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Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat
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Jurnal Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat adalah Jurnal Ilmiah di bidang Kesehatan Masyarakat yang diterbitkan oleh Program Pendidikan Kedokteran Komunitas (PPKK) Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada yang bekerja sama dengan Perhimpunan Dokter Kedokteran Komunitas dan Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia (PDK3MI) dengan STT SK.
Articles
747
Articles
Memvisualisasi unsur humanis dan identitas dari target populasi dalam media edukasi kesehatan

Magista, Malida

Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat (BKM) Vol 35, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

meningkatkan pengetahuan dan perilaku kesehatan masyarakat. Meskipun demikian, berapa jumlah media edukasi yang mempertimbangkan unsur bahasa, budaya, dan berbagai karakteristik yang ada pada suatu komunitas yang dituju? Padahal sajian visual pada media edukasi sama pentingnya dengan pesan yang ingin disampaikan. Ketika membuat suatu media edukasi, mengapa intervensi kesehatan masyarakat tidak mencontoh apa yang telah dilakukan oleh strategi pemasaran produk komersil? Pemasaran Coca-Cola tidak mungkin mengeneralisasikan iklan produk mereka di lebih dari 200 negara. Mereka mencoba mendekati masyarakat Indonesia dengan berasimilasi dengan budaya dan identitas yang ada. Pendekatan berupa kemasan Coca-Cola yang bertuliskan nama-nama populer di Indonesia ataupun selebrasi Ramadhan dengan mengingatkan masyarakat untuk bersilahturahmi merupakan salah satu strategi pemasaran yang peka dengan identitas lokal. Sudah saatnya intervensi dan promosi kesehatan masyatakat meniru strategi pemasaran yang inovatif dan sensitif terhadap budaya lokal untuk penyampaian informasi yang lebih efektif. Dalam intervensi kesehatan, penting untuk menjadikan media edukasi menjadi salah satu prioritas utama dalam strategi assessmen masalah, implementasi, dan evaluasi. Menganalisis karakteristik populasi target dari segi bahasa, makanan lokal, mayoritas usia, tingkat pendidikan, hingga simbol yang melekat pada populasi tersebut krusial untuk pertimbangan visualisasi program dan media edukasi. Penggunaan hasil fotografi kegiatan program pun dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai suplemen visual utama dalam pembuatan media edukasi. Pemanfaatan media edukasi sebagai platform bagi pelaku implementasi program akan efektif apabila terdapat kolaborasi yang intensif antara pelaksan kegiatan dan pembuat materi edukasi. Evaluasi terhadap media edukasi yang telah diproduksi perlu dilakukan untuk mengetahui tingkat penerimaan dan pemahaman masyarakat terhadap pesan yang disampaikan. Sudah saatnya pelaku kesehatan masyarakat berpikir kreatif dan inovatif dalam mengimplementasikan program, terutama dalam menggunakan media visual sebagai instrumen edukasi masyarakat. Alokasi lebih di pemikiran, tenaga professional dan dana untuk media edukasi kesehatan yang lebih efektif dan lebih humanis perlu dipertimbangkan bagi seluruh pengampu kepentingan.

Efektivitas aplikasi smart pregnancy berbasis android terhadap penegakkan diagnosis kehamilan

Apriningrum, Nelly, Carudin, Carudin

Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat (BKM) Vol 34, No 12 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

One of the governments efforts to reduce MMR and AKB is to provide health services to the maximum extent possible, and support the implementation of health education to produce competent health workers. The reality in the field of many women who do not pay attention to their menstrual cycle, this will make it difficult for health workers to determine the age of pregnancy. Calculation of gestational age can be done in various ways, but the evaluation results of the competency in calculating gestational age, estimated deliveries in unsika midwifery study programs are still low, reaching only 20%. Based on the background and research roadmap that was built, the researcher will continue the research with the theme "The Effectiveness of the Android-Based Smart Pregnancy Application Against Pregnancy Diagnosis". Purpose : The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of smart pregnancy applications on the accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis in midwifery studentsMethod : This research method used quasi-experimental methodology with probability sampling sampling by stratified random sampling and t-test analysis. The study was conducted on D-3 Midwifery Unsika students.Conclusion :  The results showed that there was a comparison of the effectiveness of D-3 Midwifery Unsika students in identifying elements of pregnancy diagnosis. The results of the bivariable analysis stated that p Value 0.000 concluded that there were significant differences between the effectiveness of implementing smart pregnancy applications in identifying pregnancy diagnoses. One of the governments efforts to reduce MMR and AKB is to provide health services to the maximum extent possible, and support the implementation of health education to produce competent health workers. The reality in the field of many women who do not pay attention to their menstrual cycle, this will make it difficult for health workers to determine the age of pregnancy. Calculation of gestational age can be done in various ways, but the evaluation results of the competency in calculating gestational age, estimated deliveries in unsika midwifery study programs are still low, reaching only 20%. Based on the background and research roadmap that was built, the researcher will continue the research with the theme "The Effectiveness of the Android-Based Smart Pregnancy Application Against Pregnancy Diagnosis". Purpose : The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of smart pregnancy applications on the accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis in midwifery studentsMethod : This research method used quasi-experimental methodology with probability sampling sampling by stratified random sampling and t-test analysis. The study was conducted on D-3 Midwifery Unsika students.Conclusion :  The results showed that there was a comparison of the effectiveness of D-3 Midwifery Unsika students in identifying elements of pregnancy diagnosis. The results of the bivariable analysis stated that p Value 0.000 concluded that there were significant differences between the effectiveness of implementing smart pregnancy applications in identifying pregnancy diagnoses.

Alasan untuk memilih kerja di daerah tertinggal: studi kualitatif terhadap dokter lulusan Universitas Cendana Kupang

Buntoro, Ika Febianti, Nurina, Rr. Listyawati, Pakan, Prisca D., Handoyo, Nicholas E.

Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat (BKM) Vol 34, No 12 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Work-family conflicts and stress among female workers in garment industry

Tunika, Puriwati, Surono, Agus, Rahmani, Noor Siti

Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat (BKM) Vol 35, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Introduction: Stress is a global epidemic which in the decade there were more than 50% of the population in many countries who reported experiencing work-related stress. The percentage of female workers working in the formal sector in Indonesia has increased every year, where female workers tend to be more vulnerable to work stress. Some of the causes of work stress in the industrial world are workload, interpersonal conflict and work-family conflict.Methods: The method which was used in this study was a quantitative cross- sectional study. The research sample was 70 respondents. The research instrument by using National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire as measuring tool in research. Results: Test results of chi square and fisher exact test showed positive correlation between workload (p = 0.00), interpersonal conflict (p = 0.00) and work family conflict (p = 0.00) with events work stress. The results of the logistic regression test showed that conflicts interpersonal and work family conflict correlated significantly with work stress, with Pseudo R² value is 0.3285 which means that the variable of interpersonal conflict and work family conflict have correlation equal to 32.85% towards events work stress. While 0.6715 or 67.15% of work stress on women workers sewing part may be caused to other factors.Conclusions : workload, interpersonal conflict and work family conflict, have a positive relationship with events work stress on women workers sewing part.Keywords : work stress, workload, interpersonal conflict, work family conflict

Perilaku pencegahan HIV/AIDS pada wanita pekerja seksual di kota Padang

Yuliza, Wilda Tri, Hardisman, Hardisman, Nursal, Dien Gusta Anggraini

Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat (BKM) Vol 34, No 12 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Female Sex Workers (FSW) are people who are at high risk of accelerating HIV/AIDS transmission because in general female are sexual workers do not have a strong position to using condoms with their customers and to do in unsafe sexual behavior.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze indepth the behavior of FSW in the HIV/ AIDS prevention in Padang.Methods: This study used a qualitative approach with in-depth interviews with 10 informants consisting of female sex workers, pimps, and related officers. The technique of determining informants using purposive sampling method.Results: The results showed that condoms were available at FSW hotspot locations, both obtained free of charge from KPA in Padang and purchased by FSW. However, not all customers want to use condoms during sexual intercourse. This proves the weak bargaining position or negotiation of FSW to customers in the use of condoms. FSW received strong support from related officers such as KPA and the health office in the HIV/ AIDSprevention, but support from FSW friend’s and pimps was still lacking.

Determinants of Smoking Behavior in High School Students in the Pariaman of city

Indra, Syaiful, Edison, Edison, Lestari, Yuniar

Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat (BKM) Vol 35, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Purpose: Know the magnitude of the problem and the relationship of the determinants of smoking behavior of high school students in the Pariaman of city. Method: This study uses a Mix Method. Cross sectional presentation on quantitative methods involved 277 respondents and qualitative methods involved 4 informants. The smoking behavior of high school students is a dependent variable, while the determinants of smoking behavior such as: knowledge of the dangers of smoking, attitudes toward smoking (predisposing factors), availability of cigarettes, access to cigarettes, warnings of the dangers of smoking in schools and exposure to cigarette advertisements (enabling factor ), family members who smoke and peers smoke as (reinforcing factors) are independent variables. Data were collected by questionnaire and in-depth interviews using a structured questionnaire. Data analysis using chi square test and logistic regression test and qualitative theme analysis. Results: there was a significant relationship between attitudinal factors on smoking, availability of cigarettes, access to cigarettes, level of exposure to cigarette advertisements and peer smoking with smoking behavior. Students with a positive attitude towards smoking are 13 times more likely to be smoking, the availability of cigarettes opens up 4 times greater opportunities for smoking behavior and the ease of access to smoking is 3 times more likely to be a smoking behavior. Students who are often exposed to cigarette advertisements are 1.7 times more likely to smoke, and students with peers who smoke are 5 times more likely to be smoking. The attitude towards smoking is the most dominant factor associated with smoking behavior. Internal smoking is caused by predisposing factors. While externally is influenced by enabling factors and reinforcing factors. Conclusion: This study provides information that attitudinal factors towards smoking are the most dominant factor associated with smoking behavior of high school students in the Pariaman of city.

The challenge in promoting a smoke-free environment at traditional coffee shops in Bengkalis

Setiawan, Dedy, Supriyati, Supriyati, Tri Ratnawati, Atik

Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat (BKM) Vol 34, No 9 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Health promotion has been concerned with the control of smoking in public places. Many public places have been introduced as free smoking areas. However, the health promoters give less attention to pockets of smokers in traditional coffee shops in small towns and countrysides. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to capture the contradiction between smoke-free campaign with a culture of social gatherings at coffee shops where a culture of smoking exists. Method: This descriptive exploratory study interviewed 5 coffee shop visitors who smoked and drank coffee, 2 visitors who did not smoke and did not drink coffee, 2 coffee shop owners and 1 coffee shop employee. Result: This study found that breakfast (eating, drinking coffee, smoking), meeting colleagues (chatting, discussion, lobbying, campaigning), and looking for opportunities (information, relations, and job promotion) were important reasons for coffee shop visitors. From their perspective, visiting a coffee shop is a habit. Indeed, it has become a social need to promote social interactions, to share information, and to build a partnership, In spite of disagreement among their spouses, non-smoking campaign among the public, and not going out to the coffee shop during office hours among those who were public servants. Conclusion: Visitors to traditional local coffee shops support the culture of smoking. Health promotion experts need to consider the coffee shop as a place to remind the dangers of smoking.

The analysis of health risk due to lead (Pb) exposure in marine biota on the community around Kendari bay

Syarifuddin, Muhamad, Sarto, Sarto

Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat (BKM) Vol 34, No 9 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Purpose: To understand the risk level of health problem because of the exposure to the lead metal found on fish and shellsfish consumed by community living around Kendari bay. Methods: This study was an analytical observational through a cross sectional study design by combining Environmental Health Risk Analysis (ARKL) and Environmental Health Epidemiology (EKL) approaches. Population of the study was community dwelling around Kendari bay and the sampling technique which qualified the proportional sampling criteria resulted 110 respondents. The marine biotas in this study were fish and shellfish from Kendari bay within 30 fish samples of 3 kind of most consumed fish and shellfish from 6 fishponds in Kendari bay. Measurement of lead content on fish and shellfish was made by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Results: The results of the study show that lead content on fish and shellfish were 0,0027-0,0095 mg/kg and 0,1026-0,1097 mg/kg respectively while intake rapidity of fish and shellfish 0,0051 mg/kg/day and 0,016 mg/kg/day respectively. The variables of lead content on fish and shellfish, intake rapidity, exposure frequency, exposure duration, body weight and intake level were used to draw the risk. Health risk level of consuming contaminated fish was 1.29 while the contaminated shellfish was 4.03. variables significantly associated with risk level of fish and shellfish consumption were lead content on fish, intake rapidity of shellfish, exposure frequency of fish and shellfish, exposure duration of fish and shellfish, and intake level of fish and shellfish. On the other hand, variables which were not associated with risk level of fish and shellfish consumption were lead content on shellfish, intake rapidity of fish and body weight. Conclusion: The community around Kendari Bay has a risk of health problems (RQ> 1) due to lead exposure, therefore it needs to be controlled.Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui tingkat risiko gangguan kesehatan akibat pajanan logam timbal pada ikan dan kerang yang dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat sekitar Teluk Kendari. Metode: Penelitian ini adalah penelitian observasional analitik menggunakan desain cross sectional dengan penggabungan pendekatan Analisis Risiko Kesehatan Lingkungan (ARKL) dan Epidemiologi Kesehatan Lingkungan (EKL). Populasi dalam penelitian ini yaitu masyarakat yang bermukim di sekitar pesisir Teluk Kendari dengan pengambilan sampel yang memenuhi kriteria secara proporsional sampling sehingga diperoleh jumlah sampel sebanyak 110 responden. Biota laut dalam penelitain ini adalah ikan dan kerang yang berasal dari Teluk Kendari dengan jumlah sampel ikan sebanyak 30 sampel dari 3 jenis ikan yang paling banyak dikonsumsi, dan sampel kerang diambil dari 6 tambak di Teluk Kendari. Pengukuran kadar timbal ikan dan kerang dilakukan dengan metode Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar timbal dalam ikan dan kerang adalah 0,0027-0,0095 mg/kg dan 0,1026-0,1097 mg/kg sedangkan jumlah laju asupan (intake) ikan dan kerang adalah 0,0051 mg/kg/hari dan 0,016 mg/kg/hari. Variabel kadar timbal dalam ikan dan kerang, laju asupan, frekuensi pajanan, durasi pajanan, berat badan dan jumlah asupan (intake) digunakan untuk mengetahui tingkat risiko. Tingkat risiko kesehatan akibat mengkonsumsi ikan adalah 1,29 sedangkan untuk kerang sebesar 4,03. Variabel yang memiliki hubungan yang bermakna dengan tingkat risiko konsumsi ikan dan kerang adalah variabel kadar timbal dalam ikan, laju asupan kerang, frekuensi pajanan ikan dan kerang, durasi pajanan ikan dan kerang dan jumlah asupan (intake) ikan dan kerang sedangkan yang tidak memiliki hubungan yang bermakna dengan tingkat risiko konsumsi ikan dan kerang adalah variabel kadar timbal dalam kerang, laju asupan ikan dan berat badan. Simpulan: Masyarakat sekitar Teluk Kendari mempunyai risiko akan gangguan kesehatan (RQ>1) akibat pajanan timbal sehingga perlu dikendalikan.

Persepsi kultural yang kuat dan respon diam dari dinas kesehatan terhadap bahaya langsung tradisi Mararang: studi di Toba Samosir Indonesia

Sitorus, Melina Ebtarina, Nurdiati, Detty Siti, Padmawati, Retna Siwi

Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat (BKM) Vol 34, No 9 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Latar Belakang: Penduduk Toba Samosir menganggap tradisi mararang sebagai perawatan pasca melahirkan yang dapat mempercepat pulih dari sakit pasca melahirkan, membuat tulang punggung kembali kuat, badan hangat dan berkeringat dan memperlancar pengeluaran darah nifas. Meski demikian, pengasapan dalam tradisi mararang pada ibu yang sedang nifas berbahaya untuk pernafasan ibu maupun bayi.Tujuan : Penelitian ini mengeksplorasi persepsi ibu nifas tentang tradisi mararang dan potensi bahaya terhadap kesehatan ibu dan bayi di Kabupaten Toba Samosir.Metode Penelitian: Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan kualitatif, dengan pendekatan focus ethnografi. Penentuan besar sampel pada penelitian ini menggunakan purposive sampling. Pemilihan informan dilakukan berdasarkan kriteria inklusi sesuai dengan topik penelitian. Informan dalam penelitian ini  adalah Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam dan observasi pada 11 informan terdiri atas 4 orang ibu nifas, 3 orang suami/keluarga ibu nifas, 3 orang bidan serta  1 orang kepala bidang pelayan kesehatan Ibu dan Anak di Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Toba Samosir, serta Focus Group Disscussion pada 6 orang bidan Puskesmas. Hasil: Tiga poin penting dari penelitian ini. Pertama, ibu-ibu yang sedang nifas merasa yakin mempraktikan mararang karena pengaruh yang kuat dari orang-orang tua yang masih percaya pada tradisi yang sudah turun-temurun dari nenek moyang. Kedua, meskipun dirasakan tidak nyaman dan membawa dampak pada pernafasan ibu, mararang tetap berjalan dengan argumen jangka panjang. Anak yang mendapat perlakuan mararang akan lebih kuat di masa yang akan datang. Ketiga, respon dari dinas kesehatan untuk mempelajari bahaya langsung dari mararang sangat minimal. Upaya penyuluhan spesifik agar bahaya dapat dikurangi tidak pernah dilakukan. Bahkan masih ada  tenaga kesehatan yang ikut melakukan tradisi mararangKesimpulan: Tradisi mararang masih sulit ditinggalkan karena masih dipercaya bermanfaat bagi kesehatan.  Tradisi mararang tidak dipahami sebagai sesuatu yang dapat mengganggu kesehatan ibu dan bayi. Baik istri maupun  suami di daerah ini masih sangat mendukung tradisi mararang. Tenaga kesehatan belum memberikan informasi dan pengetahuan tentang resiko dan dampak tradisi mararang terhadap kesehatan ibu dan bayi.

Bacteriological quality of drinking water from refill depots and public health inspection of depots: should we start to implement strict control?

Nurlang, Ishak, Nuryastuti, Titik, Hasanbasri, Mubasysyir

Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat (BKM) Vol 34, No 9 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background. Drinking water refill depots have grown rapidly in all areas of Indonesia. Concerns about the bacteriological quality of drinking water at refill depots have been reported by many studies. There is however limited study reporting about controlling and monitoring system to ensure the safety and quality of drinking water in refill depot, most of those depots were small scale informal industries. Purpose. This paper examines the system for monitoring and quality assurance of the water microbiological quality at the refill depots. Method. Survey of about 60% of depots (47 out of 77 depots in the district) were carried out from 4 April to 31 May 2016 in North Luwu District of Central Sulawesi. Drinking water samples were taken to be examined for E. coli and coliform. In-depth interviews were conducted to  environmental health officer at local district health authority, depot owners, and workers. Results. The refill depots which failed to comply with the required standard of safe drinking water were almost half them (49%). Site observation noted the poor sanitation of the depots and poor handling system of water. Depot owners found the cost of bacteriological examination for two times every year was too expensive,  that included the cost of transporting the sample to the lab far from their place.Conclusion. Depots with non-standard bacteriological quality were still high. Supervision of the depot by the district health office was very loosed. Efforts to advocate district health office in order to take a more assertive position are very important. The involvement of community organizations and refill water depot associations is deemed necessary so that public health interests get attention from the local government.Mutu bakteriologis air minum dan inspeksi depot air minum di Luwu Utara: haruskah kita mempertahan kelonggaran pengawasan?Latar Belakang. Menjamin keamanan air minum adalah tugas dari otoritas public health. Usaha air isi ulang di berbagai pelosok Indonesia telah tumbuh pesat. Laporan tentang kualitas bakteriologis dari depot penyedia isi ulang air minum telah banyak dilakukan, tetapi masih sangat jarang seperti apa upaya pengawasan untuk menjamin keamanan dan mutu air minum pada usaha depot isi ulang, yang sebagian besar berupa industri kecil. Tujuan. Paper ini mengkaji sistem pengawasan dan penjagaan kualitas mikrobiologis air minum dari depot isi ulang. Metode. Survey terhadap 47 depot air minum yang memiliki ijin usaha (60% dari semua depot, belum memperoleh ijin) dilakukan 4 April – 31 Mei 2016 di Kabupaten Luwu Utara. Sampel air minum diambil untuk diperiksa e coli dan coliform. Kondisi sanitasi lingkungan dan perilaku higienik didokumentasi dalam foto. Wawancara terhadap koordinator program di dinas kesehatan dan pelaku usaha. Hasil. Depot isi ulang yang gagal memenuhi standar keamanan air minum hampir setengahnya (49%). Observasi lapangan mendokumentasi sanitasi dan sistem penanganan air yang masih buruk. Pemilik depot menemukan biaya pemeriksaan bakteriologis yang selama ini dipersyaratkan dua kali setiap tahun dianggap terlalu mahal, karena melibatkan biaya transportasi sampel air ke lab yang jauh dari tempat depot. Kesimpulan. Depot yang memiliki kualitas bakteriologis tidak sesuai yang dipersyaratkan masih tinggi. Pengawasan dan pembinaan terhadap depat dari dinas kesehatan masih longgar. Usaha-usaha mengadvokasi dinas kesehatan agar bisa mengambil sikap lebih tegas sangat penting. Keterlibatan organisasi masyarakat dan asosiasi depot air isi ulang dirasa perlu agar publik memperoleh keamanan air minum yang mereka konsumsi. 

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