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Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy
Published by Universitas Bakrie
Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy (APJSAFE), publish two times a year, publish papers in English reporting the results of original research in the following areas: Sustainable Agriculture, Food Technology and Sustainable Nutrition, Community Development and Scientific Communication, and Other related topics deemed relevant by the Editorial Board (Special Issues)
Articles
41
Articles
Sustainable Cocoa Production Program (SCPP): Analysis of cocoa beans processing and quality in post-harvest in South East Sulawesi in Indonesia

Schaad, N ( Bern University of Applied Science ) , Fromm, Ingrid ( Bern University of Applied Science )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 6, No 1 (2018): .
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Abstract— The production of cocoa, introduced in Indonesia during the 1980s, is now decreasing due to many different factors, among them decreased yields due to aging trees, the appearance of pests and diseases, and the farmers not being able to solve these problems due to their lack of knowledge. In 2012, Swisscontact implemented the Sustainable Cocoa Program (SCPP) to improve the competitiveness of the farmers in the cocoa value chain and to increase the productivity of cocoa beans on farm-level. The present study, conducted with the support of Swisscontact, is divided in two main different parts. The first part is a farmer analysis conducted in the district of Kolaka Timur to observe the effect of the SCPP and the UTZ certification on the agricultural practices and the post-harvest method on farm-level. Three different farmers’ groups were interviewed: 16 farmers involved in the SCPP and UTZ certified, 22 farmers involved in SCPP without any certification and 20 none-SCPP farmers. 32 women were interviewed as well to evaluate the gender equity in cocoa production. The second part of the study is an analysis of the quality of the cocoa beans by the different stakeholders of the value chain regarding the tools and the use of specific quality criteria. Eight local traders, six processing and trading companies and three associations involved in the cocoa sector were interviewed.The results in the first part show that the SCPP has an impact on the productivity of cocoa beans in the long term: the annual yield is significantly higher in the first group (UTZ-SCPP) and the agricultural practices are improved as well. The SCPP, with the creation of farmers’ cooperative, also increased the market access to the farmers. The second part shows that the tools and criteria used for analysing the quality of the cocoa beans are not the same in the value chain. Regarding the application of post-harvest practices, the study shows that the processing companies don’t have a real interest in buying fermented beans and they rather buy almost raw beans at a low price. The conclusion is that farmers involved in the SCPP have the possibility to produce a higher volume of cocoa beans but a market for fermented beans has to be created in order to add more value to the cocoa beans from Indonesia.Keywords— Sustainable Cocoa Production Program (SCPP), quality analysis, fermentation, Indonesian cocoa value chain.

Moisture Desorption Isotherms of Squids

Pham, Van Toan ( Loc Hong University ) , Le, Duc Anh ( Nong Lam University )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 6, No 1 (2018): .
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Moisture desorption isotherms of squids were determined by the method of saturated salt, at temperatures of 30 ̊C, 40 ̊C and 50 ̊C in the range of air relative humidity from 11.10% to 80.27%. The initial moisture contents were in the range of 83.5% - 84% wet basis. The final moisture content was considered as the equilibrium moisture content. Twelve different mathematical equations are brought into comparison to determine the effects of temperature and relative humidity on equilibrium moisture content of squids. The criteria, including correlation coefficient, root mean square error and chi-squared distribution, are examined in this study to select the appropriate equations. The analysis results show that modified Halsey is the most appropriate equation to predict the equilibrium moisture content of squids. Modified Oswin, modified Chung-Pfost and modified Henderson equations are also efficient, respectively, while Smith and Caurie equations are not consistent with the experimental results

A mini-review of conventional rice milling: It is suitable for organic rice

David, Wahyudi ( Universitas Bakrie )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 5, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Many attempt has been made in previous study to understand how milling processing influence the nutritional properties of rice. However, there is no study address how the milling processing can be adopted to the organic rice. This study is preliminary stage to understand the influence of milling processing on rice as a food system. This article has reviewed 54 articles comparing refined and whole grain rice and categorized into production cost, bioactive compound, and pesticide/residue contamination as well as consumer perception. The result shown that milling processing as one of value chain contributes the significant impact on nutritional properties of rice. If the organic rice using the conventional “milling processing principle” it will resulted the equal feature of nutritional properties both organic rice and conventional, thus expectation of consumer for healthier properties of organic rice may not be suitable anymore.Keywords- Organic food system, milling processing, organic rice, whole grain 

Effect of Added Succinylated Fish Gelatin on the Textural Profile of Stored Sardine Surimi Gel

Bahar, Mohamad Ikhwan Nazmi ( Food Technology Program, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 11800, Malaysia ) , Omosebi, Benedict Oludare ( Department of Food Technology, Federal Institute of Industrial Research , Oshodi, Lagos State, Nigeria ) , Ardiansyah, A ( Department of Food Technology, Universitas Bakrie, Jakarta, Indonesia ) , Huda, Nurul ( School of Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200, Terengganu, Malaysia )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 5, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Gelatin is a biopolymer with unique functional properties that are very useful in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and photographic applications. Low quality gelatin such as that from fish has limited application because its gels have inferior rheological and functional properties. However, researchers are looking for ways to use this abundant resource. In this study, the effect of adding succinylated fish gelatin to stored sardine surimi was investigated. Changes in the   physicochemical properties of surimi gels depended on the degree of succinylation of the fish gelatin. As the degree of succinylation increased, expressible moisture and water holding capacity of surimi gels increased from 0.56 to 18.07% and from 2.86 to 20.45%, respectively. The lightness value of surimi gels also increased. Addition of succinylated fish gelatin had no effect on gel folding test results, but it did improve texture of the gels.  With increasing succinylation of fish gelatin, hardness of the gels increased from 11.11 to 77.78%, springiness from 0 to 20.83%, cohesiveness from 0 to 67.5%, gumminess from 9.38 to 200%, and chewiness from 8.7 to 265.22%. In summary, addition of succinylated fish gelatin improved the physicochemical properties of surimi gels.   Keywords- Fish gelatin, surimi, succinic anhydride, texural profile, water holding capacity

Sensory quality of brown rice Inpari 24 after 3 months of storage

Amelia, Putri ( Universitas Bakrie ) , Ardiansyah, Ardiansyah ( Universitas Bakrie ) , David, Wahyudi ( Universitas Bakrie )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 5, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Brown rice contributes to high bioactive content for human health however rancidity was the obstacle to store it properly. This research aims to estimate shelf life of brown rice Inpari 24 with polyethylene and polyethylene vacuum packaging by sensory analysis method.  The shelf life test based on the ISO 16779: 2015 by using 10 panelists. Brown rice was store under non-vacuum packaging treatment (PE) and vacuum packaging (PEV) for 3 months. The results show, in the preference plot, there was decreasing of acceptance of the panelist on PE and PEV from 0-3 month. In hazard function, panelists recognize that sensory changes in PE faster than PEV. There is no significant different of moisture content for both PE and PEV during 3 months evaluation. Free fatty acids in PE are increasing over three month meanwhile PEV remain stable. Overall evaluation, PEV shows better performance for storage mode in term of preference and perception of panelist. Keywords- brown rice, sensory analysis, panelist, shelf life, non-vacuum, vacuum, Inpari 24

Improving the Physicochemical Properties of Commercial Bovine Gelatin using Succinylation

Alias, Nur Aliyana Binti ( Universiti Sains Malaysia ) , Omosebi, Benedict Oludare ( Department of Food Technology, Federal Institute of Industrial Research , Oshodi, Lagos State, Nigeria ) , David, Wahyudi ( Universitas Bakrie ) , Huda, Nurul ( School of Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200, Terengganu, Malaysia )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 5, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Commercial bovine gelatin was modified by using succinic anhydride and resultant changes in physicochemical properties such as Bloom strength, foaming properties and extent of succinylation were investigated. The result indicated that addition of succinic anhydride at varying concentrations of 0.04, 0.08, 0.12 and 0.16 g/g of sample increased the degree of succinylation from 0% to 14%, while Bloom strength increased from 131.97% to148.60% but at higher concentration decreased from 133.50% to128.0%. Foaming capacity increased from 171.67% to 210.70%   but a substantial constant decrease in foaming stability with time.Keywords- Gelatin,  Succinic anhydride, gel strength, foaming capacity,  physicochemical properties,  

Dietary pattern on elderly patient with hypertension : a qualitative analysis

David, Wahyudi ( Universitas Bakrie ) , Darwin, Charles ( Department of Psycology, Universitas Putra Indonesia YPTK, Padang Medical Practitioner, Klinik Malahayati, Padang )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 5, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

many studies have been revealed that hypertension in elderly patient has significant factor in mortality. The non-drug treatment has been arisen since there are many complication drugs usage on this age. One of treatment which related to the hypertension is the lifestyle or dietary pattern. The qualitative analysis was performed to understand the multifactor of hypertension in elderly patient. Eighteen of elderly women with hypertension have been observed to understand how the dietary pattern influences the profile of hypertension of elderly patient. The patient age are ranged 56-84 years old. The substantial findings of this study include the fact that the more elderly concern on their eating behaviour, the more they could maintain their normal blood pressure. There are an evidence that patient has higher vegetable intake could reduce their high blood pressure constantly. However, stress and physiological condition of patient may stimulate the blood pressure in several cases.Keywords— Dietary pattern, hypertension elderly patient, qualitative analysis

The Effect of Succinylation on the Physicochemical Properties of Commercial Fish Gelatin

Bahar, Mohamad Ikhwan Nazmi ( Food Technology Program, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 11800, Malaysia ) , Omosebi, Benedict Oludare ( Department of Food Technology, Federal Institute of Industrial Research , Oshodi, Lagos State, Nigeria ) , Ardiansyah, . ( Department of Food Technology, Universitas Bakrie, Jakarta, Indonesia ) , Huda, Nurul ( School of Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200, Terengganu, Malaysia )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 5, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

There has been growing interest in improving the physicochemical properties of gelatin especially fish gelatin due to its inferior rheological and functional properties compared to mammalian gelatin. The effect of chemical modification (succinylation) on the physicochemical properties fish gelatin by over varying degree of succinylation (0.0 – 11.11%). was investigated. For succinylated fish skin gelatin, physicochemical properties such as gel strength (Bloom), emulsion activity and foaming activity increased from 126.06% to 178.66%, 41.8% to 68.9%, and 14.5% to 65.1% respectively.  However succinylation decrease emulsion and foaming stability of succinylated fish skin gelatin from 67.6% to 44.7% and 97.7 to 69.6% respectively.  Therefore, the result showed the improvement of physicochemical properties of succinylated fish skin gelatin was influenced by degree of succinylation.   Keywords- Fish gelatin, gel strength, emulsion and foaming capacity, and succinylation

The novel fraction of rice bran as functional food ingredients

Ardiansyah, . ( Universitas Bakrie )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 5, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

A life style-related disease has become prevalent worldwide including in Indonesia as a result of changes in lifestyle and eating habits.  Intake of western diet with low dietary fiber and less exercise activity are causes of this diseases and major risk factors of death in recent years. These diseases associated with a number of serious medical complications, such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver, and certain cancers. Currently, there is increasing linked science and knowledge between functional food, diet intake, and health. Consumption of various functional food and nutraceutical derived from edible plants, vegetables, fruits, cereals, and fermented food has been regarded as a preventive factor against these diseases. Therefore, any active compounds from food having the ability to reduce life style-related diseases are a potential candidate for functional food. Hypertension is one manifestation of life style-related diseases and continues to be a top major cause of death beside stroke in Indonesia (Pusdatin, 2015).  The control and management of hypertension through food intake has been a focus of public health strategies in the recent years. A 5-mm Hg decrease in hypertension has been equated with a 16% decrease in this disease (FitzGerald et al., 2004).

Application of Hydrolytic Enzymes for Improvement of Red Dragon Fruit Juice Processing

Truong, N.M. Phuong ( Department of Food Technology, International University - Vietnam National University HCM city ) , Dang, Q Tuan ( Department of Food Technology, International University - Vietnam National University HCM city )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 4, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to improve the extraction efficiency and quality of the juice extracted from red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus), by using commercial hydrolytic enzymes, namely Pectinex Ultra SP-L and Viscozyme L. The two enzymes were applied in constant total rate (0.1%), but at different combination ratios, temperatures and enzymatic treatment durations. By the effect of the enzymes, the extraction yield was significantly increased while the juice quality was obviously improved. High extraction yield (86.35%) and reducing sugar content in the juice (28.87 mg/mL) were obtained at temperature 40oC, in 120 min and with a combination of Pectinex Ultra SP-L and Viscozyme L (70/30). Meanwhile, extraction without enzyme treatment resulted in significantly lower yield (54.04%) and less reducing sugar content in juice (20.63 mg/mL). Also, by application of the enzymes at optimal conditions, the juice relative viscosity was reduced from 1.42 to 1.09, while the total acidity increased from 0.47 to 0.75 (g/100 mL), the TPC from 13.68 to 14.16 (mgGAE/100g puree) and the vitamin C content from 27.94 to 32.29 (mg/100g puree) as compared to the treatment without enzymes. Keywords— Cellulase, dragon fruit, fruit juice, hemicellulase, pectinase