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Microbiology Indonesia
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Articles 292 Documents
Isolation and Characterization of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria from Swiftlet Feces in Swiftlet Farm Houses in Sarawak, Malaysia SIEN, LEONG SUI; LIHAN, SAMUEL; YEE, LING TECK; CHUAN, CHIA HWA; KOON, LIM CHAN
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 4 (2013): November 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5454/mi.7.4.137

Abstract

There is a growing concern on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Development of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria has overtaken new drug development and threatened the patients with untreatable infections. This study was conducted to isolate and characterize the antibiotic resistant bacteria from swiftlet farm houses located in various places including Kota Samarahan, Semarang, Saratok, Betong, Sarikei, Sibu, Sepinang, Maludam, Miri, and Kuching in Sarawak, Malaysia. Five feces samples were collected randomly from each site. One gram of the feces sample was diluted in 9 mL of 0.85% normal saline solution. The diluted sample was plated on Trypticase Soy agar plates and incubated at 37±1 °C for 24 h. A total of 500 bacteria isolates were then identified using 16S rRNA analysis method. Disc diffusion method was then used to confirm the resistant phenotypes of these isolates. The results showed that the means of the bacterial colony count were significantly different (p<0.05) from one another, with the highest log CFU g-1 (9.22±0.72) found in Kota Samarahan and the log10 lowest log CFU g-1 (6.03±0.62) in Betong. Besides, the isolated bacteria were identified as 96% Gram positive log10 bacteria and 4% Gram negative bacteria. The isolated bacteria were highly resistant to penicillin G (36.80±23.87%), ampicillin (28.60±17.13%), and rifampicin (16.90±13.70%). Thus, swiftlet feces are good reservoir for a range of antibiotic resistant bacteria which may pose a potential health hazard to human.
Production of Maltooligosaccharides from Black Potato (Coleus tuberosus) Starch by α-amylase from a Marine Bacterium (Brevibacterium sp.) RAHMANI, NANIK; ROHANA, ROHANA; SUKARNO, SUKARNO; ANDRIANI, ADE; YOPI, YOPI
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 3 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5454/mi.7.3.6

Abstract

High quality maltooligosaccharides were produced from indigenous Indonesian black potato starch by making use of an amylase from Brevibacterium sp. Optimal production was achieved at 2.5% (w/v) substrate concentration, an enzyme-substrate ratio of 1:5 (w/v) and hydrolysis time of 4 h. Under such conditions the yield of reducing sugars was 14 240 ppm with a polymerization degree of 16. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the formation of glucose, maltose, and maltotriose with Rf values of 0.60, 0.52, and 0.37, respectively. HPLC analysis of freeze-dried samples disclosed Rf values of 0.60, 0.50, 0.37, and 0.12. Maltooligosaccharide profile analysis both using TLC and HPLC showed that the enzymatically hydrolyzed samples contained glucose, maltose, and maltotriose. Thus, black potato starch can be randomly converted into simple sugars and maltooligosaccharides applying by amylolytic enzymes from the marine microbe Brevibacterium sp.
Selection of Methods for Microbiological Extraction of Chitin from Shrimp Shells JUNIANTO, JUNIANTO; WAHYUNTARI, BUDIASIH; SETYAHADI, SISWA
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 2 (2013): June 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5454/mi.7.2.75

Abstract

Chitin extraction from shrimp shells involves two processing steps that are demineralization followed by deproteination process. Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 116 and Bacillus licheniformis F11.1 were used in demineralization and deproteination respectively. The overall objectives of this experiment were to determine fermentation systems which resulted in the highest mineral and protein removal. The demineralization experiments consisted of three different batch fermentation designs: batch fermentation (Am ); subsequent batch fermentation 1, in which 100% medium was replaced with fresh medium after 24 h fermentation (Bm ); and subsequent batch fermentation 2, in which 50% medium was replaced with the same amount of fresh medium after 24 h fermentation (Cm ). The demineralization was conducted at 30±2 °C, 50 rpm for 60 h. The deproteination experiments consisted of 3 different batch fermentation designs: batch fermentation 1, inoculum was added once at the beginning of the fermentation (A p); batch fermentation 2, inoculum was added twice, at the beginning and after 24 h fermentation (Bp ); and subsequent batch fermentation, 100% medium was replaced with fresh medium after 24 h fermentation (Cp ). The deproteination was carried out at 55 °C, pH 7.8-8.0, aeration 2.3 vvm, and agitation 275 rpm for 96 h. The experimental results showed that in the demineralization process, fermentation design B gave the highest ash removal. Ash removed in the fermentation design A , B , and C was 97.19, 99.69, and 97.69%, respectively. The protein removed in the fermentation design A , B , and C was 94.42, 94.51, and 95.37%, respectively.
Enzymatic and Acid Hydrolysis of Sago Starch for Preparation of Ethanol Production SUNARYANTO, ROFIQ; HANDAYANI, BERTI HARIASIH; SAFITRI, RATU
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 2 (2013): June 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5454/mi.7.2.68

Abstract

A series of studies on the hydrolysis of Sago starch for ethanol fermentation had been conducted. Hydrolysis of sago starch was carried out using sulfuric acid 2.5% and amylase(s) enzymes. The concentrations of sago starch used in this experiment were  5, 10, 15, 20, and 30% (w/v). The highest hydrolyzate  containing reducing sugar was used as substrate for ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae FNCC 3012. The results indicated  that hydrolysis using 2.5% sulfuric acid for 120 min at 121 °C produced 6.6%  (w/v)  reducing sugar and hydrolysis using α-amylase and Dextrozyme DX produced more reducing sugar, 7% (w/v) and 17.1% (w/v), respectively. The fermentation of hydrolyzed sago starch by S. cerevisiae FNCC 3012 produced ethanol 7.98% (v/v).
Mutagenic Improvement of Xylanase Production from Xylanolytic Bacteria and its Phylogenetic Analysis HANIM, CHUSNUL; YUSIATI, LIES MIRA; CAHYANTO, MUHAMMAD NUR; WIBOWO, ALI
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 2 (2013): June 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5454/mi.7.2.2

Abstract

This study was conducted to obtain xylanolytic mutants that have higher xylanase activity than their wildtype counterparts. A mutant with the best xylanolytic activity was selected and identified based on its 16S rRNA sequence. Its optimum growth condition was also characterized and its phylogenetic relations to other xylanolytic bacteria were analzsed. Wild type xylanolytic alkalophlic bacteria were grown in medium containing xylan as a substrate. Mutation was performed using ethidium bromide (EtBr) or ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) atconcentrations 50, 100, and 150 mg mL-1 and times of exposure 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for each treatment. Twenty two mutants were obtained from EtBr and 24 mutants from EMS mutageneses. The mutants were analyzed for their capability to secrete xylanase into xylan medium containing xylose or glucose or glycerol. Growth optimizations of the mutant were done in media with pH range 6-11 and temperature range 30 to 60 °C. Mutant number 19, which was obtained by treatment using 50 mg mL-1 EMS for 120 min, had the highest xylanase activity (15.057 U g-1). This activity was obtained at optimum growth conditions: pH 9.5 and temperature 55 °C. Chromosomal DNA of this mutant was extracted and amplified by PCR using 16S rRNA gene specific primers. The amplified fragments were sequenced by dideoxynucleotide chain terminator method. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that mutant 19 was closed to an anaerobic xylanase producing bacteria.
Nitrous Oxide Reduction Activity of Denitrifying Ochrobactrum anthropi Isolated from Rice Field SETYANINGSIH, RATNA; RUSMANA, IMAN; SETYANTO, PRIHASTO; SUWANTO, ANTONIUS
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 2 (2013): June 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5454/mi.7.2.1

Abstract

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the principal greenhouse gases. Differences in soil microbial community composition affect N2O emission. Ochrobactrum anthropi BL1 and BLN1 isolated from rice field in Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia can grow on and reduce N2O.  This study investigated  the patterns of N2O reduction activity and growth of O. anthropi BL1 and BLN1 on denitrification media and also examined the ability of BLN1 strain to reduce N2O in flooded rice soil. Nitrous oxide reduction activity and growth of strains BL1 and BLN1 occurred simultaneously, indicating that the bacteria used N2O for growth. BL1 and BLN1 showed the same specific growth rate, but the N2O reduction rate of BLN1 was higher than that of BL1. Increase of the N2O concentration in the surface water of flooded soil without BLN1 isolate six hours after the addition of NO3- was significantly greater than the surface water from soil that had been inoculated with the isolate.
Cloning and Expression of Serotype-2 Simian Betaretrovirus Reverse Transcriptase Gene Isolated from Indonesian Cynomolgus Monkey in Escherichia coli SAEPULOH, UUS; ISKANDRIATI, DIAH; HOETAMA, FUNGKEY; MARIYA, SELA SEPTIMA; SOLIHIN, DEDY DURYADI; PAMUNGKAS, JOKO; SAJUTHI, DONDIN
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 2 (2013): June 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5454/mi.7.2.3

Abstract

In this study, we isolated the simian betaretrovirus serotype-2 (SRV-2) reverse transcriptase (RT) gene from infected Indonesian cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). The gene was then cloned in Escherichia coli expression system. The SRV-2 RT gene is located between nucleotides 3284-4925 in the polyprotein (Pol) region encodes 547 amino acids. Analysis of expression using SDS-PAGE and western blot techniques showed a specific band of 64.9 kDa, indicating SRV-2 RT recombinant enzyme. Purification of SRV-2 RT recombinant enzyme produced 312 μg mL-1 protein with 7.1 U μL-1 enzyme activities. Application of this recombinant enzyme in reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) of β-globin and β-actin genes produced DNA fragments of 206 and 350 bp, indicating amplification of β-globin and β-actin genes, respectively. Therefore, the expressed SRV-2 RT enzyme was proven to be functional, although the activity was low.
Analysis of Bacterial Community Associated with Aaptos sp. from Rote and Seribu Islands CHASANAH, EKOWATI; PATANTIS, GINTUNG; DEWI, ARIYANTI SUHITA; MARRASKURANTO, ENDAR; JANUAR, HEDI INDRA; STELLA, STELLA; SOKA, SUSAN; YOGIARA, YOGIARA
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 1 (2013): March 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5454/mi.7.1.37

Abstract

Aaptos sp. is a marine sponge that could produce bioactive compounds such as aaptamin, aaptosin, and isoaaptamin which have activities as antitumor, antimicrobial, and antiviral. Community of bacteria associated with the sponge might correlate with production of those bioactive compounds and be affected  by  water environment where the sponge grow. The presence of anthropogenic stressor such as pollutans might become a burden to the waters where the biota grown and could affect the microbial biodiversity in the sponge and its active metabolite produced. The objective of this research was to analyze bacterial community associated with Aaptos sp. from Rote Island and Seribu Islands, using T-RFLP method. The results showed that bacterial community associated with Aaptos sp. from both sampling sites shared 40.81% similarity in which they were dominated by the same bacteria class of Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria, α-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, and γ–proteobacteria. The bacteria collected from Rote island  were more highly distributed and diverse than those from Seribu Islands. A total of 23 classes of microorganism were identified in Rote Island waters, while in Seribu Islands was 14 classes of microorganism. The presence of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in Aaptos sp., is allegedly involved in the production of secondary metabolites.
16S rDNA Typing of Salmonella Typhi Strains from Different Geographical Locations in Sumba Island East Nusa Tenggara Indonesia AMARANTINI, CHARIS; BUDIARSO, TRI YAHYA
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 1 (2013): March 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5454/mi.7.1.3

Abstract

A total of thirteen isolates representative of Salmonella Typhi from different geographical locations in Sumba Island, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia were identified by 16S rDNA gene sequences. Bacterial DNA extraction was prepared by using a PurelinkTM Genomic DNA kit. The bacterial DNA and control were amplified using the specific primers for S. Typhi. These 16S rDNA gene sequence data were aligned with the corresponding available S. Typhi sequence and the reference organisms from the family Enterobacteriaceae from NCBI database by using the CLUSTAL X software. Phylogenetic trees were generated using the PHYLIP software package and the matrix of nucleotide similarity and nucleotide difference were generated by using the PHYDIT software. The results from the 16S rDNA analysis showed that the degree of similarity within these strains ranged from 99.13-100%. The percentage of sequence similarity between S. Typhi strains was very high (>99 %). Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the isolates formed a new center of diversity with S. Typhi ATCC 19430T as a reference strain. Based on these results, all of the tested strains belonged to species of S. Typhi suggested by their relatedness with the type strain of S. Typhi ATCC 19430T.
Bacterial Response after Exposure with Pure Metabolite Produced by Streptomyces sp. BL225 Isolated from Batanta Islands Leaf Litter NURKANTO, ARIF; AGUSTA, ANDRIA; SJAMSURIDZAL, WELLYZAR; JULISTIONO, HEDDY
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 1 (2013): March 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5454/mi.7.1.4

Abstract

The objective of this research was to investigate bacterial response after treatment with active metabolite produced by Streptomyces sp. isolated from Batanta Island. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of four clinically tested bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus) were successfully determined in this research using microdilution method. Leakages of nucleic acids and proteins from the tested microbes were detected using UV/VIS spectrophotometry method at 260 and 280 nm. Uracil leakage was analyzed using HPLC. Morphological changes of the bacterial cells were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). A Streptomyces isolate BL225 was identified based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence (1500 bp). When tested agains microbes, the MICs values of this compound were between 16-64 µg mL-1. The results indicated leakages of protein, nucleic acid and uracil from E. coli and B. subtilis cells after treatment with pure metabolite isolated from BL225. Treatment using metabolite from BL225 also caused morphological changes and damages of the target bacterial cell. BL225 had been identified as a strain that has closed relation to Streptomyces badius (98.9%).

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