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CHEMICA Jurnal Teknik Kimia
ISSN : 2355875X     EISSN : 23558776     DOI : -
CHEMICA Jurnal Teknik Kimia ISSN, 2355-875X (print) 2355-8776 (online) is a journal that publishes manuscripts or scientific papers in Chemical Engineering. The scope of this journal covers chemical reaction techniques, separation, optimization, process control, process system engineering, waste treatment, food and material technology. Journals are published in print and online twice a year, in June and December by Chemical Engineering Program, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Yogyakarta.
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Articles 101 Documents
A Study on The Ultrasonic Oil Extraction and Insitu Transesterification of Microalgae Biodiesel Wiyarno, Budi; Mohd Yunus, Rosli; Mel, Maizirwan
CHEMICA: Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 2 (2014): Desember 2014
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (501.779 KB) | DOI: 10.26555/chemica.v1i2.3569

Abstract

The extraction and transesterification of microalgae oil are interesting topics-besides culturing and microalgae strain- in the development process of biodiesel microalgae. This is an experimental laboratory study that was run using ultrasonic homogenizer Omni Ruptor 4000, examining the effect of type of solvent, solvent concentration, alga-solvent ratio, ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time, ultrasonic pulse and mixing toward yield. Based on Box-Behnken design, a quadratic model is developed to correlate the parameter to surface area to analyze certain factors and combination of dominant factors.The result shows that power, time and pulse as the most dominant factors that influence the yield. In the extraction, the combinations of pulse-time give better result than power-pulse combination. While in the in situ transesterification, the power-time combination give better result that power-pulse combination. Even though the optimum point has not been reached yet, in general the combination of power-time is categorized as the most influential combination to increase the yield.The experimental values versus predicted values use the model equation developed by STATISTICA Software version 6.0. A line of unit slope, the line of perfect fit with points corresponding to zero error between experimental and predicted values is also shown that the coefficient of correlation (R2) is 0.97977 (for extraction) and 0.98743 (for in situ). The density of Nannochloropsis sp is 0.924 g/ml, saponication number is 114, 269 KOH/1 g oil. The percentage of FFA is 19.67% consisting of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated Octadecenoic acid (C18:1) 43.49%, Dedecanoic acid (C12) 16.30%, Hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) 12.51%, Tetradecanoic acid (C14) 11.43%, Octadecadinoic acid (C18:2) 5.85% dan Octadecanoic acid (C18:0) 5.62%.
KINETIKA REAKSI ESTERIFIKASI MINYAK BIJI KAPUK PADA PEMBUATAN BIODIESEL Salamah, Siti
CHEMICA: Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 1 (2014): Juni 2014
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

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Abstract

Biodiesel is one of the best solutions to overcomethe reduction of oil reserves by utilizing plant oils are converted into fuel.Kapok seed is one of the potential sources of raw materials that can be taken to be used as biodiesel. For the manufacture of biodiesel on a large scale is necessary to design the reactor, the reactor needs to design the data of reaction kinetics.This reaserch was conducted to determine the rate of reaction of biodiesel production. The process was  by making kapok seed oil and analyzed the content of FFA, if FFA <2 then the esterification process is done.150 ml oil inserted in three neck flask and heated to temperature of 50 °C with water bath.While waiting for heating, 57 ml of techinical methanol 96 % was mixed with 1.25 grams KOH p.a and stirred for 60 minutes, then either mixing the solution with the oil heated with a water bath. The reaction temperature was maintained  at 50oC with stirring speed of 600 rpm for 60 minutes. Inserting the solution into a separator funnel and left for 24 hours to form 2 layers.Separating the two layers.The top layer wasbiodiesel and the bottom layer was glycerol.Repeating step by step above with the variation of time  60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 minutes. For reaction temperature variable, the process carried out at temperatures 40 °C, 50 °C, 70 °C and 90 °C.The results of this reaserch were the water content of kapok seed is 4,07 % and FFA valuewas 4,8 % after lowered 1,56 %.Transesterification reaction conditions of oil and methanol mole ratio of 1 : 3, with the stirrer rotation speed of 600 rpm for 105 minutes and the reaction temperature of 90 °C gave the conversion of 0.916 mol (%).Transesterification reaction of kapok seed oil into biodiesel follows the first order reaction.The results of the analysis of biodiesel and the heat test, may indicate that it meets the criteria specified in the benchmark Indonesian Biodiesel Quality Standards (RSNI EB 020 551).
Modelling and Simulation of Fermentation Product Purification for Local Vinegar using Batch Distillation Bt Bakar, Faezah
CHEMICA: Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 2 (2014): Desember 2014
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (504.802 KB) | DOI: 10.26555/chemica.v1i2.3570

Abstract

Batch distillation has important due to its flexibility and capability to produce high purity product. The simulation of batch distillation columns during steady state operations is a very challenging modelling problem because of the complex dynamic behaviour. In order to verify this issue, simulation of this batch distillation column is to be performed by using computer aided design software and mathematical model .This study is required to model and simulate of fermentation product purification using batch distillation. This research was done by using graphical method and simulating by using MATLAB software that simple model had been presented. The results from these simulations were used as a basis to validate the results obtained (by others) experimentally. As conclusion, distillate and bottoms composition for ethanol drop gradually over time by using graphical method and the trend from simulation showed that the distillate and bottoms composition for ethanol increase and decrease over the time respectively. The declining trend was due to the unsteady state nature of batch distillation, where the lighter component at the bottoms will deplete over time.
β-MnO2 ACTIVATION OF PEROXYMONOSULFATE FOR CATALYTIC PHENOL DEGRADATION IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Saputra, Edy; Muhammad, Syaifullah; Sun, Hongqi; Ang, Ha-Ming; Tadé, Moses O.; Wang, Shaobin
CHEMICA: Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 1 (2014): Juni 2014
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

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Abstract

β-MnO2 was prepared and used to activate peroxymonosulphate for degradation of aqueous phenol. The sample was characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The catalyst is highly effective in heterogeneous activation of PMS to produce sulfate radicals for phenol degradation compared with homogeneous oxidatiom. β-MnO2 could completely remove phenol in 30 min at the conditions of 25 ppm phenol, 0.4 g/L catalyst, 2 g/L PMS, and 25 oC. A pseudo first order model would fit to phenol degradation kinetics and activation energy was obtained as 38.2 kJ/mol.
Modifikasi Limbah Abu Layang menjadi Adsorben untuk Mengurangi Limbah Zat Warna pada Industri Tekstil Sutrisno, Bachrun; Hidayat, Arif; Mufrodi, Zahrul
CHEMICA: Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 2 (2014): Desember 2014
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (322.372 KB) | DOI: 10.26555/chemica.v1i2.3571

Abstract

Abundant supplies of coal make this compound as alternative fuels, especially for the industry. However, using of coal has shortcomings; incomplete combustion of coal produces solid waste that often called the fly ash. Results of mineral analysis showed that fly ash contain metal oxides such as silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3) and iron (Fe2O3). The presence of silica and alumina components allows fly ash to be synthesized into materials that have structure similar to zeolite. This material is known as zeolite like materials (ZLM).This study aims to synthesize ZLM of fly ash as adsorbent material. To determine the successful of synthesis also has been analyzed physicochemical properties of zeolite-like material. Then the results are used as adsorbent of textile dyes.The results showed that fly ash can be synthesized into zeolite-like material, this is indicated by the increasing of physicochemical properties. The experiment shown that the adsorption ability of fly ash in the reduction of textile dyes after modifiedis better.
STUDI PENGENDALIAN PEMANAS PADA REAKTOR HIDROGENASI MINYAK NABATI MENJADI GREENDIESEL DENGAN JAKET PEMANAS Setyawan, Martomo
CHEMICA: Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 1 (2014): Juni 2014
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

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Abstract

Greendiesel is the second generation of the biodiesel fuel. The advantages of greendiesel compare  with first generation of biodiesel are higher cetane number, no waste on the production and low CO2 emission. Greendiesel was made from vegetable oil with hydrogenation process at the high temperature and high pressure, this process has high risk to explode. This research was to study about heat transfer mechanism from electric heat source to the reactor with avoid explode, by to avoid hydrogen contact with high temperature above 500 OC.Heat transfer mechanism on the hydrogenation reactor was designed from electric heat source transferred to the oil heater and then to the reactor. At this research was studied effluence of the electric voltage  to the temperature of the heating oil and the water inside at the reactor.The Result of this research was show increasing voltage cause increasing speed of heating. At the all voltage increasing heating speed occur until 40 minutes as linier and after 40 minutes the heating speed decrease as logarithmic. By indirect heating by electric source contact between hydrogen and high temperature surface can be avoided.
Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Daun Mangga (Mangifera foetida L.) sebagai Penurun Asam Urat dalam Biji Melinjo Dewangga, Pramudia Bagus; Larasati, Ulys; Salamah, Siti
CHEMICA: Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 2 (2014): Desember 2014
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (593.199 KB) | DOI: 10.26555/chemica.v1i2.3572

Abstract

Melinjo plants including the types of old plants. Uric acid is the final metabolisme result of purine, purine is one of the components of nucleic acids contained in the body of the cell nucleus. Gout disease to result from consume excessive of purine substances. This reaserch to reduce uric acid levels in seeds melinjo order melinjo seeds can be processed into refined products chips with low uric acid using blanching method from mango leaf extract.This research was making young mango leaf extract using distillate water as a solvent. Melinjo seeds that have been peeled after then process blanching is carried out using a preliminary heating at a temperature of less than 80-90 °C for 8 minute , using young mango leaf extract. Water immersion Melinjo is filtered, then analyzed in the Clinical Pathologyn Laboratory University of Gadjah Mada.This research was conducted with seed weight variable 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 grams. Other variabels such as differences in the length of time 20,40,60,80,100,120 minutes. From the preliminary data showed that levels of uric acid in the melinjo seed is 222 mg / 100 g.The result of this research were the highest decrease in uric acid levels using variable melinjo seed weight 10 gr with immersion time of 30’ is 17.86%. Using seed weight 10gr melinjo carried back to the old variable immersion study obtained results decreased levels of uric acid melinjo seed with most optimal immersion time is 100’ with a decrease of 18.43989%.
EKSTRAKSI ABU KAYU DENGAN PELARUT AIR MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM BERTAHAP BANYAK BERALIRAN SILANG Santosa, Imam; Sulistiawati, Endah
CHEMICA: Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 1 (2014): Juni 2014
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

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Abstract

As an agricultural country, Indonesia has natural resources are very abundant , one of which is wood . Wood ash from household and industrial waste has not been used , whereas according to Pitman high potassium content . The solubility of potassium carbonate in high water , so effective when extracted with water . However, high humidity in Indonesia drying wood for fuel so low that allegedly affect the quality of the ash obtained . In this research, the extraction of wood ashes with water using a solvent system gradually many wing cross .The experimental study was conducted in a university laboratory Ahmad Dahlan , Yogyakarta . The procedure used is the extraction of wood ash 200 , 300 and 400 grams with 1000 ml of solvent water for 5 minutes using a glass beaker , filtering with the aid of a vacuum pump , and acidi alkalimetri analysis using 0.1 N HCl residual solids by filtration and then in water kontakkan again and so do the same thing 5 times . Raw materials derived from wood ash combustion for drying of the wood cutting industry and water used in the form aquadestilata .Extract wood ash derived from the combustion for drying small normality sawmill industry . The results of the analysis can be made curve that describes the operating line and curve logarithmic form of the equation of equilibrium in the form of linear equations . Moreover, it can be made a graph illustrating a series of 5 stages of operation which is a combination of single phased extraction .
Karakteristik Torrefaksi dan Densifikasi Limbah Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Maryudi, Maryudi
CHEMICA: Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 2 (2014): Desember 2014
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (855.656 KB) | DOI: 10.26555/chemica.v1i2.3573

Abstract

Energy demand increases continuously due to the growth of industries. Most industries still rely on fossil fuel that its price commonly increases and the deposit in the universe decreases since it is not renewable resource. Indonesia is the largest palm oil producer in the world that has potential abundance biomass of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm. It can be alternative energy source. The EFB is commonly used as fuel for heat source of boiler jn the palm oil plant. Most applications were by conventional combustion process that has disadvantage of low energy value. The EFB was only chopped and grinded, and then dried prior to combustion process. This study investigates improvement of energy quality of EFB through torrefaction (or light pyrolysis) and densification process.  The EFB was chopped in the small size and grinded in the form of fiber, then dried. The EFB fiber in small slices was pressed in a small steel tube and heated in the range of 200-300°C. The variables of study were duration and temperature of process. The initial heat value of EFB was 18,241 MJ/kg that slightly lower than its of kernel shell heat value 19.955 MJ/kg. The water content were found 6.28% and 4.31% for EFB and kernel shell respectively.  Results have shown that torrefaction and densification have improved the calorific value of EFB in the range of 6.58-16.71% of its initial value.  On the other hand, the energy yield has decreased to 97.54, 97.26 and 93.76% of its initial energy yield for torrefaction temperature of 200, 250 and 300°C respectively
BIOGAS FROM SOLID WASTE OF TOFU PRODUCTION AND COW MANURE MIXTURE: COMPOSITION EFFECT Ni’mah, Lailan
CHEMICA: Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 1 (2014): Juni 2014
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

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Abstract

The demand of conventional energy (fossil fuel) is increasing as the human population growth. The fuel from petroleum is the energy source from fossil fuel which is un-renewable, the price is also tend to me more expensive due to the absence of demand and supply balance. The fuel crisis indicate that the fossil fuel belong to Indonesia is decreasing. The limited of fosil fuel lead to the need to the development of renewable energy and energy conservation. One of the alternative energy is biogas which can be produced from solid waste of tofu production (SWTP). Tofu production waste has high acidity so that it needs a buffer in biogas production. One of the buffer which can be utilized is cow manure.The experiment was done in a batch anaerobic reactor. As many as 800 ml of sample was  entered to the reactor with the capacity of 1 L, then incubated in an anaerobic condition in the room at the temperature of 25-30oC within 30 days. There are 8 variation apply in this research, they are KS:KT=100:0,75:25, 50:50,25:75 and 0:100 at VS of 3%, and KS:AT 50:50 at VS of 2%,4% and 5%. The measured parameter is the biogas volume, methane concentration, carbon dioxide concentration, the ratio of C vs N, total solid (TS) and volatile solid content (VS), volatile fatty acid (VFA), pH and temperature. The gas volume measurement was done every day using gasholder while methane concentration was measured by gas chromatography (GC).Research results shows that the composition of cow manure and SWTP at VS of 3% KS:AT = 50:50 shows the highest methane concentration. Optimal retention time to increase the production of biogas is start 14-28 days with the improvement methane concentration  is 68,98% at 21st day.

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