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Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia
Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Micronutrient) is a scientific journal published periodically by the Center for Research and Development of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (BPP GAKI), regularly twice a year. A paper published in the form of text / article the results of research and development, the results of scientific analysis of secondary data, a summary of the current topics in the field of Micronutrients. Editor receives manuscripts / articles, both from researchers at BPP GAKI and outside. The journal has been accredited Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI).
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Articles
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EFIKASI IODIUM DOSIS RENDAH DITAMBAH BETA KAROTEN PADA IBU HAMIL TERHADAP TSH NEONATAL DI DAERAH ENDEMIK GAKI

Lamid, Astuti

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 4, No 2 (2013): Edisi Juni 2013
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium

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Abstract

Ibu hamil yang menderita Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium (GAKI) mempu­nyai risiko tinggi untuk melahirkan bayi dengan hipotiroid kongenital. Saat ini pro­gram penanggulangan GAKI menggunakan iodisasi garam dan kapsul iodium dosis tinggi (iodiol) tidak lagi diberikan untuk ibu hamil di daerah endemik. Pe­nelitian ini untuk mempelajari efikasi iodium dosis rendah ditambah beta karoten pada perbaikan serum TSH neonatal. Lokasi penelitian di enam puskesmas ende­mik di Kabupaten Magelang. Desain penelitian adalah kuasi eksperimen dengan sampel ibu hamil trimester pertama dan tidak hipertiroid. Sampel dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok perlakuan: kelompok dosis tinggi (200 mg iodium), kelompok dosis rendah (30 mg iodium) dan dosis rendah ditambah beta karoten (30 mg iodium ditambah 30 mg beta-karoten). Pemberian dilakukan melalui suplemen dalam bentuk kapsul selama enam bulan selama kehamilan. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Free T4 dan vitamin A, he­moglobin, sosial ekonomi, lingkar lengan atas, asupan gizi, asupan sianida, dan pengetahuan GAKI, dan dari bayi: TSH neonatal. Data dianalisa menggunakan uji anova, kai kuadrat dan regresi logistik. Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa setelah enam bulan intervensi, kadar serum TSH ibu nifas dalam kelompok dosis rendah ditambah beta karoten, kelompok dosis rendah dan dosis tinggi menurun sekitar 1,74 ?U/ml; 1,59 ?U/ml dan 1,39 ?U/ml. Ibu hamil yang menerima dosis rendah ditambah beta karoten secara signifikan memiliki risiko lebih rendah untuk memi­liki bayi dengan TSH neonatal yang tidak normal dibandingkan dengan ibu hamil yang mendapat dosis tinggi (p <0,05; OR = 0,31, 95% Cl OR 0.11 -0.86).

Artemia salina SEBAGAI BAHAN UTAMA MEDIA HALOFILIK DALAM PEMBUATAN GARAM NaCl KEMURNIAN TINGGI UNTUK INDUSTRI GARAM BERIODIUM

Marihati, Marihati

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 4, No 2 (2013): Edisi Juni 2013
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium

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Abstract

To produce a stable high iodized salt, raw materials with minimum 94.5% NaCl content is needed. The substances causing loss of iodine in iodized salt are Ca and Mg. These substances are formed simultaneously with the formation of NaCl crystals in the salt fields due to the salt coprecipitation. UNICEF 2006 stated that approximately 75% of raw material salt used for iodized salt industry in 11 salt-producing regencies in Indonesia has NaCl content less than 94.5% means the ca and mg content are still quite high. Center for industrial Pollution Technology in 2011 stated that Luria Bertani halophilic microbial media was able to prevent coprecipitation, showed with NaCl purity in salt fields reached 98%. However, Luria Bertani media is expensive (Rp.7200,-/L brine 25OBe) and difficult to manipulate Consequently, it is necessary to find a cheaper and available substitute. This study aimed to develop the use of Artemia salina medium as subtitute for Luria Bertani media. This is a two stages experiment study. the first to develop media composition of Artemia salina. The second step the process of crystallization using the best substitute from the first step. The best composition of Artemia salina was 3.375 g, 1.5 g urea, with 4.5 g for each 1500 mL mixture sugar (1350 mL brine 25OBe +150 mL seed halophilic) The second showed that the product meets the requirements for iodized salt with NaCl content of 98%. Artemia salina based media is feasible to be used as a growth media for halophilic in the salt fields at a price of Rp.86, - / L brine 25OBe.

STATUS IODIUM PADA ANAK USIA SEKOLAH 6 – 12 TAHUN DI DAERAH DENGAN NILAI EKSKRESI IODIUM URIN (EIU) TINGGI

Samsudin, Mohamad

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 4, No 2 (2013): Edisi Juni 2013
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium

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Abstract

Iodine deficiency or excess lead to the impairment of hormone production and thyroid function, and in the long term can cause health problems. Epidemiological criteria to determine the severity of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) in an area can be done by assessing the iodine status of school-age children. Indicator that can be used includes urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Indication of excess iodine in school-age children in some parts of Indonesia has been reported, among others, in Demak and Blora Regency, while on the other hand, the number of households consume enough iodized salt are low. Exploring the iodine status of school-age children aged 6-12 years in areas with high UIC values in non endemic iodine deficiency areas. The study was conducted in Blora and Demak Regency, Central Java. Samples were 300 school children aged 6-12 years. Variables: iodine status (thyrotropin hormone, urinary iodine concentration and thyroid gland enlargement). Other variables: nutritional status, nutrient intake, iodine in drinking water, iodine intake sources, iodine in salt. The median value of urinary iodine in Demak regency –were 4266 ?g/L in Pidodo Village and 6216 ?g/L in Sampang Village. In Blora Regency was 333 ?g/L - Japah Village with 54.7% of subjects were at risk of iodine excesses. Hypothyroid subjects were found 24%, 16% and 10% in Sampang, Pidodo and Japah Village respectivelly. The Proportion of non-visible goiter in Demak Regency was more than 30% where in Japah Village was only 5.5%. The high urinary iodine concentration in Blora Regency was suspected as the results of iodized salt intake. However the high urinary iodine in Demak Regency (Pidodo and Sampang Village) was not caused by iodine high intake, but probably from another cause that needs to be further studied.

SIKLUS ESTRUS DAN STRUKTUR HISTOLOGIS OVARIUM TIKUS Sprague dawley HIPOTIROID DENGAN INDUKSI PROPYLTHIOURACIL

Sukandar, Prihatin Broto

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 4, No 2 (2013): Edisi Juni 2013
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium

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Abstract

Some of hypothyroidism impact are infertility, stillbirth, lactation disturbance, and menstrual abnormalities. hypothyroidism in women cause ovulation dysfunction and oligomenorrhea but can alsocause ovulation and conseption problem. This study aimed to describe the efect of hypothyroid on estrous cycle and ovary histologic structure on sprague dawley rat with propylthiouracil induction. This is an experimental study the samples were five hypothyroid sprague dawley rats and six control rats. Estrous cycle data were collected from vaginal smear slides. Ovary histologic structure data were analyse from ovary histologic slides. variables examined were free T4, numbers of ovary follicles,estrous cycles and ovary histologic structure. Quantitative data were analyzed statistically using independent t-test. Level free T4 from hypothyroid sprague dawley rats were 4.2 ± 0.6pmol/L and control were 8.2 ± 1.6pmol/L, p value 0,001. Estrous cycle of two groups were different in diestrous cycle. Percent amount of follicles primer were 19.6±5.9% and control 20.1±10.1%, p value 0.92, sekunder 27.8±10.1% and control 29.1±10.9% p value 0.84, tertier 2.8±2.8% and control 6.1±5.4%, p value 0.24, atretic 28.4±6.2% and control 29.5±10.0% p value 0.83, corpus luteal 20.0±17.1% and control 15.2±5.3% p value 0.52. Qualitative data of ovary histologic structure were not different. Estrous cycles of two groups sprague dawley rats were different in diestrous cycle. Damaged of ovary histologic structure appeared in two groups rats. Percent amount of follicles primer, secunder, tertier and corpus luteal two groups rats were not significantly different.Keywords: Hypothyroid, follicle ovarium, estrous cycle.

MUTU GIZI PRODUK CRACKERS DISUBSTITUSI TEPUNG JEWAWUT (Pennisetum sp) DAN KEMAMPUAN MENINGKATKAN KADAR HEMOGLOBIN TIKUS PUTIH GALUR WISTAR

Setiadi, Yuwono

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 4, No 2 (2013): Edisi Juni 2013
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium

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Abstract

Anemia allevation program by iron-folat tablet supplementation has not shown satisfaction results. Food based approach should be done to provide more sustainable intake. The purpose of this study is to determine the nutritional quality of crackers product millet (Pennisetum sp) substituted in various concentration and its capability to increase hemoglobin levels on wistar rats. This in an experimental study with complete randomised design one factor. The concentration substituted divided into 3 treatment, of 0%, 10% and 20% concentration with 7 replication. The dependent variabel were nutritional quality (water content, ash, protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate, iron (content), and hemoglobin concentration). The wistar rats had been fed during for 14 days. Data analysis were conducted using ANOVA and t-test. Millet substitution resulted in the decrease of water, crude fiber, carbohydrate with (7.24% to 6.54%, p=0,00), (15.49% to 14.54%, p=0,00), (56.61% to 52.58%, p=0,00) respectivelly. The substitution increased of ash, protein, fat and iron (1.96% to 2.37%, p=0,00), (14.42% to 14.67%, p=0,00), (19.76% to 23.83, p=0,00), (66.80 ppm to 82.83 ppm, p=0,371). Respectivelly. The hemoglobin increase on 0% concentration were 0,97 g/dl; on 10% were: 2,92 g/dl and on 20% were: 3,39 g/dl. It was concluded that 20% millet substitution in crackers product given to the wistar rats 14 days significantly increased hemoglobin concentration by 3,39 g/dl.

DETEKSI POLIMORFISME GEN TSHR CODON D727E PADA WANITA TERDUGA HIPERTIROID DI KABUPATEN SUKOHARJO

Wibowo, Agus

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 4, No 2 (2013): Edisi Juni 2013
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium

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Abstract

Hiperthyroid is execcesive thyroid function which increased thyroid hormone that suppressed TSH. Major etiologies of hyperthyroidism (60%-80%) caused by Graves disease. Graves disease occurs in up to 2% women 20-40 years old. Some of the genes implicated in this pathogenesis may encode thyroid stimulating hormones receptors (TSHR). The TSHR gene is located on chromosome 14q31, an area in which a Graves disease susceptibility locus (GD-1) has been mapped. The GD-1 locus is specifically linked to Graves’ disease. TSHR polymorphisms, resulting in amino acid substitutions, have been identified. Two of these are located in the extracellular domain of the receptor (Asp36His and Pro52Thr), and one is located in the intracellular domain (Asp727Glu). A germline mutation of TSHR codon 727 has been reported to be associated with Graves disease. The aim of this research is to analyze the polymorphism of codon D727E on hiperthyroid patient. Sixteen respondents with suspect hyperthyroidism were chosen. The blood were collected for TSH, FreeT4, Thyroglobulin Antibody and Thyroidperoxidase Antibody and DNA isolation. The polymorphic region of the target genes (gene TSHR codon 727) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR-Sequencing was used for polymorphism on codon D727E confirmation. The result showed there is no Polymorphism in gen TSHR codon D727E. The codon D727E variant of TSHR gene is not associated with Hyperthyroid in Sukoharjo population. The possibility that mutation may occur on another genes need to be further analyzed.

HUBUNGAN PENGETAHUAN DAN SIKAP IBU DENGAN PENGGUNAAN KADAR GARAM BERIODIUM DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP STATUS IODIUM URIN DI PONOROGO

Nurcahyani, Yusi Dwi, Setyani, Asih, Supadmi, Sri

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 4, No 1 (2012): Edisi Desember 2012
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium

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Abstract

In nearly all countries where iodine deficiency occurs, it is now well recognized that the most effective way to achieve the virtual elimination of IDD is through USI. Iodized salt is a safe, cost-effective, and sustainable strategy to ensure sufficient intake of iodine by all individuals. The aim of the study is measure the relationships of maternal knowledge and attitudes with the use of iodized salt and influence on urine iodine status. This was a cross sectional. The sample of this study were women of childbearing age 18-45 years old and pregnant women with gestational age from 2-9 months. The selection of districts and villages determined purposively by the by the place were emergence cases of IDD. Variables taken the level of knowledge, attitudes, content of iodized salt and urinary iodine status. The result showed that there was no relationship between level of knowledge and attitudes with the content of iodized salt. There was no relationship between level of knowledge and attitudes with urine iodine status. There is a relationship between levels of iodine in salt with urine iodine status. Salt quality monitoring needs to be done more intensively and for the low quality of salt grown withdrawn from the market, the extension shall be made by taking into account the background of the respondents, such as level of education.

PERSEPSI DAN PRAKTEK STIMULASI KOGNITIF BERBASIS PENGASUHAN PADA ANAK-ANAK DI DAERAH ENDEMIK GAKI

Latifah, Leny

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 4, No 1 (2012): Edisi Desember 2012
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium

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Abstract

Intellectual deficit in children living in IDD endemic areas were not caused by single factor of iodine deficiency. Educational level, decrease of mental development related to IDD, and lack of cognitive stimulation also contributed to impaired cognitive development in children. This study was aimed to explore perception and practice of parenting based cognitive stimulation for children living in endemic areas of IDD. This was a qualitative research conducted in six family who had pre school children, with the risk of having cognitive developmental delayed, due to living in IDD endemic areas, and low social economisc status and low maternal education. Data obtained from several sources, through partisipative observation, interview, and psychological assessment. Observation of the condition of parenting and home environment conducted with HOME and partisipative observation. Informants of parenting conditions were come from mother, father, and also community figures. Psychological assessment showed the risk of low cognitive stimulation parenting practice. Mothers had not conducted adequate stimulation, especially in the aspect of academic stimulation and learning. Mother perceived that cognitive stimulation was not part of parenting responsibility because it perceived as part of teacher responsibility. Mother also felt that they had no opportunity and ability. Mother was perceived as main person responsible in caring children, but the opportinity they had with their children had not been used for cognitive stimulation, because cognitive stimulation perceived as school related activities. Play activities had not been utilized actively by mothers as the main source of cognitive stimulation. Cognitive stimulation as one of potential source for cognitive enhancement in IDD endemic area needd to be done in earlier age. Mothers in the IDD endemic areas needd to be informed about the importance of of cognitive stimulation in pre school age, in order to support cognitive development task and academic achievement in the future life.

KONDISI TUMBUH KEMBANG ANAK DENGAN RIWAYAT HIPOTIROID PASCA PENATALAKSANAAN DI BP2 GAKI MAGELANG

Sukandar, Prihatin Broto

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 4, No 1 (2012): Edisi Desember 2012
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium

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Abstract

Clinical management for children with developmental disorder, including laser puncture, medical treatment, nutrition, psychological counseling, or physiotherapy, had been instigate by BP2GAKI. There was no previous research on evaluating the long term outcome of children growth and development who had completed the clinical management in BP2GAKI. Objectives of this study are to investigated the long term effect of therapy administered in BP2GAKI, which were growth, development, hypothyroidism clinical sign, and iodine status. This study was observational with a cross sectional study conducted in BP2GAKI Magelang on 2008. Sample of this study were 44 children based on sample size of Dahlan, patients in BP2GAKI clinique from the year 2002-2005 who completed treatment with ?40 times therapy and TSH level of ?5 ?IU/mL. Growth status were measured with anthropometrical data of weight and height, developmental data were assessed with Denver 2. Indicators significant of hypothyroid were assessed with clinical score, and iodine status was measured with TSH level. Data was analyzed with chi square test. The result is nutritional status within normal category was increased from 47.73% to 68.18%. Before treatment all children was developmental delayed. Recent data showed that normal motor development was increased significantly to 63.64% (p<0.05 (95% CI: 0.818-7.851). The normal social and language development were increased significantly to 38.64%. Clinical categories with normal score decreased significantly from 45.46% to 40.91% (p<0.05; 95% CI: -0.965-(-0.81). The normal iodine state was 56.82% and children with hypothyroid was decreased significantly from 100% to 43.18% (p<0.05 (95% CI: 0.461-0.748). There was improvement in nutritional status, motor, language, and social development in children long term after treatment in BP2GAKI. Improvement also found in iodine status, but clinical score for hypothyroid was worsen.

KOMUNIKASI, INTERAKSI DAN DUKUNGAN SOSIAL PADA ANAK PENDERITA GAKI DENGAN GANGGUAN KOGNITIF DAN MOTORIK

Martiyana, Cati

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 4, No 1 (2012): Edisi Desember 2012
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium

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Abstract

Human have an urge to connect with other people around them to make adjustments and mingle in a social environment without significant obstacles. Children due to IDD with cognitive and motor disorders may have problems in social adjustment to the social environment because of cognitive and physical limitations they have. This study aims to know the description of the communication, interaction and social support to children due to IDD with cognitive and motor disorders who had been treatment in BP2GAKI Magelang. This study is a qualitative research through participatory observation for six days to two subjects due to children with cognitive disorders and two subjects with motor disorders. Depth interviews with parents, neighbors and school teachers subject as well as a psychological tests of Vineland Maturity Scale Tests (VSMS) to describe the child’s ability to communicate, interact with the environment and social support provided. The data obtained were further analyzed using qualitative principles of phenomenology. The ability of communication and interaction of children due to IDD with motor disorders are better than children due to IDD with cognitive disorders. Communication and social interaction predominantly occurs in the family scope. There is a negative reception by the social environment surrounding the child to children due to IDD that causes social support became low. It is to built awareness in parenting practices in order to maximize the capabilities of the child also the awareness and positive public acceptance for the existence of children due to IDD with cognitive and motor disorders.