merupakan salah satu kebijakan ambisius yang dikeluarkan Tiongkok pada masa pemerintahan Xi Jinping. BRI mencakup dua aspek yaitu the Silk Road Economic Belt dan the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. BRI merupakan proyek raksasa yang dikeluarkan Tiongkok pada masa pemerintahan Xi Jinping karena  mencakup 2/3 populasi global dan 3/4 sumber energi. Tulisan ini berusaha menjawab pertanyaan tentang mengapa Tiongkok mengeluarkan kebijakan BRI dengan menggunakan perspektif neorealisme yang terdiri dari konsep kepentingan nasional, balance of power, dan hegemonic stability. Hasil temuan dalam tulisan ini terbagi ke dalam 3 alasan, yaitu (1) kepentingan Tiongkok untuk mengamankan jalur pasokan energi ke Timur Tengah dan Asia Tengah lewat kerjasama dengan negara-negara di Asia Selatan, (2) ambisi Tiongkok mengambil alih peran kepemimpinan di kawasan Asia lewat perebutan pembiayaan proyek kereta cepat dengan Jepang, (3) Tiongkok berusaha menantang hegemoni AS baik itu di bidang keamanan maupun ekonomi. Tulisan ini selanjutnya diharapkan dapat dijadikan sebagai bahan komparatif bagi penelitian sejenis dan menjadi sumbangan pemikiran bagi pihak-pihak yang berkepentingan.                                                                                                                                            Kata Kunci: Belt and Road Initiative (BRI); Tiongkok; Kepentingan Nasional; Kepemimpinan; Hegemoni

Konstruksi Identitas dalam Kepentingan Maritim Tiongkok terkait Peningkatan Kekuatan People Liberation Army Navy (PLA Navy)

Rachmat, Angga Nurdin

Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional
Publisher : Parahyangan Center for International Studies

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Abstract

Modernisasi militer yang dilakukan oleh Tiongkok menunjukan perkembangan yang sangat signifikan dengan menitikberatkan pada matra Angkatan  Laut (People Liberation Army Navy/ PLA Navy). Modernisasi yang dilakukan tidak hanya dilihat dari sisi kuantitas namun juga kualitas melalui serangkaian akuisisi dan pembangunan kapal perang, kapal selam hingga kapal induk. Fenomena tersebut menunjukan bahwa Tiongkok saat ini memiliki perhatian lebih pada wilayah maritim dengan ambisi membangun Angkatan Laut yang tangguh dan modern. Meskipun jika dilihat secara geografis Tiongkok merupakan negara kontinental yang seharusnya menitikberatkan pada kemampuan matra darat, namun saat ini terjadi perubahan dalam orientasi pertahanan negara ini. Perubahan ini tidak dapat dilepaskan dari upaya Tiongkok mengubah identitas negaranya dari negara kontinental menjadi negara maritim. Beranjak dari perubahan tersebut, artikel ini akan membahas mengenai konstruksi identitas maritim dari Republik Rakyat Tiongkok dalam rangka memperkuat kepentingan terhadap wilayah maritim. Konstruksi identitas Tiongkok dapat ditemukan pada evolusi dari doktrin dan perkembangan armada yang dimiliki oleh PLA Navy yang memiliki keterkaitan dengan munculnya kepentingan maritim diantaranya sebagai upaya balancing terhadap Amerika Serikat di Pasifik, mengamankan jalur distribusi energi serta menjaga integritas teritorial. Kata-kata Kunci: Tiongkok, Maritim, Identitas, Kepentingan, PLA Navy

The Effort of Immigrant for Survival in a New Country, Study Case: Russia

Umagapi, Juniar Laraswanda

Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional
Publisher : Parahyangan Center for International Studies

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Abstract

In this essay presents a critical understanding about immigrant way of living in a new country. Russia as a country with the big geographical aspect that also become a house for immigrant have their own special way to handle the immigrant. How the immigrant can socialize with the new environment and the issue facing for them as the newcomer in one society, how they get a proper job and how the culture difference influences their daily life will get analysed in this paper.  This research is conducted in Russia and use a qualitative research method such as interviewing, data analysis, graph, table, book, journal, article, newspaper and news to answer the research question. This research will give the contribution how the issue of immigrant influences the life of native people, how they contribute to the society and how the Russian government policy dealt with the negative stereotype about immigrant in Russia then how we would help immigrants thrive, these are the question that this research will help to answer. Keywords: Immigrant, Russia, culture difference, thrive, Russian government

Analisis Konflik Tiongkok dan Tibet: Studi Kasus Pendudukan Wilayah Tibet oleh Tiongkok

Aiqani, Nabhan Aiqani

Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional
Publisher : Parahyangan Center for International Studies

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Abstract

Konflik antara China dan Tibet merupakan konflik bersejarah. Dua wilayah tersebut telah berkonfrontasi dalam jangka waktu yang lama. Tibet kukuh dengan pendirian untuk menjadi negara merdeka. Sementara, China selalu menggunakan kekuatan militer atau kekerasan untuk meredam aksi penolakan dan upaya-upaya merebut kemerdekaan yang dilakukan oleh Tibet. Sehingga untuk menganalisis hal tersebut, penulis menggunakan beberapa indikator terwujudnya perdamaian demokratis, Pertama, keterhubungan dalam satu lembaga atau organisasi internasional. Kedua, Kedekatan secara geografis. Ketiga, adanya satu aliansi.Keempat, Distribusi dan alokasi sumberdaya yang merata. Kelima, Stabilitas politik yang terjamin. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa hampir semua indikator tersebut tidak terpenuhi dengan baik dalam relasi China dan Tibet. Relasi tersebut memperlihatkan adanya kesenjangan yang lebar antara China dan Tibet. Sehingga atas dasar ini konflik sukar untuk dihentikan. Kata Kunci: China, Tibet, Teori Perdamaian Demokratis

Eliminating Violence against Women in Pacific through Multi-Track Diplomacy

Putri, Sherly Mega, Satya Dewi, Elisabeth Adyiningtyas

Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional Vol 14, No 2 (2018): Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional
Publisher : Parahyangan Center for International Studies

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Abstract

Humanitarian issue that often raised as a problem for developing countries, is often likely linked to gender issue. Having labeled as a region with the highest violence data prevalence, Pacific Islands countries possess assorted factors that tolerates the practice of gender dominance and discrimination amongst their societies. Responding this phenomenon, the governments in Pacific Islands countries are oftentimes receiving assistance from other international relations actors, in which one of them is UN Women. With the support from Australian government, this UN body assist numerous institutions from various level in making the effort to eliminate violence against women as the most protrude form of gender based discrimination in Pacific. Involvement of other parties from diverse groups indicates the relations between actors of Multi-Track Diplomacy with the program initiated by UN Women. Using theory of Multi-Track Diplomacy and concept of Gender-Based Violence, this research identifies the participation and contribution made by a total of nine tracks in responding to violence against women issue in the Pacific. Such response itself is one of the world peace endeavors, which is also the ultimate purpose of Multi-Track Diplomacy. Result of this response shaped in their participation and contribution within variety of programs under Pacific Fund. Keywords: Pacific, gender equality, foreign aids, Multi-Track Diplomacy, peacemaking.

Disaster Diplomacy as an Alternative Approach for Indonesias Instrument of Foreign Policy in ASEAN

Sudirman, Arfin, Putra, Animbyo Cahya

Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional Vol 14, No 1 (2018): Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional
Publisher : Parahyangan Center for International Studies

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Abstract

ASEAN is one of the regions with the highest rate of disaster vulnerability. Tsunami 2004 has triggered the momentum for Indonesia and ASEAN to deal with disaster-related issues more seriously. Losses and casualties from the catastrophe led to the decision by Indonesian government to put disaster prevention and risk reduction as a priority. Indonesia continues to encourage and supporting ASEAN in order to improve the region’s capability to deal with natural disaster. Through AADMER (ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response) that was signed in July 2005, ASEAN held an unequivocal and defined base in any efforts of disaster management, especially in the ASEAN region. Through Qualitative Methodology, this paper will discuss about how the disaster diplomacy of Indonesia contributes to the improvement of ASEAN’s capability in the disaster management, but also examines BNPB as both the backbone and the focal point of Indonesia’s disaster management, which then leads up to how disaster can abolish certain diplomatic hurdles, as well as improving regional cooperation, and strengthen the Indonesia’s position as a key country in regional disaster management.

Phenomenon of Diaspora in The Preservation of National Culture on Example of Russian Diaspora in Bolivia

Serukhina, Elena

Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional Vol 14, No 1 (2018): Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional
Publisher : Parahyangan Center for International Studies

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Abstract

Globalization covers the most diverse spheres of human life, including social, where the processes of migration and globalization of culture take on special significance. Cultures arise and develop, interacting with each other. And the first field of this interaction is the diaspora. Diaspora is the environment where culture is directly developed and enriched. The development of diasporas is carried out by spreading the culture, values and traditions of their people, but at the same time integrating into society with a different culture, which implies the acquisition of new socially and spiritually significant qualities. The psychological reason for the emergence of the diaspora is that people far from their homeland begin to understand, appreciate and even more love their native culture. The development of the modern world is characterized, as we know, by globalization. Can the phenomenon of the diaspora in modern social life be associated with it? No, because the diaspora is directly connected with culture, while globalization is opposed to culture. Globalization is aimed at unification, ignoring the problem of cultural identity. Globalization involves the erasure of cultural features, the loss of cultural, ethnic, religious differences. But at the same time, globalization contributes to the growth of population migration, which leads to an increase in the number of diasporas abroad. The rapid growth of immigrant communities and their institutionalization forced to talk about "the diasporaization of the world" as one of the scenarios for the development of mankind. One way or another, this process deepens and takes more and more new forms, and the role of diasporas and their influence are intensified.

Maritime Security in Indo-Pacific: Issues, Challenges, and Prospects

Tertia, Joseph, Perwita, Anak Agung Banyu

Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional Vol 14, No 1 (2018): Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional
Publisher : Parahyangan Center for International Studies

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Abstract

This article elucidates the importance of Indo-Pacific in maritime security today. In the 21st century, the region has gained the world’s attention due to dramatic growth of China’s economy, steady rise of India, the more proactive regional countries, and the increasing oil exports to the region. With such importance, the region has been contested with powerful nations, such as China, India, Australia, Japan, the Southeast Asia nations, and even the United States. China’s increasing military presence in Indo-Pacific has been perceived as assertive by some of the regional countries. Meanwhile, the United States has become a more prominent actor in the region since the application of Rebalance policy in 2012. The paper discusses the issues, challenges and prospects of maritime security in Indo Pacific.

Dinamika Isu Laut Tiongkok Selatan: Analisis Sumber-Sumber Kebijakan Luar Negeri Tiongkok dalam Sengketa

Darmawan, Arief Bakhtiar

Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional Vol 14, No 1 (2018): Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional
Publisher : Parahyangan Center for International Studies

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Abstract

This article aims to observe the behaviour of China’s foreign policy in the conflict of South China Sea (SCS), by analyzing the internal factors and external factors that affect China’s foreign policy. China is one of the parties that take direct claim on the SCS. China’s claim is overlapping with other parties such as Vietnam, Filipina, Malaysia, dan Brunei. In defending its claims, China seeks to dominate both in the dispute area and in multilateral negotiations. In the dispute area, China seized the area, building land reclamation, and attacked other countries’ ships under various pretexts. In multilateral negotiations, China rejects the intervention of great power countries outside the region and maintains ambiguous and non-binding code of conduct. China also continues to increase its military power to press other countries. The author argues that the internal factors has greater influence on Chinese foreign policy decision and action in the SCS dispute than the external factors. Thus, it could triggers China to keep dominating the issue of SCS disputes.