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Articles 21 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 31, No 02 (1999)" : 21 Documents clear
Sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antituberculosis drugs Ning Rintiswati, Ning Rintiswati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 02 (1999)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: The tuberculosis control efforts have been alarmed by trend of the widespread emergence of multidrugs resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To anticipate the _problem it is very important to provide clinicians with data on drugs susceptibility of M. tuberculosis periodically.Objectives: This study reviewed the pattern of susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to various antituberculosis drugs, for monitoring of antituberculosis drugs resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, especially in Yogyakarta. Method: Eighty four isolates of M. tuberculosis - collection of the Laboratory of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine Gadjah Mada University - were evaluated for their susceptibility to various drugs, both the first line drugs (INH, streptomycin, rifampicin, and ethambutol), and the second line drugs (kanamycin). Suspension of M. tuberculosis at density of approximately Mac Farland no. 1 standard (108cfu/m1) were cultured on drugs containing medium as well as control medium of Midlebrook 7H10 and incubated for 3 weeks. The number of colony on the drugs containing medium and control medium was reported.Result: The results showed that range of resistance of M. tuberculosis to the overall drugs were 16% to 62%. Resistance to INH .was the lowest (16.66%), whereas the resistant isolates to streptomycin, ethambutol, rifampicin and kanamycin were 27.38%, 34.21 %, 62.50% and 45.78% respectively.Conclusion: 88.10% of isolates were resistant to one or more antituberculosis, 3.58% were resistant to all of the drugs, and only 11.90% of the isolates still sensitive to all of the drugs.Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis - resistance - antituberculosis
Effectivity of pharmaca therapy compared to surgery In open-angle glaucoma Budihardjo, Budihardjo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 02 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Two problems arising in determining an appropriate glaucoma therapy are when to treat and how to treat. Open-angle glaucoma is treated when damage to the optic nerve has been demonstrated in the form of progressive pathologic cupping and or characteristic visual field defects, or when pressure is elevated to an extent that is likely to cause damage to the optic nerve. On the other hand, the interrelationship between medical and surgical therapy (argon laser trabeculoplasty & drainage surgery) is complex. Initial treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma has commonly been medical, with surgery undertaken only if medical treatment fails or is not well tolerated. However, this assumption is currently under study; in some cases initial surgery may prove to be more beneficial. Hence, review article was made to prove how beneficial medical or surgical treatment is.Key words: Primary open-angle glaucoma - medical therapy - argon laser trabeculoplasty - drainage surgery
Spesifisitas antibodi monokional anti protein ekskretori-sekretori Brugia malayi terhadap protein nematoda lain Soeyoko, Soeyoko
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 02 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Previous studies using hybridoma technique had produced monoclonal antibodies against excretory-secretory (ES) protein of B. malayi i.e. Fesi, Fes3, Fes7, Fesl3 and Fesi5. Those monoclonal antibodies will be used to diagnose malayan filariasis in the endemic areas.Objectives: To reveal binding specificities of those monoclonal antibodies to ES protein of B. malayi, heterologous protein i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus and homologous protein i.e. Brugia pahangi.Methods: Binding specificities of those monoclonal antibodies to other nematodes protein were assessed by ELISA and inhibition ELISA techniques.Result: Those monoclonal antibodies showed different binding specificities profiles. Fesi, Fesi3 and Fes. revealed specific reaction to ES protein of B. malayi but they did not react to heterologous and homologous protein. Fes3 and Fes7 did not reveal binding specificities to heterologous protein but they had low cross-reactivity to homologous protein. Cross-reactivity values of Fes3 and Fes7 were 33.3% and 22% respectively. Conclusion: Monoclonal antibodies against ES protein of B. malayi i.e. Fesi, Fesi3 and Fesl5 revealed specific reaction to ES protein of B. malayi, but Fes3 and Fes7 had low cross-reactivity to protein of B. pahangi.Key words: binding specificity - monoclonal antibody - ES protein - heterolog protein - homolog protein - ELISA.
Secondary transmissions of filariasis caused by nonperiodic form of Brugia malayi among indigenous Dayak people in East Kalimantan FA Sudjadi, FA.Sudjadi
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 02 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Nonperiodic or aperiodic form of Brugia malayi Lichtenstein was discovered and reported recently from East Kalimantan as a new subspecies by Sudjadi, in addition to the nocturnally periodic and subperiodic form, previously known as health problem in many rural areas in Indonesia. The Brugia type was found in high endemicity among Dayak indigenous people who were growing paddy rice by shifting cultivation method in the forest areas in Krayan village, Long Ikis district, Pasir regency.Objectives: To detect secondary transmissions, which so far known unusually happenned on filarial elephantiasis, in the highly endemic of Krayan village, when previous infections have already ceased by entering the chronic stage.Method: Krayan villagers suffering from elephantiasis during previous clinical examinations were recruited in the study. Blood samples (in an amount of 60 mm3) were taken from finger prick to examine the presence of microfilariae.Results: Amount of 17 elephantiasis cases of local inhabitants were examined. Most of them, ie 11 people or 64.7%, were found positif with microfilaremia, with the highest densities of 151 microfilariae per 60 mm3 blood. These unusual cases of secondary transmissions were not only closely related to the high endemicity of filariasis in that Krayan area, but the effective transmissions originated from wild animals in the forest as source of infections as well.Conclusion: The secondary transmissions of filariasis found among indigenous Dayak people in Krayan clearly supports the nonperiodic or aperiodic form of B. malayi filarial worm to be zoonotic or sylvanic.Key words: nonperiodic form of Brugia malayi - elephantiasis - microfilaremia - secondary transmissions -sylvanic filariasis
The association of acety/ation status with the occurrence of autonomic neuropathy: Diabetic neuropathy cases study Samekto Wibowo, Samekto Wibowo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 02 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Acetylation is a type of drug metabolism pathway. People can be divided into two groups: rapid acetylators, i.e. those who will acetylate drugs (chemical substances) rapidly, and slow acetylators, i.e. those who will acetylate drugs (chemical substances) slowly. Many studies reported that slow acetylator become more succeptable to certain diseases compared to rapid acetylators. Neuropathy might occur in diabetes mellitus, with the following symtoms mononeuropathy, symmetrical peripheral polyneuropathy and/or autonomic neuropathy.Objective: To study the association between acetylation status with the occurrence of autonomic neuropathy on diabetic neuropathy cases.Methods: An analytical descriptive study involving 140 patients of diabetic neuropathy was conducted at Sardjito Central General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.Results: Schellong Test confirmed a definite sympatic neuropathy in 11 (7,9%) patients. The examination of acetylation status revealed that 68% of patients were rapid acetylators, and 32% patients were slow acetylators. Among the patients with autonomic neuropathy, it was found that 64% were slowly acetylators, whereas only 36% were rapid acetylators. Among the patients without autonomic neuropathy, 30,5% were slowly acetylators, whrereas 69,5% were rapid acetylators: this distribution frequency was similar to the normal population.Conclusion: Slow acetylation status had significant association (p<0,05) with the occurrence of autonomic neuropathy. Key words: acetylation status - autonomic neuropathy - diabetic neuropathy - sympatic neuropathy - Schellong Test 
Calcitriol infra venous therapy in routinely hemodialyzed patients with secondary hyperparatyroidism
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 02 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism is common in patients with chronic renal failure. Secondary hyperparathyroidism with vitamin D deficiency may increase renal osteodystrophy.Objective: To determine the blood intact parathormone (iPTH) level in routinely hemodialyzed patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism undertaking calcitriol intravenous therapy once in two weeks. Methods: a double blind randomized clinical trial had been done in 32 chronic renal failure patients from 41 secondary hyperparathyroidism who underwent regular hemodialysis in Dr. Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta. All patients received intravenous calcitriol 11.1.g or placebo twice a week after dialysis for 2 weeks. The proportion of the decrease of iPTH level at least 30%; calcium, and phosphate levels in calcitriol (16 patients) and in placebo (16 patients) group were measured.Results: The decrease of iPTH at least 30% in calcitriol group were 12 patients (75%) and in placebo group 6 patients (37.5%) (p> 0.05). In calcitriol group there were 4 patients (25%) with hypercalcemia and 6 patients (37.5%) with hyperphosphatemia, whereas in placebo group 5 patients (31.3%) with hypercalcemia and 5 patients (31.3%) with hyperphosphatemia (p>0.05).Conclusion: Calcitriol intravenous therapy for 2 weeks might decrease iPTH at least 30%.Key words: secondary hyperparathyroidism - chronic renal failure - osteodystrophy - intact parathormone -calcitriol
Hyphaema in phacolytic glaucoma, a case report. Suhardjo, Suhardjo
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 02 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Background: Phacolytic glaucoma is a secondary glaucoma which occurs in open angle hypermature cataract and caused by trabecular obstruction. This abstruction occurs due to the leaked of lens protein through an intact capsule. Hyphaema in phacolytic glaucoma is an unusual case.Objective : To evaluate the result of conservative therapy and extra capsular cataract extraction on phacolytic glaucoma associated with hyphaema.Methods :A case of hyphaema in phacolytic glaucoma has been reported in a 62 year old man. Symptoms of decreased visual acuity, pain, headache were found in this case. Ophthalmology examination found right visual acuity 1/", light projection and color perception good, conjunctival hyperaemia, ciliary injection, corneal edema, hyphaema, opacity of anterior chamber, iris atrophy, posterior synechiae, and increased intraocular pressure. This case was treated conservatively and cataract surgery was also done accordingly.Result: The result of treatment was loss of vitreous resulted from rupture of posterior capsule, decreased of intraocular pressure.Conclusion : Conservative therapy and extra capsular cataract extraction can improve visual acuity in phacolytic glaucoma associated with hyphaema.Key words: hyphaema - phacolytic glaucoma - conservative and cataract surgery - vitreous loss.
Anthropometric and Body Composition Characteristics of Soccer Athletes in Yogyakarta Neni Trilusiana Rahmawati, Neni Trilusiana Rahmawati
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 02 (1999)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: There is considerable evidence indicating that champions of various sports events differ significantly in their physical and physiological characteristics. It is not only the intersport differences, but also in the same sport, depending upon playing position.Objective: To study anthropometric characteristics and body composition of forwards, half-liners, backs and goalkeepers of soccer athletes in Yogyakarta.Methods: 60 soccer athletes in Yogyakarta, aged 17 to 32 year were recruited in the study. Body height and weight, shoulder and pelvic breadth, trunk length, and body fat were measured and compared among subjects of different playing positions. Analysis of variance was used as statistical tests to express the difference between anthropometric characteristics and body composition among forwards, half-liners, backs and goalkeepers.Results: The result showed that the goalkeepers had the highest score of average height, weight, shoulder and pelvic breadth, trunk length and body fat. There were significant differences of height, weight and body fat among the four subgroups of soccer athletes.Conclusion: There were similarities of somatotype distributions between Yogyakarta soccer athletes and world soccer athletes.Key words: sport anthropology - soccer athletes - anthropometry - body composition
Full term premature rupture of the membrane (PROM): Active management (AM) vs conservative management (CM) Sulchan Sofoewan, Sulchan Sofoewan
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 02 (1999)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: The management of premature rupture of the membrane (PROM) is one of the most controversial areas in obstetrics. In the case of full term PROM, the obstetrician is often faced with either immediate induction of labor with higher incidence of caesarean section or awaiting spontaneous labor with higher incidence of chorioamnionitis.Objective: To compare pregnancy outcomes between active management (AM) and conservative management (CM) in full term PROM.Methods: The study was carried out in randomized controlled trial at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University/Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta. Sixty full term PROM cases admitted to the hospital between July-December 1994 were randomly allocated into AM (n=30) and CM (n=30).Results: Caesarean section rate due to the failure of induction among AM group was significantly higher than those in CM group (p= 0.03). Maternal and perinatal infection were not statistically significant (p>0.50). The total number of newborn babies with asphyxia was higher in AM group but no statistical significant difference was found (p> 0.50).Conclusion: The conservative management of full term PROM was better compared to active management, especially when the outcome is caesarean section rate due to the failure of induction:Key words: PROM - active management - conservative management.
Toxicity study of Zingiber officinale volatile oil as antifilariasis in mice and rats Budi Mulyaningsih, Budi Mulyaningsih
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 31, No 02 (1999)
Publisher : Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran)

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Abstract

Background: The volatile oil of Zingiber officinale has been reported effective to reduce microfilariae in Fells catus, L. According to the fact, there is chance that the volatile oil can be developed for treatment of filariasis in man. Before that idea can be realized some toxicity studies of Zingiber officinale should have to be done. Objective: This study was designed to know the potency of the acute and chronic toxicity in rodent. Methods: Acute toxicity study was perfomed in mice and rat as experimental animal and subchronic toxicity study was done only in mice. This study was done in standard methods.Results: The LD 50 value (mean ± SD) of Zingiber officinale volatile oil in mice was 8.051 ± 1.254 ml/Kg BW., while in rat the value was 12.99 ± 1.021 ml/Kg BW. Routine hematology analysis showed that no significant difference between the control and the experimental groups.Conclusion: The mechanism responsible in the death of the experimental animal in this toxicity study, seems to be the ability of the volatile oil to produce contraction of the smooth muscle especially in the airway system (trachea).Key words : microfilariae - filariasis - acute toxicity - Fells catus - chronic toxicity.

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