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Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy
Published by Universitas Bakrie
Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy (APJSAFE), publish two times a year, publish papers in English reporting the results of original research in the following areas: Sustainable Agriculture, Food Technology and Sustainable Nutrition, Community Development and Scientific Communication, and Other related topics deemed relevant by the Editorial Board (Special Issues)
Articles
45
Articles
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Comparative Study: Physico-Chemical Properties of Virgin Coconut Oil Using Various Culture

Asiah, Nurul ( Universitas Bakrie ) , Cempaka, Laras ( Universitas Bakrie ) , Maulidini, Tiara ( Universitas Bakrie )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 6, No 2 (2018): -
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Using various culture to produce Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) by applied fermentation methods are important aspect impacted on characteristic of VCO. The objective of this research is to investigate the physico-chemical properties of VCO produced by various culture. The cultures were used in fermentation methods are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Rhizopus oligosporus. Research activities were conducted in two stages; the first stage was the production of VCO by fermentation at 35oC for 24 hours. Then, physico-chemical properties of products were analyzed using standart methods. Results showed that moisture content, acid number and iodine number of VCO produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae lower than others. Density, viscosity and peroxide number has almost the same value. Nevertheless, all of physico-chemical properties conform to the Asian and Pacific Coconut Community (APCC) and Standar Nasional Indonesia for VCO product.Keywords— culture, fermentation, physico-chemical properties, quality, Virgin Coconut Oil. 

Quality Characteristics of Meatball Prepared from Different Ratios of Chicken and Duck Meat

Mohd Aripin, Nor Halini ( Food Technology Program, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia ) , Huda, Nurul ( Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, 88400, Sabah, Malaysia )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 6, No 2 (2018): -
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Abstract- The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different ratios of chicken and duck meat on the quality (proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics) of meatball. Meatball was produced by using 5 different ratios of duck and chicken meat (A = 0:100, B = 25:75, C = 50:50, D = 75:25, and E = 100:0).  Increase in the ratio of duck meat caused increases in moisture, ash, and carbohydrate (by difference), but decreases in protein and fat. The range of moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate content of meat ball in this study were 68.26 – 73.42 %, 10.45 – 5.88 %, 10.88 – 8.50 %, 1.84 – 2.86 %, 8.56 – 10.99 %, respectively. Mineral analysis showed that increase in the duck meat ratio caused increasing trends in Ca, Na, Fe, P, Zn and Mg contents.  The range of Ca, K, Na, Fe, P, Zn, and Mg was 0.6393 – 1.9973 mg/g, 0.0013 – 0.0016mg/g, 0.2912 – 0.6040 mg/g, 0.0187 – 0.0411 mg/g, 0.0884 – 0.4113 mg/g, 0.0025 – 0.1010 mg/g, and 0.2090 – 0.4848 mg/g, respectively. Physicochemical, juiciness showed increasing values by increasing duck meat ratio in meatball, meanwhile folding test showed decreasing values. The range for juiciness and folding test values were 6.09 – 11.24 % and 4.79 – 2.20 % respectively. Determination of texture and colour by instrument showed significant differences (P<0.05) among samples, whereby the L* value decreased, but the* and b* values increased with the increase in duck meat ratio.  The highest L* value (lightness) (65.89) was observed in formulation A which contained 100% chicken meat, while the lowest L* value (55.65) was observed in formulation E containing 100% duck meat. The addition of duck meat thus contributed to a darker colour product. Texture analysis showed decreasing values of shear stress (253.31 – 541.50) with the increase of duck meat ratio.   Keywords- Meatball, proximate composition, physicochemical characteristics, chicken meat, duck meat.

Film Opacity, Water Vapor Permeability, Water Solubility and Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation (FTIR) of a Biodegradable Film Based on a Duck Feet Gelatin and Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend

Binti Che Wan, Nur Harizah ( Food Technology Program, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia ) , Nafchi, Abdorreza Mohammadi ( Food & Chemical Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran ) , Huda, Nurul ( Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, 88400, Sabah, Malaysia )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 6, No 2 (2018): -
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Abstract- A biodegradable film was prepared from a blend of duck feet gelatin and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and was plasticized by glycerol. The effects of using a different ratio of duck feet gelatin to PVA (A=0:100, B=20:80, C=40:60, D=60:40, E=20:80, and F=100:0) on the quality properties were examined, including an analysis of film opacity, water vapor permeability, water solubility and fourier transform infrared radiation (FTIR). The film made from pure gelatin had a low lightness value (95.13) compared to a sample without gelatin that had a lightness value of 96.91. The spectra of the ?lms prepared from blends of duck feet gelatin and PVA (Sample B to D) were similar to those from the pure duck feet gelatin ?lms (Sample F), indicating that there were no major changes in the functional groups of the gelatin produced by interactions between the PVA and the duck feet gelatin. The blended film with the ratio of duck feet gelatin to PVA (sample C=40:60) showed good properties for use as a biodegradable film compared to blended films with other ratios.   Keywords- Duck feet, biodegradable film, film opacity, water vapor permeability, water solubility.

Tensile Strength, Elongation at Breaking Point and Surface Color of a Biodegradable Film Based on a Duck Feet Gelatin and Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend

Binti Che Wan, Nur Harizah ( Food Technology Program, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia ) , Nafchi, Abdorreza Mohammadi ( Food & Chemical Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran ) , Huda, Nurul ( Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, 88400, Sabah, Malaysia )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 6, No 2 (2018): -
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Abstract- A biodegradable film was prepared from a blend of duck feet gelatin and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and was plasticized by glycerol. The effects of using a different ratio of duck feet gelatin to PVA (A=0:100, B=20:80, C=40:60, D=60:40, E=20:80, and F=100:0) on the quality properties were examined, including an analysis of thickness, tensile strength, elongation at breaking point and surface color. The gelatin extracted from duck feet had a bloom value of 306.9 g. The tensile strength of the films increased as the concentration of the duck feet gelatin increased. However, the percentage of elongation at breaking point decreased, as tensile strength and elongation at breaking point have an inversely proportional relationship. The film made from pure gelatin had a low lightness value (95.13) compared to a sample without gelatin that had a lightness value of 96.91. The blended film with the ratio of duck feet gelatin to PVA (40:60) showed good properties for use as a biodegradable film compared to blended films with other ratios.   Keywords- Duck feet, biodegradable film, bloom value, tensile strength and surface color.

Sustainable Cocoa Production Program (SCPP): Analysis of cocoa beans processing and quality in post-harvest in South East Sulawesi in Indonesia

Schaad, N ( Bern University of Applied Science ) , Fromm, Ingrid ( Bern University of Applied Science )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 6, No 1 (2018): .
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Abstract— The production of cocoa, introduced in Indonesia during the 1980s, is now decreasing due to many different factors, among them decreased yields due to aging trees, the appearance of pests and diseases, and the farmers not being able to solve these problems due to their lack of knowledge. In 2012, Swisscontact implemented the Sustainable Cocoa Program (SCPP) to improve the competitiveness of the farmers in the cocoa value chain and to increase the productivity of cocoa beans on farm-level. The present study, conducted with the support of Swisscontact, is divided in two main different parts. The first part is a farmer analysis conducted in the district of Kolaka Timur to observe the effect of the SCPP and the UTZ certification on the agricultural practices and the post-harvest method on farm-level. Three different farmers’ groups were interviewed: 16 farmers involved in the SCPP and UTZ certified, 22 farmers involved in SCPP without any certification and 20 none-SCPP farmers. 32 women were interviewed as well to evaluate the gender equity in cocoa production. The second part of the study is an analysis of the quality of the cocoa beans by the different stakeholders of the value chain regarding the tools and the use of specific quality criteria. Eight local traders, six processing and trading companies and three associations involved in the cocoa sector were interviewed.The results in the first part show that the SCPP has an impact on the productivity of cocoa beans in the long term: the annual yield is significantly higher in the first group (UTZ-SCPP) and the agricultural practices are improved as well. The SCPP, with the creation of farmers’ cooperative, also increased the market access to the farmers. The second part shows that the tools and criteria used for analysing the quality of the cocoa beans are not the same in the value chain. Regarding the application of post-harvest practices, the study shows that the processing companies don’t have a real interest in buying fermented beans and they rather buy almost raw beans at a low price. The conclusion is that farmers involved in the SCPP have the possibility to produce a higher volume of cocoa beans but a market for fermented beans has to be created in order to add more value to the cocoa beans from Indonesia.Keywords— Sustainable Cocoa Production Program (SCPP), quality analysis, fermentation, Indonesian cocoa value chain.

Moisture Desorption Isotherms of Squids

Pham, Van Toan ( Loc Hong University ) , Le, Duc Anh ( Nong Lam University )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 6, No 1 (2018): .
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Moisture desorption isotherms of squids were determined by the method of saturated salt, at temperatures of 30 ?C, 40 ?C and 50 ?C in the range of air relative humidity from 11.10% to 80.27%. The initial moisture contents were in the range of 83.5% - 84% wet basis. The final moisture content was considered as the equilibrium moisture content. Twelve different mathematical equations are brought into comparison to determine the effects of temperature and relative humidity on equilibrium moisture content of squids. The criteria, including correlation coefficient, root mean square error and chi-squared distribution, are examined in this study to select the appropriate equations. The analysis results show that modified Halsey is the most appropriate equation to predict the equilibrium moisture content of squids. Modified Oswin, modified Chung-Pfost and modified Henderson equations are also efficient, respectively, while Smith and Caurie equations are not consistent with the experimental results

A mini-review of conventional rice milling: It is suitable for organic rice

David, Wahyudi ( Universitas Bakrie )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 5, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Many attempt has been made in previous study to understand how milling processing influence the nutritional properties of rice. However, there is no study address how the milling processing can be adopted to the organic rice. This study is preliminary stage to understand the influence of milling processing on rice as a food system. This article has reviewed 54 articles comparing refined and whole grain rice and categorized into production cost, bioactive compound, and pesticide/residue contamination as well as consumer perception. The result shown that milling processing as one of value chain contributes the significant impact on nutritional properties of rice. If the organic rice using the conventional “milling processing principle” it will resulted the equal feature of nutritional properties both organic rice and conventional, thus expectation of consumer for healthier properties of organic rice may not be suitable anymore.Keywords- Organic food system, milling processing, organic rice, whole grain 

Effect of Added Succinylated Fish Gelatin on the Textural Profile of Stored Sardine Surimi Gel

Bahar, Mohamad Ikhwan Nazmi ( Food Technology Program, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 11800, Malaysia ) , Omosebi, Benedict Oludare ( Department of Food Technology, Federal Institute of Industrial Research , Oshodi, Lagos State, Nigeria ) , Ardiansyah, A ( Department of Food Technology, Universitas Bakrie, Jakarta, Indonesia ) , Huda, Nurul ( School of Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200, Terengganu, Malaysia )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 5, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Gelatin is a biopolymer with unique functional properties that are very useful in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and photographic applications. Low quality gelatin such as that from fish has limited application because its gels have inferior rheological and functional properties. However, researchers are looking for ways to use this abundant resource. In this study, the effect of adding succinylated fish gelatin to stored sardine surimi was investigated. Changes in the   physicochemical properties of surimi gels depended on the degree of succinylation of the fish gelatin. As the degree of succinylation increased, expressible moisture and water holding capacity of surimi gels increased from 0.56 to 18.07% and from 2.86 to 20.45%, respectively. The lightness value of surimi gels also increased. Addition of succinylated fish gelatin had no effect on gel folding test results, but it did improve texture of the gels.  With increasing succinylation of fish gelatin, hardness of the gels increased from 11.11 to 77.78%, springiness from 0 to 20.83%, cohesiveness from 0 to 67.5%, gumminess from 9.38 to 200%, and chewiness from 8.7 to 265.22%. In summary, addition of succinylated fish gelatin improved the physicochemical properties of surimi gels.   Keywords- Fish gelatin, surimi, succinic anhydride, texural profile, water holding capacity

Sensory quality of brown rice Inpari 24 after 3 months of storage

Amelia, Putri ( Universitas Bakrie ) , Ardiansyah, Ardiansyah ( Universitas Bakrie ) , David, Wahyudi ( Universitas Bakrie )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 5, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Brown rice contributes to high bioactive content for human health however rancidity was the obstacle to store it properly. This research aims to estimate shelf life of brown rice Inpari 24 with polyethylene and polyethylene vacuum packaging by sensory analysis method.  The shelf life test based on the ISO 16779: 2015 by using 10 panelists. Brown rice was store under non-vacuum packaging treatment (PE) and vacuum packaging (PEV) for 3 months. The results show, in the preference plot, there was decreasing of acceptance of the panelist on PE and PEV from 0-3 month. In hazard function, panelists recognize that sensory changes in PE faster than PEV. There is no significant different of moisture content for both PE and PEV during 3 months evaluation. Free fatty acids in PE are increasing over three month meanwhile PEV remain stable. Overall evaluation, PEV shows better performance for storage mode in term of preference and perception of panelist. Keywords- brown rice, sensory analysis, panelist, shelf life, non-vacuum, vacuum, Inpari 24

Improving the Physicochemical Properties of Commercial Bovine Gelatin using Succinylation

Alias, Nur Aliyana Binti ( Universiti Sains Malaysia ) , Omosebi, Benedict Oludare ( Department of Food Technology, Federal Institute of Industrial Research , Oshodi, Lagos State, Nigeria ) , David, Wahyudi ( Universitas Bakrie ) , Huda, Nurul ( School of Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200, Terengganu, Malaysia )

Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Vol 5, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Energy Network (SAFE Network)

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Abstract

Commercial bovine gelatin was modified by using succinic anhydride and resultant changes in physicochemical properties such as Bloom strength, foaming properties and extent of succinylation were investigated. The result indicated that addition of succinic anhydride at varying concentrations of 0.04, 0.08, 0.12 and 0.16 g/g of sample increased the degree of succinylation from 0% to 14%, while Bloom strength increased from 131.97% to148.60% but at higher concentration decreased from 133.50% to128.0%. Foaming capacity increased from 171.67% to 210.70%   but a substantial constant decrease in foaming stability with time.Keywords- Gelatin,  Succinic anhydride, gel strength, foaming capacity,  physicochemical properties,