cover
Contact Name
-
Contact Email
-
Phone
-
Journal Mail Official
jmedscie@ugm.ac.id
Editorial Address
-
Location
Kab. sleman,
Daerah istimewa yogyakarta
INDONESIA
Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran
ISSN : -     EISSN : -     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 11 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 51, No 2 (2019)" : 11 Documents clear
An evaluation study of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay {ELISA) using Recimbinant Protein GRA1 for detection for Toxoplasma gondii infection Muflikhah, Nina Difla; Artama, Wayan Tunas
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 51, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (216.489 KB)

Abstract

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) allow for the testing a large number samples within a short time frame and based on antibody or antigen detection. We tested the sensitivity and spesificity of GRA-1 protein as antigen in ELISA methods to diagnose toxoplasmosis and compared with ELISA Kit Commercial. Reliable laboratory testing is important to detect Toxoplasma gondii infection, and focused to improving the lowcost and easy-to-use diagnostic instrument. Seventy sera collected and tested using both indirect ELISA, commercial ELISA kit and GRA1 protein coated as antigen. Fourty eight and 51 samples showed positive IgG antibody result of ELISA-GRA1 and ELISA kit. The sensitivity and specificity of GRA1-based on ELISA were 100% and 86.36%, positive prediction value (ppv) was 94,11%. These data indicate that the recombinant protein GRA1 is a highly immunogenic protein in human toxoplasmosis and become a promising marker for the screening of toxoplasmosis.
Prevalence Ratioof FreeFatty Acidin Obese Groupwith Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Handayani, Rosmeri; Purnamaningsih, Siti Muchayat; Sukorini, USI
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 51, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (201.555 KB)

Abstract

ABSTRACTIntroduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liverdisease(NAFLD) is liver disordercharacterized by the presenceof macrovesicularfatty liver, fibrosis, cirrhosisandwithoutassociated withalcohol consumption. The prevalence ofnon-alcoholic fatty liverdiseasehasrisen with pandemic ofobesity. IncreasedoxidationofFree Fatty Acid (FFA)willinduceendoplasmicreticulumstressandcancausemitochondrial dysfunction,this situation willlead to increasedproduction ofreactive oxygen species (ROS), causing apoptosisof liver cells.Aim: This study isto analyze the prevalence ratio of FFA in obese groups with NAFLD.Method: This study is an observationalanalytical study with across-sectional design to analyze the prevalence ratio of FFA in obese group with NAFLD compared to that of without NAFLD. The subjects were obese women who meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Venous blood was collected into 5 mL tube for the measurement of lipid profile, liver enzyme, and FFA. Fatty liver was evaluated by using abdominal USG. Chi-square was used to analyze different proportions of FFA between two groups obese with NAFLD and without NAFLD.Results:Sixty four subjects were participated in this study and classified into obese with NAFLD (39 subjects) and obese without NAFLD (25 subjects) based on abdomen USG. Prevalence ratio of FFA with cut-off³2,66nmol/ml was 4,3 (95% IK 3,5 – 42,3), p <0,001Conclusion: Prevalence ratio of FFA with cut-off ³2,66nmol/ml in obese group with NAFLD was 4,3 times significantly compared to that of without NAFLD.Keywords: FFA, lipid profile, liver enzyme, Prevalence ratio, Obese, NAFLD
Relationship between Hyperuricemia and Erectile Dysfunction on Hypertension Patients in Bethesda Lempuyangwangi Hospital Yogyakarta Vera Ticoalu, Jansje Henny; Kandarina, Istiti; Rizal, Dicky Moch.; Pramantara Setiabudi, I Dewa Putu
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 51, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (211.724 KB)

Abstract

Background: Hypertension is now a major non-communicable disease in Indonesia and worldwide. Hypertension patients are susceptible to erectile dysfunction, especially through vasculogenic pathway. In this setting, uric acid level could be a promising biomarker to predict erectile dysfunction occurance because we already know that hyperuricemia is related to endothelial dysfunction, microvascular disease, and hypertension.Objective: To identify the relationship between hyperuricemia and erectile dysfunction on hypertension patients in Bethesda Lempuyangwangi Hospital Yogyakarta.Method: This is an observational study with cross-sectional design. The subjects are 88 hypertension patients, male, at least 18 years old, and registered as outpatient in Bethesda Lempuyangwangi Hospital Yogyakarta. Hyperuricemia is measured using uricase method, and erectile dysfunction is measured using IIEF-5 form.Results: Variables with significant relationship to erectile dysfunction are hyperuricemia (OR=3,89; CI 95% 1,08-15,7; p=0,017), blood pressure (OR=6,84; CI 95% 2,35-20,6; p<0,001), and age (p<0,001). Logistic regression shows that hyperuricemia, age, and blood pressure are simultaneously affecting erectile dysfunction occurance, with good calibration (p=0,167) and discriminative level (0,8604).Conclusion: There is significant relationship between hyperuricemia and erectile dysfunction on hypertension patients in Bethesda Lempuyangwangi Hospital Yogyakarta
RATIO OF VEGF SERUM LEVELS (VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR) BETWEEN CagA+ (CYTOTOXIN-ASSOCIATED GENE A POSITIVE) STATUS AND CagA- (CYTOTOXIN-ASSOCIATED GENE A NEGATIVE) STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH H.PYLORI GASTRITIS Siregar, Wira Prihatin; Siregar, Gontar Alamsyah; Sungkar, Taufik
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 51, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (190.102 KB)

Abstract

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is an agent that causes gastritis and the ulcer of gaster, which can lead to make the gastric tumor at the end. The prevalence is about 80 % average in developing country and 20-50 % in developed countries. One of the virulence factor is CagA (Cytotoxin-associated gene A) that plays a role in inflammation process,cell proliferation and metaplasia in gastric mucosa. VEGF, is one of angiogenic factor that plays  a role in process of making new mucosal tissue after the inflammation of the H.pylori. The escalation of VEGF expression levels contribute for the beginning of gastric carcinogenesis. The aim of this research was To identify the ratio of VEGF serum levels between CagA (+) and CagA (-) in patients with H.pylorigastritis. Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted towards 30 patients with H.pylori gastritis after they have done gastroscopy,biopsy and CLO test, which were continued with VEGF serum examination with ELISA test and perfomed PCR test to get CagA.Then analyzed the data with SPSS 22 version,with p < 0.05 was significant.Result: 30 subjects, 18 men (60 %), 12 women (46%), with median age average was 53.5 years old.Majority ethnic was batak with 16 subjects (53.3%). H.pylori gastritis with CagA (+) was about 21 subjects (70%) and H.pylori gastritis with CagA (-) was about 9 subjects (30%). We found median serum levels of VEGF about 480.3 pg/dl (115.5-2185.2) in patients of H.pylori gastritis with CagA(+) more higher then H.pylori gastritis with CagA (-) with median serum levels of VEGF 291.1 pg/dl (158.4-556.7) and it was significant (p=0.005). Conclusion: It was found median serum levels of VEGF more higher significant in patients of H.pylori gastritis with CagA (+) then H.pylori gastritis with CagA (-)Key words: Gastritis, H.pylori, CagA, VEGF  
ALOE VERA STIMULATES CELL PROLIFERATION, CELL MIGRATION, EXPRESSION OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR-A (VEGF-A), AND C-JUN N-TERMINAL KINASE-1 (JNK-1) ON FIBROBLAST CELL CULTURED OF DIABETIC RAT SKIN Firdaus, Insanul; Arfian, Nur; Wahyuningsih, Mae Sri Hartati; Agustiningsih, Denny
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 51, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1675.401 KB)

Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground: Delayed healing process in diabetic wound caused by the disturbance of cell migration and cell proliferation, also diminished production of VEGF and JNK-1 which are important factors in wound healing process. Aloe vera contains variety of active compounds which can help in wound healing process. The research assess the effect of ethanol extract from A. vera in fibroblast cell cultures of diabetic rat skin by investigating of cell proliferation, cell migration, VEGF-A and JNK-1 expression.Method: Experimental research by using primary skin fibroblast cell culture of diabetic Wistar rat. The samples were given A. vera extract with concentration 500, 250, and 125 µg/mL. The proliferation examination carried out by counting the number of cells, in vitro scratch assay method was used to monitor the cell migration, and RT-PCR was used to VEGF-A and JNK-1 expression examination.Result: Cell proliferation examination in 24 and 48 hour, the AV500 and AV250 group had higher number of cells than negative control group, but there was no significant difference (p>0.05). However the examination in hour 72 had significant difference between AV500 group (29.33±1.28x104 cells/mL) and negative control group (22.91±3.21x104 cells/mL) (p=0.14). The examination of cell migration in 24 hours, the AV500, AV250 and AV125 group had higher percentage of cell migration (78.13±7.18%; 73.88±4.75%; 68.80±17.11%) than negative control group (53.91±2.74%) (p=0.003; p=0.009; and p=0.040). In contrast, examination in 48 and 72 hour had no significant difference (p>0.05). The expression of VEGF-A and JNK-1 in 48 hours, the AV500 group had higher than negative control group (p=0.001 and p=0.003).Conclusion: A.vera has effect to increase cell proliferation, cell migration, VEGF-A and JNK-1 expression in fibroblast cell culture of diabetic rat skin. 
THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF SINGLE BULB GARLIC (Allium sativum L.) TOWARDS FOAM CELLS AND VASCULAR CELL ADHESION MOLECULES-1 (VCAM-1) ON MICE (Mus musculus) WITH HIGH-FAT DIET Chasanah, Isfatun; Ghofur, Abdul; Lestari, Sri Rahayu
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 51, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (345.112 KB)

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is initiated by inflammatory response characterized by the accumulation of lipids in the arteries, causing blockage of blood vessels. The excessive of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood is a major factor in endothelial dysfunction and results in an inflammatory process. The inflammatory process in atherosclerosis is due to the expression of adhesion molecules Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecules-1 (VCAM-1). This research aims to evaluate the effect of single bulb garlic oil extract (SGBOE) against VCAM-1 expression high-fat diet mice. Male mice strain Balb/C were acclimatized for one week. Mice were divided into 6 groups (n=5): normal, high-fat diet (HFD), HFD + simvastatin, and HFD + SBGOE 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/KgBW respectively. HFD was given for 45 days. Single garlic extract was given for four weeks orally. The aortic VCAM-1 expression was assayed using the Immunohistochemical-Flouresence (IHK-F) method. The result of One-Way ANOVA showed that the treatment influenced significantly (p<0.05). The foam cells increase significantly (p<0.05) in the high-fat diet group compared than normal mice. Dose 12,5 mg/kg BW reduces VCAM-1 expression near the normal group. Allicin and S-allyl cysteine (SAC) compounds in single bulb garlic are antioxidant compounds that act to prevent oxidative stress and prevention mechanisms against lipoprotein modification.
SEQUENCE VARIATION OF Latent Membran Protein 2a (Lmp2a) GENE FROM EPSTEIN BARR VIRUS EPITOPE Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte (CTL) RELATED TO Human Leucocyte Antigen-A24 (HLA-A24) IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD SAMPLE AND CYTOBRUSH OF NASOPHARYNGEAL CANCER PATIENTS Wullur Moningka, Maya Esther; Surono, Agus; Mubarika, Sofia
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 51, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (343.639 KB)

Abstract

Background: EBV infects lymphocyte B and triggers latent phase in the host so that it causes KNF. Lmp2a epitope CTL-HLA-A24 gene is a target operation for the CTLs. The change in the epitope could influence the latency of particular EBV in the host because of the EBV evades immune surveillance mediated by CTLs.Objective: determining sequence variation of Lmp2a epitope CTL-HLA-A24 gene from the peripheral blood samples and cytobrush of the NPC patients and peripheral blood samples from control group.Methods: Case-Series design was carried on with total 16 cytobrush samples from NPC patients. The samples were isolated by BOOMS method and PCR followed by gene sequencing.Results: from cytobrush samples of NPC patients, it was found the changes of base sequence variation of Lmp2a gene from GGC>GGA, CCA>CCC, TGC>TCC, GGT>GGC and TCT>ACT. CCA>CCC and TGC>TCC variations were found in epitope associated with HLA-A2 where there was a change of epitope sequence from TYGPVFMCL to TYGPVFMSL caused by missense mutation. The change of base sequence caused amino acid change from cystein to serine. Whereas CCA>CCC variation did not change the sequence of amino acid proline so that it didn't change the epitope. In epitope associated HLA-A2 (CLGGLLTMV), there is a change in base sequence from GGT to GGC, but there is no changes in amino acid and still as glycine (silent mutation). There were some new variations: the variation is in the upstream sequence of Lmp2a from GGC>GGA which is silent mutation and the other variation is in downstream sequence of Lmp2a from TCT>ACT which is missense mutationConclusion: sequence variations of Lmp2a gene found in this research are GGC>GGA, CCA>CCC, TGC>TCC, GGT>GGC and TCT>ACT. In our research, we found another variation compared the previous research. The variation is in the upstream sequence of Lmp2a from GGC>GGA which is silent mutation and the other variation is in downstream sequence of Lmp2a from TCT>ACT which is missense mutation. It is assumed that those sequence variation might be affecting structure change of LMP2A amino acids, so that interaction between LMP2A and CTL epitope is not immunogenic enough to activated CTL, results in escape from immunosurveillance. To prove this evidence, further study is needed. Keyword:  NPC, EBV, Lmp2a, CTL, HLA-A24
Mode Of Action Of Tocotrienol As Anticancer Lodu, Widiyasri; Karwur, Ferry Fredy
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 51, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (422.415 KB)

Abstract

Tocotrienols are fat soluble substances members of the vitamin e family with the main properties of antioxidant. They are composed of the chiral center of chromanol ring with polypreniyl side chains. Research suggests that tocotrienols have a number of health benefit, and one of them as an anticancer agent. As an anticancer, tocotrienols could perform in different processes of the multi stages of cancer development and interact with other anticancer medicines and other bioactive substances, suchs geneistein, lovastin, hydroxychavicol, 6- gingerol, and sesamin. The anticancer activities occur through their roles as antioxidant, coenzyme, gene expression regulator, and preventing cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting the expression of hmg-coa enzyme after transcription, through this method, tocotrienols could control the cholesterol level of cancer cells and prevent the growth of the cancer. At cellular and molecular levels, tocotrienols target several signalling pathways.
Polyherbal formulation containing Saoropus androgynous, Trigonella foenum-graceum, and Moringa oleifera increased the expression of mRNA smooth muscle α-actin (ACTA2) and cytokeratin 14 (CK14) in lactating rats Yuliani, Fara Silvia; Purwono, Setyo; Sadewa, Ahmad Hamim; Heriyanto, Didik Setyo; Sabirin, Rahmaningsih Mara; Mustofa, .
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 51, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (244.749 KB)

Abstract

Polyherbal formulation (PHF) containing extracts of Sauropus androgynous, Trigonella foenum-graceum and Moringa oleifera has been proven can induce milk production in animal model. However, its molecular of action has not been elucidated, yet. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the PHF on the mRNA expressions of α-actin smooth muscle (ACTA2) and cytokeratin 14 (CK14) on the myoepithelial cells of the lactating rats mammary glands. Thirty female Wistar rats were divided into five groups with six of each. Group I was orally administered aquadest. Group II, III, and IV rats were orally administered the PHF at dose level of 26.25, 52.5, and 105 mg/kg once a day, for 15 days, respectively. Group V was orally administered 2.7 mg domperidone. On 16th day, rats were sacrificed. Mammary glands were isolated and processed for mRNA expression analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results demonstrated that the mRNA expression of ACTA2 and CK14 increased in dose-dependent manner in the groups of PHF. Significantly different between the Group III, IV, and V compared to Group I was observed (p < 0.05). However, there was no significantly different between Group IV and Group V (p>0.05). In conclusion, the PHF increases the mRNA expression of ACTA2 and CK14 on myoepithelial cells of the mammary glands on lactating rats.
Prognostic factors for heart valve surgery outcomes in Dr Sardjito General Hospital Yogyakarta, Indonesia Priyatno, Wahyu; Supomo, .
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 51, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (198.821 KB) | DOI: 10.19106/JMedSci005102201908

Abstract

Heart valve disease is a serious health probem due its significant effect on mortality.Surgical intervention plays an importan roleinthe management of moderate to the severe valvular heart disease. The evaluation of the patientoutcomes has been widely accepted as one of the important steps to improve the quality of patient care.Recognition of post operative complications might significantly affect the patient quality of life.Therefore, the identification of prognostic factors and morbidity of heart surgery patients can provide valuable insights on improving the quality of patient care.This study aimedto investigat the prognostic factors for heart valve surgery outcomes in Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. This study was conducted using data ofpatient?s medical records who underwent heart valve surgeryincluded morbidities and their prognostic factors.The data were analyzed using Chi-square test and logistic regression with significance level of 0.05. During 2010 to 2014, 82 patients underwent heart valve surgeries at the hospital. The kidney disorders and heart failure were significantly associated with the patient morbidity (p<0.05),while the gender, pulmonary disease, angina, and impaired ventricular function were not (p>0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the heart failure is the most significant factor of morbidity. The risk of New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 3 patients were 7.18 times compared with NYHA class 2 patients. In conclusion, the heart failure is the most significant factor for the morbidityof heart valve surgery followed by the kidney disorders at the Dr. Sardjito General Hospital.

Page 1 of 2 | Total Record : 11


Filter by Year

2019 2019


Filter By Issues
All Issue Vol 51, No 4 (2019) Vol 51, No 3 (2019) Vol 51, No 2 (2019) Vol 51, No 1 (2019) Vol 51, No 3 (2019) Vol 51, No 2 (2019) Vol 51, No 1 (2019) Vol 50, No 4 (2018) Vol 50, No 3 (2018) Vol 50, No 1 (2018): SUPPLEMENT Vol 50, No 4 (2018) Vol 50, No 3 (2018) Vol 50, No 2 (2018) Vol 50, No 1 (2018): SUPPLEMENT Vol 50, No 1 (2018) Vol 49, No 4 (2017) Vol 49, No 3 (2017) Vol 49, No 2 (2017) Vol 49, No 1 (2017) Vol 48, No 4 (2016): SUPPLEMENT Vol 48, No 4 (2016) Vol 48, No 3 (2016) Vol 48, No 2 (2016) Vol 48, No 1 (2016) Vol 47, No 4 (2015) Vol 47, No 3 (2015) Vol 47, No 2 (2015) Vol 47, No 01 (2015) Vol 46, No 04 (2014) Vol 46, No 03 (2014) Vol 46, No 02 (2014) Vol 46, No 01 (2014) Vol 45, No 03 (2013) Vol 45, No 02 (2013) Vol 45, No 04 (2013) Vol 45, No 03 (2013) Vol 45, No 02 (2013) Vol 45, No 01 (2013) Vol 44, No 02 (2012) Vol 44, No 01 (2012) Vol 44, No 02 (2012) Vol 44, No 01 (2012) Vol 43, No 01 (2011) Vol 43, No 02 (2011) Vol 43, No 01 (2011) Vol 42, No 01 (2010) Vol 41, No 04 (2009) Vol 41, No 02 (2009) Vol 41, No 01 (2009) Vol 41, No 04 (2009) Vol 41, No 03 (2009) Vol 41, No 02 (2009) Vol 41, No 01 (2009) Vol 40, No 03 (2008) Vol 40, No 02 (2008) Vol 40, No 04 (2008) Vol 40, No 03 (2008) Vol 40, No 02 (2008) Vol 40, No 01 (2008) Vol 39, No 03 (2007) Vol 39, No 04 (2007) Vol 39, No 03 (2007) Vol 39, No 02 (2007) Vol 39, No 01 (2007) Vol 38, No 04 (2006) Vol 38, No 01 (2006) Vol 37, No 04 (2005) Vol 37, No 03 (2005) Vol 37, No 02 (2005) Vol 37, No 01 (2005) Vol 36, No 4 (2004) Vol 36, No 3 (2004) Vol 36, No 2 (2004) Vol 36, No 1 (2004) Vol 35, No 4 (2003) Vol 35, No 4 (2003) Vol 35, No 3 (2003) Vol 35, No 2 (2003) Vol 34, No 04 (2002) Vol 34, No 03 (2002) Vol 34, No 02 (2002) Vol 34, No 01 (2002) Vol 33, No 04 (2001) Vol 33, No 03 (2001) Vol 33, No 02 (2001) Vol 31, No 02 (1999) Vol 31, No 04 (1999) Vol 31, No 03 (1999) Vol 31, No 02 (1999) Vol 31, No 01 (1999) Vol 30, No 03 (1998) Vol 30, No 02 (1998) Vol 30, No 01 (1998) Vol 29, No 04 (1997) Vol 29, No 03 (1997) Vol 29, No 02 (1997) Vol 29, No 01 (1997) Vol 28, No 04 (1996) Vol 28, No 03 (1996) Vol 28, No 02 (1996) Vol 28, No 01 (1996) Vol 27, No 02 (1995) Vol 27, No 04 (1995) Vol 27, No 03 (1995) Vol 27, No 02 (1995) Vol 27, No 01 (1995) Vol 26, No 03 (1994) Vol 26, No 02 (1994) Vol 26, No 01 (1994) Vol 25, No 04 (1993) Vol 25, No 03 (1993) Vol 25, No 02 (1993) Vol 25, No 01 (1993) Vol 24, No 04 (1992) Vol 24, No 03 (1992) Vol 24, No 02 (1992) Vol 24, No 01 (1992) Vol 23, No 04 (1991) Vol 23, No 03 (1991) Vol 23, No 02 (1991) Vol 23, No 01 (1991) Vol 22, No 04 (1990) Vol 22, No 03 (1990) Vol 22, No 02 (1990) Vol 22, No 01 (1990) Vol 21, No 04 (1989) Vol 21, No 03 (1989) Vol 21, No 02 (1989) Vol 21, No 01 (1989) Vol 20, No 04 (1988) Vol 20, No 03 (1988) Vol 20, No 02 (1988) Vol 20, No 01 (1988) Vol 19, No 04 (1987) Vol 19, No 03 (1987) Vol 19, No 02 (1987) Vol 19, No 01 (1987) Vol 18, No 04 (1986) Vol 18, No 03 (1986) Vol 18, No 02 (1986) Vol 18, No 01 (1986) Vol 17, No 03 (1985) Vol 17, No 02 (1985) Vol 17, No 01 (1985) Vol 16, No 04 (1984) Vol 16, No 02 (1984) Vol 16, No 01 (1984) Vol 15, No 03 (1983) Vol 15, No 02 (1983) Vol 13, No 03 (1981) Vol 13, No 04 (1981) Vol 13, No 03 (1981) Vol 13, No 02 (1981) Vol 13, No 01 (1981) Vol 12, No 04 (1980) Vol 12, No 03 (1980) Vol 12, No 02 (1980) Vol 12, No 01 (1980) Vol 10, No 04 (1978) Vol 10, No 03 (1978) Vol 10, No 02 (1978) Vol 10, No 01 (1978) Vol 9, No 04 (1977) Vol 9, No 03 (1977) Vol 9, No 02 (1977) Vol 9, No 01 (1977) Vol 8, No 04 (1976) Vol 8, No 03 (1976) Vol 8, No 02 (1976) Vol 8, No 01 (1976) Vol 7, No 04 (1975) Vol 7, No 03 (1975) Vol 7, No 02 (1975) Vol 7, No 01 (1975) Vol 6, No 04 (1974) Vol 6, No 03 (1974) Vol 6, No 02 (1974) Vol 6, No 01 (1974) Vol 5, No 01 (1973) Vol 5, No 04 (1973) Vol 5, No 03 (1973) Vol 5, No 02 (1973) Vol 5, No 01 (1973) More Issue