Jurnal Sains Dasar
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Articles 103 Documents
STUDI PERHITUNGAN HTR PEBBLE-BED DENGAN BERBAGAI MODEL KISI KERNEL DAN KISI PEBBLE

Zuhair, Zuhair ( Pusat Teknologi Reaktor dan Keselamatan Nuklir - Batan )

Jurnal Sains Dasar Vol 1, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Sains Dasar
Publisher : Yogyakarta State University

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Abstract

In pebble-bed reactor core, lattice models can be changed and even varies with the changing position of pebble. This sort of thing can be found mainly in the area near the vessel wall. Lattice model applied also depends on the procedure how the cylindrical vessel filled. Some lattice models such as SC, BCC, FCC, SH and HCP often used in the high temperature reactor to treat kernel randomness in the graphite matrix and pebble fuel in the reactor core. In this paper a series of calculations of the reactor multiplication factor (keff) conducted with various model of kernel and pebble lattices. The effect of lattice combination which implies on neutronics performance of HTR pebble-bed design is analyzed utilizing the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5 and continuous energy nuclear data library ENDF/B-VI. MCNP5 calculations show consistency with the keff values which ​​are almost the same for all combinations of kernel and pebble lattices, but if observed further appears that the keff value is more dependent on pebble lattice than kernel lattice kernel. Kernel lattice provides only a less significant effect. The results of keff predictions of all lattice combinations conclude that whatever kernel lattice model utilized, the BCC pebble lattice model is better adopted in the calculation of HTR pebble-bed design with UO2, PuO2 and ThO2/UO2 fuel.

IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY TEST SOME ISOLATED COMPOUNDS FROM STEM BARK OF MELINJO (GNETUM GNEMON)

Atun, Sri ( Universtas Negeri Yogyakarta ) , Arianingrum, Retno ( Universtas Negeri Yogyakarta ) , Masatake, Niwa ( Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Tempaku, Nagoya, Japan )

Jurnal Sains Dasar Vol 1, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Sains Dasar
Publisher : Yogyakarta State University

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Isolation and structure elucidation of two compounds, namely resveratrol (1), and 3- methoxyresveratrol (2) from stem bark of Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) had been done. The isolation of those compounds was carried out by chromatographyc method and structure elucidation was performed by interpretation of spectroscopic data, including UV, IR,  1H and 13C NMR 1D and 2D, and FABMS. The result of this study showed that activity each compounds as radical hydroxyl scavenger of resveratrol (1), and 3-methoxyresveratrol (2), with an  IC50 45,17 and 60,12; g/ml respectively. Each compound showed significant activity as UV-B protection. Activity test as UV-B protection showed that resveratrol and methoxyresveratrol have maximum protections (SPF 8,03 and 12,34 respectively), each compounds on 50 g/ml. Key word : melinjo; Gnetum gnemon; natural antioxidant; UV-B protection

TRANFORMASI POLIMORFIK DAN KARAKTERISASI MIKROSTRUKTUR FASA TiO2 YANG DIHASILKAN MELALUI KALSINASI NANOPITA HIDROGEN TITANAT

Sutrisno, Hari ( Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta )

Jurnal Sains Dasar Vol 1, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Sains Dasar
Publisher : Yogyakarta State University

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Sodium titanates were synthesized by hydrothermal method using Ti(O2)O.2H2O as the starting material in 10 M NaOH at 150°C for 72 h. Hydrogen titanate nanoribbons were obtained by ion exchange of H+ for K+ in sodium titanates by 0.1 M HCl. TiO2 (B), anatase, and anatase-rutile mixture were obtained by the calcinations of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons for 2 h at 500, 700, and 900°c respectively. Hydrogen titanate nanoribbons were characterized by X-rays Diffraction (XRD), High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM) and High Resolution Transmition Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Microstructure of pseudo-TiO2 (B), anatase, and rutile prepared by the calcinations of hydrogen titanates have been determinated in ab initio by the Two Stage Method from powder XRD data. Hydrogen titanates nanoribbons convert into pseudo-TiO2(B) then anatase and finaly rutile structures by heat treatment. Keywords: polymorphic transformation, microstructure characterization, titanium dioxide

UJI KESADAHAN AIR TANAH DI DAERAH SEKITAR PANTAI KECAMATAN REMBANG PROPINSI JAWA TENGAH

., Sulistyani, ., Sunarto, Filaeli, Annisa

Jurnal Sains Dasar Vol 1, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Sains Dasar
Publisher : Yogyakarta State University

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Research on soil water hardness,calcium and magnesium covers have been done. Samples were analyzed groundwater in the area around Rembang Coast District Central Java Province. Samples taken from four villages located around the coast and every village three samples taken at random. Samples of water was added HNO3(c), plus the ionization buffer solution, and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Sample concentration is determined using a calibration curve. From the research results can be concluded that the hardness of water wells in the District Rembang remained at normal concentrations far below the dangerous threshold, ie below 200 ppm. Thus, in terms of water hardness district wells in the area especially along the coast of Rembang District is safe to use for everyday purposes and industrial use of fish. From the results of the analysis is also known that the dominant of hardness of water wells in the area is soft water so that the level of hardness can be reduced significantly by means of heating, which can be reduced by 90%.

Peningkatan Efisiensi Sel Surya Berbasis Titania Melalui Penyisipan Logam Besi pada Lapisan Aktif Titania

Prasetyowati, Rita ( Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta )

Jurnal Sains Dasar Vol 1, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Sains Dasar
Publisher : Yogyakarta State University

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Solar cells based on titania was developed continually to reach better performance. To improve the efficiency, titania layer was inserted by Fe metal. Insertion of Fe metal on TiO2 layer has been done by electroplating method with various electroplating voltage and electroplating time duration. Absorption capabilitis of TiO2 was identified by using UV-Vis spectrometer. Morphological structure and composition of materials on TiO2 layer before and after electroplating was identified by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). Structure of solar cells that have been made were characterized by using the I-V meter to determine the performance of solar cells. Solar cell with TiO2 active layer without  insertion of  Fe only has a solar to electric energy conversion efficiency  0.001%. While solar cells with TiO2 active layer which was inserted Fe have a solar to electric energy conversion efficiency 0.2%. Insertion of Fe on the TiO2 layer formed metal contact layer as a path for electrons to transfer more quickly to the electrode (ITO).

Pengembangan instrumen pendukung identifikasi protein berbasis molecularly imprinted polymer melalui imprinted PMAA-BSA

Fillaeli, Annisa ( Jurusan Pendidikan Kimia FMIPA UNY ) , ., Marfuatun ( Jurusan Pendidikan Kimia FMIPA UNY )

Jurnal Sains Dasar Vol 2, No 1 (2013): Jurnal Sains Dasar
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memudahkan identifikasi protein atau turunannya dalam matriks yang kompleks dengan molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) yaitu imprinted PMAA-BSA.  PMAA-BSA disintesis dengan Asam Metakrilat (MAA) sebagai monomer, Etilen Glikol Dimetakrilat (EDMA) sebagai cross-linker, BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin) sebagai template pencetak molekul protein dengan benzoil peroksida (dalam kloroform dan benzena) dengan metode polimerisasi bulk secara termal. Imprinted PMAA-BSA terbentuk setelah tahap ekstraksi template BSA dari PMAA-BSA dilakukan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa PMAA-BSA berhasil disintesis dengan komposisi MAA : EDMA : BSA (20 mg/ml) = 5 : 1 : 1 (mol) dengan konsentrasi benzoil peroksida sebesar 0.5 mg/ml.  PMAA-BSA memiliki BM 3440 g/mol, meleleh pada 131,730C, dan terdegradasi secara termal pada 374,980C dengan kehilangan berat hingga 69,78%. Pada spektra IR PMAA-BSA terdapat pita serapan penciri gugus amida sekunder, pada 1634 cm-1, sedangkan spektra IR PMAA tidak menunjukkan profil tersebut. Pita serapan penciri amida sekunder pada spektra IR imprinted PMAA-BSA menunjukkan masih ada penciri amida sekunder dengan intensitas yang lebih rendah.  Pengukuran filtrat BSA pada tahap pembentukan imprinted PMAA-BSA dan tahap ekstraksinya menunjukkan recovery dan reproducibility terbaik 94,85% dan 8,029%. Kata kunci: polimer, MIP, BSA

Studi fisiologis daun sirih ‘temurose’

R., Ekosari ( Yogyakarta State University ) , Sugiarto, Lili ( Yogyakarta State University )

Jurnal Sains Dasar Vol 2, No 1 (2013): Jurnal Sains Dasar
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

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Abstrak Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mempelajari secara fisiologi daun-daun sirih ‘temurose’; sehingga dapat diperoleh penjelasan ilmiah yang mendasar tentang penggunaan daun-daun sirih ‘temurose’. Daun-daun sirih ‘temurose’ adalah sirih yang urat daunnya (nervus lateralis) bertemu kedudukan ruasnya; sehingga  bentuknya simetris. Implementasi dalam bentuk kerja laboratorium dalam beberapa tahap, yakni (i) persiapan sampel spesimen daun sirih hijau (Piper betle L.) yang berasal dari satu buah tanaman, (ii) observasi morfo-anatomis, (iii) eksperimen biokimiawi, dan (iv) melalui eksperimen fisiologis. Data (kecuali untuk bentuk daun dan flavonoid) dianalisis melalui uji ‘t’ pada tingkat singinifikansi 95% menggunakan  SPSS 18. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (i) bentuk daun-daun ‘temurose’ adalah orbeicularis dan daun-daun non-‘temurose’ berbentuk ovalis-elipticus, dan (ii) daun-daun ‘temurose’ lebih kecil dan ringan walaupun memiliki konduktivitas listrik lebih besar. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa daun-daun ‘temurose’ bersifat elektrolit. Kata kunci: daun sirih ‘temurose’ Abstract This research aims to physiologically study ‘temurose’ betel leaves; thus getting basic scientific reason in the utilization of ‘temurose’ betel leaves. Temurose betel leaves are the leaves which veins (nerves lateral) of the left side and right side meet at the main bone, so the shape is symmetrical. Implementation in the form of laboratory work, in several stages, from (i) preparation of the specimen sample green betel leaf (Piper betle L.) originating from one individual plant, (ii) morpho-anatomical observations, (iii) biochemical experiment, and (iv) through physiological experiments. The data (except for leaf shape and flavonoids) were analyzed by ‘t’ test at 95% significance level using SPSS 18. The result showing that (i) the shape of temurose leaves are orbeicularis, and non temurose betle leaves are ovalis - elipticus forms; and (ii) the temurose leaves are smaller and lighter, even though have higher electrical conductivity. This indicates that the leaves’s substances are electrolyte. Keyword: temurose betel leaves

Penerapan algoritma koloni semut untuk optimisasi rute distribusi pengangkutan sampah di kota Yogyakarta

Lestari, Himmawati Puji ( Yogyakarta State University )

Jurnal Sains Dasar Vol 2, No 1 (2013): Jurnal Sains Dasar
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

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Abstrak Sistem pengangkutan sampah di Kota Yogyakarta dilakukan dari Kelurahan/Kecamatan (KK) ke Tempat Pembuangan Sementara (TPS), selanjutnya dari TPS ke Tempat Pembuangan Akhir (TPA). TPS sendiri terbagi atas tiga jenis: depo, container, dan landasan (bangunan permanen). Di lain pihak, pengambilan sampah oleh kendaraan truk pengangkut sampah seringkali tidak teratur mengakibatkan volume sampah di Kota Yogyakarta yang cukup besar tidak dapat didistribusikan dengan baik ke TPA Piyungan. Sehubungan dengan masalah tersebut sistem optimasi rute distribusi ini dirancang agar sistem distribusi pengangkutan sampah di Kota Yogyakarta dapat berfungsi secara optimal. Dalam hal ini digunakan Algoritma Koloni Semut untuk menyelesaikan masalah. Pada penelitian ini, TPS yang akan dibahas berupa bangunan permanen. Selanjutnya penyelesaian algoritma koloni semut dibantu dengan software Macro Excel. Diperoleh 12 rute pengangkutan sampah setiap hari di Kota Yogyakarta. Kata kunci: sampah, TPS, algoritma koloni semut. Abstract Waste collection transportation system in Yogyakarta is begun from District to Temporary Shelters (TPS), then from TPS to End Shelter/landfill (TPA). TPS is divided into three types: depot, container, and permanent buildings. On the other hand, collecting waste in each TPS is often irregular. This causes the garbage cannot be distributed properly to landfill in Piyungan. Based on the problem, an optimization system of distribution route is designed so that the distribution of waste collection transportation system in Yogyakarta becomes optimal. In this case, the ant colony algorithm is used to solve the problem. In this research, the type of TPS discussed is a permanent building. Furthermore, the optimal solution of distribution problem using ant colony algorithm is calculated via software Macro Excel. The result is 12 daily routes of waste collection in Yogyakarta. Key words: waste, TPS, ant colony algorithm

Eksplorasi Metode Sterilisasi dan Macam Media Untuk Perbanyakan Durian (Durio zibethinus, L.) Secara In Vitro

Sugiyarto, Lili ( Yogyakarta State University ) , Kuswandi, Paramita Cahyaningrum ( Yogyakarta State University )

Jurnal Sains Dasar Vol 2, No 1 (2013): Jurnal Sains Dasar
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

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Abstrak Durian (Durio zibethinus, L.) memiliki nilai ekonomis tinggi baik sebagai salah satu komoditas hortikultura yaitu buah untuk konsumsi di pasar lokal maupun untuk ekspor. Salah satu hambatan adalah persediaan bibit yang tidak mencukupi dan metode perbanyakan yang merusak pohon induk dengan karakter unggul. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh metode sterilisasi yang tepat dan media untuk perbanyakan durian secara in vitro. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan dan Kebun Percobaan FMIPA, UNY. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah induksi menggunakan sitokinin BAP (benzyl amino purin) dalam media MS. Eksplan diperoleh dari bibit durian yang sudah dikecambahkan di polibag dengan media tanah dan kompos. Sterilisasi untuk penanaman dengan teknik kultur jaringan menggunakan detergen, clorox 20% dan 10%, alkohol 70%, dan aquades steril untuk nodia, sedangkan sterilisasi eksplan daun dengan clorox 10% dan 5%. Media yang digunakan adalah media MS (Murashige dan Skoog) ditambah dengan BAP (konsentrasi 2 dan 4 ppm), serta 2,4-D (0.4, 1.0, dan 1.5 ppm). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penambahan BAP dalam media MS mampu memicu pertumbuhan tunas pada eksplan nodia durian pada konsentrasi 2 dan 4 ppm. Penambahan 2,4-D mampu menginduksi kalus pada daun durian. Pada konsentrasi 1 ppm kalus yang dihasilkan berwarna putih, berair dengan daun yang tidak terlalu menggulung sedangkan konsentrasi 0,4 dan 1,5 ppm menghasilkan kalus hijau dengan daun yang menggulung. Perlu perlakuan media yang lebih bervariasi baik pada eksplan nodia maupun daun untuk menghasilkan planlet melalui kalus atau pembentukan tunas secara langsung.   Kata kunci: durian, sterilisasi, BAP, 2,4-D, tunas, kalus   Abstract One of the problems that can occur in the development of durian (Durio zibethinus, L.)  is the availability of seedlings and the method of propagation can cause over-exploitation of the mother plant. The aim of this research was to obtain the method of sterilization and the right media for in vitro propagation of durian. The research was carried out in the Tissue Culture Laboratory and Experimental Garden Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Yogyakarta State University. The method used in this research was induction using the cytokinin BAP (benzylamino purine) in MS media. The explants were obtained from durian seedlings that were grown in polybags with soil and compost media. Sterilization for the tissue culture technique was done using detergent, alcohol 70%, and clorox (20% and 10%), and also sterile aquadest for nodia, while leaf exsplant sterilization was done using clorox 10% and 5%. The media used were MS (Murashige and Skoog) with BAP (2 dan 4 ppm) for the nodia and also with 2,4-D (0.4, 1.0, dan 1.5 ppm) for the leaf explants. The result showed that the BAP in the MS media was able to induce the growth of shoots from the nodia at concentrations of 2 and 4 ppm. The addition of 2,4-D was able to induce the growth of callus on the leaf explants. Using 1 ppm 2,4-D, the callus was white and transparent and the leaves did not curl so much as in the treatments with 0.4 and 1.5 ppm 2,4-D which caused the leaves to curl. More variation in the treatments or media both for the nodia and leaves explants can be further investigated to produce plantlets via callus induction or direct organogenesis. Key words: durian, sterilization, BAP, 2,4-D,  shoot, callus

Sifat-sifat Nilai Eigen dan Vektor Eigen Matriks atas Aljabar Maxplus

., Musthofa ( Yogyakarta State University ) , Binatari, Nikenasih ( Yogyakarta State University )

Jurnal Sains Dasar Vol 2, No 1 (2013): Jurnal Sains Dasar
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

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Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji sifat-sifat  nilai eigen dan vektor eigen matriks atas aljabar maxplus. Langkah-langkah yang dilakukan adalah dengan mengkaji eksistensi nilai eigen dan vector eigen matriks atas aljabar maxplus. Selanjutnya diselidiki sifat-sifat nilai eigen dan vector eigen, meliputi ketunggalan dari nilai eigen, dan mengkaji tentang sifat nilai eigen dan vector eigen dari matriks transpose. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa setiap matriks persegi atas aljabar maxplus selalu mempunyai nilai eigen. Suatu mariks persegi A atas aljabar mxplus akan mempunyai nilai eigen tunggal jika A irredusibel. Jika l merupakan nilai eigen A, maka l jug merupakan nilai eigen dari AT. Tetapi sifat  ini tidak berlaku untuk vektor eigennya. Kata kunci: aljabar maxplus, nilai eigen, vektor eigen, matriks transpose Abstract This research aimed to study the properties of eigenvalues ​​and eigenvectors of the matrix over maxplus algebra. The initial step is to study the existence of eigenvalues ​​and eigenvector of matrix over maxplus algebra. Moreover, the properties of eigenvalues ​​and eigenvectors are investigated. Finally, we study the properties of eigenvalues ​​and eigenvectors of the matrix transpose. The result shows that every square matrix over maxplus algebra always has eigenvalue. A square matrix A in the maxplus algebra will have a unique eigenvalue if A is  irreducible. If l is an eigenvalue of A, then l is also an eigenvalue of AT, but this property does not apply for the eigenvector. Key words: maxplus algebra, eigenvalue, eigenvector, matrix transpose

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