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International Journal of Marine and Aquatic Resource Conservation and Co-existence
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
ISSN : 24069094     EISSN : -     DOI : -
International Journal of Marine and Aquatic Resource Conservation and Co-existence is an international journal published by Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Diponegoro University.
Articles 10 Documents
Optimization and Stability of Total Pigments Production of Fusan from Protoplast Fusion of Microalgae Dunaliella and Chlorella in vivo: Attempts on Production of Sustainable Aquaculture Natural Food Kusumaningrum, Hermin Pancasakti; Zainuri, Muhammad
International Journal of Marine and Aquatic Resource Conservation and Co-existence 2014: IJMARCC Volume 1 Issue 1 Year 2014
Publisher : International Journal of Marine and Aquatic Resource Conservation and Co-existence

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Diversification of feed rich in natural carotenoids is needed in aquaculture because they will increase survival and body weight of animal farming. Different types of important carotenoids such as β-carotene, zeaxanthine can be combined through a process of protoplast fusion making it cheaper and faster. Crustaceans can not synthetize carotenoid de novo and they need it to provide nutrition and possibly disease resistance, pigmentation and esthetic value. Green microalgae produce carotenoids and can be manipulated easily by protoplast fusion. The research was conducted to obtain some fusants from interspesies protoplast fusion of D. salina and C. vulgaris. Interspecies protoplas fusion was carried out by protoplast isolation, protoplast fusion and protoplast regeneration. Microscopic and cell analysis will used to confirm positive regenerate protoplast. Analysis of the obtained fusants is limited to morphological description due to the complexity and variability of fusant. The stabilities of fusants obtained were examined by successive subcultures. The result revealed that the fusant from D. salina and C. vulgaris maintain their stability in growth and increased carotenoid production during four periods of subculturing. This result suggesting the potency of fusant to be used as food supplement.   Key words: Carotenoid, Protoplast fusion, Dunaliella, Chlorella
The Improvement of the Survival, Growth and Production of Vaname Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and Seaweed (Gracilaria verucosa) based on Polyculture Cultivation Susilowati, Titik; Hutabarat, Johanes; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Zainuri, Muhammad
International Journal of Marine and Aquatic Resource Conservation and Co-existence 2014: IJMARCC Volume 1 Issue 1 Year 2014
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The presence of aeration on the cultivation of polyculture system can eliminate oxygen depletion at night while the intensity of light would effect the seaweed Gracilaria verucosa to perform photosynthesis. The supplies of oxygen is to eliminate the oxygen depletion at night until morning, and propose the efficiency of feeding activity, and also stabilize the water quality. The purpose of this research is to improve the survival, growth and production of vaname shrimp, and Gracilaria verucosa. This research was conducted in Jepara Brackishwater Aquaculture Research and Development Center (BBPBAP), from May until August 2013. A number of 75 shrimps and 1,750 g Gracilaria vericosa were cultivated in the 800 L tank, which observed for 96 days. There are four type of treatments, oxygen supply O1 (3,500 lux light intensity), O2 (Aeration with 700 mL minute-1 speed), O3 (light intensity and aeration), O4 (without light and aeration), three replications. This research was conducted using an experimental Randomized Block Design. The survival rate and growth of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) showed a highly significant (p < 0.01) different between the treatments, while the growth and biomass production of seaweed (Gracilaria verucosa) showed a significantly (p < 0.05) different. The three treatments of oxygen and light supply, aeration and the combination of light and aeration, it can be concluded that survival, growth and production of vaname shrimp and Gracilaria verucosa. The combination of light and aeration treatment is the best, it can be concluded survival rate of shrimp (94.64%) compare to the treatment without oxygen (45.24%). Absolute growth rate of shrimp increased from 9.57 g to 12.97 g. The specific growth rate of shrimp increased from 4.73% to 5.07%. The biomass production of shrimp increased from 181.56 g m-2 to 883.95 g m-2. The combination of light and aeration can improve the absolute growth rate of Gracilaria verucosa from 25.86 g to 52.724 g. The specific growth rate of seaweed increased from 1.77% to 2.64% then biomass production of Gracilaria verucosa also to increase from 2,557.76 g to 5,063.2 g.   Key words: Litopenaeus vannamei, Gracilaria verucosa, oxygen supply
Molecular Ecology Comparison of Blue Leg Hermit Crab (Calcinus elegans) based on Spatial Factor in South Coast of Java Island Handayani, Muliawati; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Widowati, Ita; Hideyuki, Imai
International Journal of Marine and Aquatic Resource Conservation and Co-existence 2014: IJMARCC Volume 1 Issue 1 Year 2014
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The study was conducted to determine the genetic diversity of Calcinus elegans based on sequences of the COI mitochondrial DNA. Successfully 54 samples of Garut; 43 of Yogyakarta and 47 of Banyuwangi populations were amplified by PCR using universal primers LCO 1490 and HCO 2198 successfully amplified COI gene in 625 bp, with an overall haplotype totaled 64 at 111 polymorphic sites. All population showed high genetic diversity within population interpreted by the value of gene diversity (H): Garut is 0.9266 ± 0.0251; Yogyakarta is 0.9668 ± 0.0156 and Banyuwangi is 0.9288 ± 0.0257 and the value of nucleotide diversity (π): Garut is 0.007155 ± 0.003972; Yogyakarta is 0.007966 ± 0.004387 and Banyuwangi is 0.00723 ± 0.004021. Gene diversity and nucleotide diversity did not differ significantly between populations. While genetic diversity among populations interpreted from haplotypes similarity or shared haplotype. Number of shared haplotypes among three populations is 12 haplotypes with 90 samples included. Banyuwangi population showed smallest intensity interaction with other populations indicated by the smallest value of haplotypes; polymorphic sites; hetorozigosity and distribution of larvae are influenced by spatial factor. However, three populations come from one ancestors and part of a large population. Thus the current and other environmental factors in South Coast of Java Island are effected on the genetic diversity among populations of C. elegans with a correlation coefficient is r = 0.98 (genetic diversity with current) and r = >0.90 (genetic diversity with temperature, salinity, pH, depth and distance).   Key words: Calcinus elegans, genetic diversity, COI, mitochondrial DNA, haplotype
Allelopathy Effect of the Blue Diatom HasleaOstrearia (Gaillon) Simonsen: Growth Inhibition in Aquaculture Relevant Microalgae Windarto, Eko; Prasetiya, Fiddy Semba; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Gastineau, Romain
International Journal of Marine and Aquatic Resource Conservation and Co-existence 2014: IJMARCC Volume 1 Issue 1 Year 2014
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We are well known that the marine pennate diatom Hasleaostrearia (Gaillon) Simonsen produces the blue-green pigment called marennine. Marennine was identified as a polyphenolic compound. This compound is capable to inhibit the growth of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and several bacteria, including pathogens as Vibrio sp. The aim of this study was to determine how strong the allelophatic effect of marennine is generated byH. ostrearia and identifying its minimal concentration that inhibits the growth of other microalgae. The experiment consisted of two phases of research activities. The first phase was biovolumecomparaison between H. ostrearia and microalgae suitable for aquaculture tested to take into account the differences in size of the microalgae tested(Tetraselmissuecica, Chaetocerosgracilis, Skeletonemacostatum, PavlovalutheriandIsochrysisgalbana (T-Iso) in term of H. ostrearia biomass and production of marennine. The second phase was the bioactivity tests, which is include growth kinetics, allelophatic effects and concentration of marennine in the culture medium, measured with spectrophotometer. The results of this study showed that H. ostrearia could inhibit several species of microalgae currently used in aquaculture (T. suecica, C. gracilis and S. costatum). The statistical analysis (One way ANOVA) showed that there are significant differences (P < 0, 05) between treatments andwhen co-cultured with H. ostrearia, these microalgae exhibited a significant growth inhibition. The highest inhibition value was 97.77% (on the treatementH. ostrearia+C. gracilis). In this treatment, the concentration of marennine in the culture was 5.35 mg L-1. According to the results, we can conclude that the supernatant of H. ostrearia with marennine acts as an allelochemical. The minimal concentration is 0.23 mg L-1 and the highest is 5.35 mg L-1. The treatments H. ostreariawithP. lutheri and T-Iso did not performed any inhibition.   Key words: H. ostrearia, marennine, microalgae and Allelopathic effect.
Shrimp (Penaeus spp) Potential, Utilization (Penaeus spp) and Management Effort at Batang District Coastal Waters Sulistyowati, Sulistyowati; Zainuri, Muhammad; Bambang, Aziz Nur; Suryanto, Agung
International Journal of Marine and Aquatic Resource Conservation and Co-existence 2014: IJMARCC Volume 1 Issue 1 Year 2014
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The study of potential and shrimp resource utilization (Penaeus spp.) at  Batang Regency coastal waters made based on analysis of the catching data and shrimp fishing trip during the period 2002-2011. Analysis of the catch per unit effort (CPUE) is used to predict the long-lasting potential (MSY) shrimp and optimum fishing effort. The analysis was also conducted to determine the state of fishing season based on quarterly data. MSY value and shrimp fishing effort in Batang respectively 29,032 kg and 18,262 trip. The highest shrimp fishing season was in the first quarter that is in January-March and decreased in the third quarter (July–September). It is known that the status of the shrimp fishery in 2005-2006 and in 2010-2011 have shown overfishing, so the effort settings required. The sustainable resources is more aimed at limiting the catch and the catch effort with arad net, ie 80% of the sustainable resources. Key words: Analysis of CPUE, shrimp (Penaeus spp.), MSY, Batang regency coastal waters.
Profit Estimation Model in Aquaculture Based on Market Preference: Application to Red Tilapia Culture in Reservoir of Wadaslintang, Indonesia Wijayanto, Dian; Sugianto, F.X.; Poerwono, D.
International Journal of Marine and Aquatic Resource Conservation and Co-existence 2014: IJMARCC Volume 1 Issue 1 Year 2014
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The purpose of this study was to develop the model of profit estimation in Aquaculture. This research used a model of von Bertalanffy length growth combined with the length-weight relationship, and developed an equation of time harvest to produce the target of fish weight as the market preferences. That also developed an equation to estimate the fish biomass, and the profit in aquaculture. The Profit is a total of revenue minus total of cost. Both the harvested biomass of fish and price of fish affect the revenue of aquaculture. The components of costs were a cost of seed procurement, cost of feed procurement, cost of transportation of products and the daily cost. The daily cost of aquaculture in floating cages were a cost of labour, cost of vitamins, cost of energy, cost of assets depreciation, cost of supporting equipment and cost of maintenance assets that converted to IDR (Indonesian Rupiah) (day) -1. The research proved if lthe model in this study could be used to estimate the profit of aquaculture. In case of red Tilapia culture (floating cage) in Reservoir of Wadaslintang, aquaculture at 120 days produced a fish average weight of 200 g (profit IDR. 13,507,167), then at 143 days produced 250 g (profit IDR. 17,975,723), at 164 days produced 300 g (profit IDR. 21,853,697), at 185 days produced 350 g (profit IDR. 25,387,418), at 204 days produced 400 g (profit IDR. 28,181,081), at 223 days produced 450 g (profit IDR. 30,507,200), and at 242 days produced 500 g (profit IDR. 32,297,418). Keywords: profit, von Bertalanffy, floating cage, Red Tilapia, Reservoir of Wadaslintang
Toward a New Paradigm of Ecosystem and Endemic Organism based on Spatial Zonation for Taka Bonerate Marine Protected Area Hartoko, Agus; Kumalasari, I.; Anggoro, Sutrisno
International Journal of Marine and Aquatic Resource Conservation and Co-existence 2014: IJMARCC Volume 1 Issue 1 Year 2014
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Most of present approach by authorities in designing for any conservation programs was mainly achieving target based on the width of area and not for the endemic organisms in each area.  The  old zonation method used was usually not based upon an ecological delineation but mostly using the island border  physically and without a rehabilitation zone.  In the conservation zone such as in Taka Bonerate marine park there could be a limited use zone based on the traditional use and not an intensive use activities.  The paper develop a new ecosystem and endemic organism based spatial scoring to built a new spatial zonation model which is specially dedicated for any conservation zone or a marine parks. Which would be used for a management plan and further action plan. A spatial based approach analysis with a reliable detail and adequate accuracy was  needed as a guide in the zonation processes for the management of coastal or marine protected area. The spatial modeling was a combination of satellite and field data analysis.  This spatial modeling analysis was also called as Cell Based Modeling based on raster/spatial data and  ‘spatial-scoring’ method with emphasized on the specific ecosystem and endemic organism valuation and weight approach. The  new paradigm on the “specific ecosystem and endemic organism based spatial-scoring for a new spatial model”  and targeted  existing knowledge for a beyond ‘the usual-goals’ for Marine Protected Area (MPA).  In this case is preserving and conserving “marine living fossils”: Nautilus pompilus for Taka Bonerate as well as for other cases of Latimeria menadoensis in north Sulawesi waters and Limulus.sp in Java and Kangean seas, should be designated as a “new concept of MPA-Plus”. Considering the important of deep sea vulnerable reef and atolls and sand-dune (‘bungin’) ecosystem for a protected reef-fishes: napoleon wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus),   and flying fish Cypsilurus.sp and others.   Key words : Endemic, spatial-scoring, MPA, Taka Bonerate
Translocation Study of Some Zooxanthellae Clade to the Survival and Growth of Goniastrea aspera after Bleaching Purnomo, Pujiono W.
International Journal of Marine and Aquatic Resource Conservation and Co-existence 2014: IJMARCC Volume 1 Issue 1 Year 2014
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Inter-host translocation technique of zooxanthellae was attempted to prove Buddemier and Futin’s (1993) theory on adaptation. The recent trend of coral products trading must be anticipated by its mass production through artificial techniques, the alternation of natural resources. Translocation bio-technique of zooxanthellae on coral was expected to resolve the problem and the translocation study should provide fundamental answer to coral recovery. The study of zooxanthellae translocation was proposed to: a) Evaluate the effect of zooxanthellae enrichment on its translocation on coral polyp tissue efter optimum bleaching and b) Investigate the effect of translocation on coral growth. The research was experimental, involving coral species Goneastrea aspera, and purified zooxanthellae clade A, B and C with circulating incubation condition in BPBBAP Jepara indoor area. The experiment took place for 30 weeks in both model environment waters and natural environment waters of Jepara Panjang Island coral area from March to August 2008. The result showed that: a) In the artificial waters, translocation zooxanthellae to polyp tissue of Goneastrea aspera occured at day 17 and more fast in the natural waters; b) In the controlling of temperature environment on translocation provided positive response of Goneastrea aspera’s normal life, relocation and growth rate of zooxanthellae as in nature and c) recognition, resettlement, and growth process of zooxanthellae made it possible for Goneastrea aspera to grow normally in natural waters.   Key words: Clade, bleaching, recognition, resettlement, growth, translocation, zooxanthellae, Goneastrea aspera
Effect of Mineral Suplement in the Diet for Penaeus monodon F. Shrimp Culture in a Low Salinity Medium Djuwito, Djuwito; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Hutabarat, Johanes
International Journal of Marine and Aquatic Resource Conservation and Co-existence 2014: IJMARCC Volume 1 Issue 1 Year 2014
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Shrimp culture in a low salinity medium has been developed widely such as in Thailand, China, Indonesia and some Federal country of USA. This new approach of shrimp culture of the tiger prawn Penaeus monodon Fab was done as low salinity shrimp farming; low-salinity inland system, inland shrimp farming, and inland culture. Water source was then treated with a step-wise dilution process with river waters to the salinity range of 25-30 ppt to be used for post-larval rearing and growing. The process of dilution will continue to salinity of 5 ppt to be used for the growing ponds until harvest. The relocation of conventional brakish water ponds for shrimp culture from coastal area to inland area was initially caused by the problems of desease, marine pollutions, environmental issues such as mangrove destructions issues and the change of spatial planning in coastal area. The aim of the study is known the effect of K+ and Mg2+ addition and its combination to the weekly growth rate (based on weight) of the shrimp and Osmotic Capacity. The study using addition of mineral in the diet with assumtion that this approach will have more effective effects to the specific growth rate (SGR), Absolute Growth (∆G), survival rate (SR) and osmotic capability (OC) of the shrimp. The experiment design was Complete Random Design with 3 replicates for each treatment. Treatment A: standard diet added with 1% K (1 gr KCl/100 gr diet), treatment  B: standard diet adde with 1% Mg2+ (1 gr dolomite/100 gr diet), treatment C was a combined of 0.5% K+ and 0.5% Mg2+, and treatment D was standard diet without mineral (as control). Result of data analysis using ANOVA revealed that all mineral diet treatment had no significant effect (P > 0.05) to SGR and ∆G for Penaeus monodon cultured in low salinity. Although a combined mineral (K and Mg) treatment C had shows the highest of absolute growth (0.7023 gr) then followed by treatment A (0.6421 gr), B (0.5303 gr), and D (0.4951 gr). The treatment of C with combination of 0.5% K and 0.5% Mg had gave the highest absolute growth and provide the best result. The weekly specific growth rate (SGR) had shown a steady decreasing pattern, with the lowest rate in week-5 and increase again in week-6. All mineral suplement in the diet had revealed a significant effect to the osmoregulatory capacity (OC) with (P value < 0.05) with seawater medium variabel as already mentions earlier. All treatments had gave high survival rate (SR) of the Penaeus monodon post-larvae where treatment A:  95.83%; B: 5.83%; C: 91.67% and control D : 85.50%.   Key words: Penaeus monodon F., Mineral, supplements, diet, low-salinity culture
Potentiality of Using Spreading Sargassum Species from Indonesia as an Interesting Source of Antibacterial and Radical Scavenging Compounds: A Preliminary Study Widowati, Ita; Puspita, Maya; Stiger-Pouvreau, Valerie; Bourgougnon, Nathalie
International Journal of Marine and Aquatic Resource Conservation and Co-existence 2014: IJMARCC Volume 1 Issue 1 Year 2014
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As an archipelagic country with 95,181 km long coastline, Indonesia has great potential as the producer of seaweeds. The diverse phyla of marine macroalgae (red, brown and green seaweeds) are known to produce molecules which are attractive for diverse industries. Applications of algal products range from simple biomass production for food, feed and fuels to valuable products such as sugar polymers, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, pigments, and food supplements. Seaweeds also have the potential to be used as a source of new bioactive for human, animal or plant health, as well as a source of new synthons and biocatalysts in sustainable chemistry (Bourgougnon and Stiger-Pouvreau, 2011). In this paper, among species of economic value we focus on brown seaweeds belonging to family Sargassaceae and genus Sargassum spreading along Indonesian coasts. Members of this genus are especially abundant in tropical and subtropical regions (Zemke-White and Ohno, 1999). The purpose of this study is to analyze the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of three species of Sargassum, i.e. S. echinocarpum, S. duplicatum and S. polycystum. Both polar and non-polar extracts have been prepared from those three species. In vitro antibacterial activities of extracts were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli. Results indicated all the three species tested showed an antibacterial activity. The most effective antibacterial activity against S. aerous was from S. echinocarpum with ethil asetat, inhibition zone 1.13 ± 0.25 mm; S. duplicatum with N-Hexane was most effective against E. coli, 1.20 ± 0.28 mm.   Key words: Antibacterial, Sargassum, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli.

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