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Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka
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Core Subject : Health,
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka (Journal of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals) bertujuan untuk memajukan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi di bidang radioisotop, radiofarmaka dan bidang terkait, yang diwujudkan dalam bentuk makalah ilmiah hasil penelitian atau tinjauan dan gagasan.
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Articles 102 Documents
UJI PRODUKSI Mo-99 HASIL FISI DENGAN BAHAN SASARAN FOIL LEU BUATAN P2TBDU-BATAN Lubis, Hotman; Muthalib, Abdul; Gunawan, Adang H.; Sriyono, Sriyono; Sucipto, Edi; Hambali, Hambali
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 8 (2005): JURNAL PRR 2005
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UJI PRODUKSI Mo-99 HASIL FISI DENGAN BAHAN SASARAN FOIL LEU BUATAN P2TBDU-BATAN. Selama ini telah dilaksanakan beberapa kali produksi Mo-99 dengan menggunakan bahan sasaran foil LEU buatan Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Dalam produksi Mo-99 dengan proses Cintichem yang dimodifikasibahan sasaran foil LEU sangat menentukan. Telah dilakukan uji produksi Mo-99 hasil fisi dengan bahan sasaran foil LEU (LEU, < 20% U-235) buatan P2TBDU-BATAN dengan proses Cintichem yang dimodifikasi, meliputi pelarutan foil LEU menggunakan HNO3 9,5N, penarikan gas iodium, proses pemisahan dengan pengendapan α-Benzoin Oxime dan pemurnian Mo-99 melalui kolom kromatografi. Foil LEU larut dengan sempurna selama 30 menit dan penarikan gas iodium dilakukan dengan pendinginan nitrogen cair. Setelah melalui tahap pemisahan (pengendapan) dan pemurnian kolom I dan kolom II radionuklida pengotor masih besar dan aktivitas pengotor pemancar α melebihi persyaratan standard internasional yang ditetapkan yaitu sebesar 7.716E-7 µCi/mCi Mo-99. Kata kunci: produksi Mo-99 HF, Sasaran Foil LEU P2TBDU PRODUCTION TEST OF Mo-99 FISSION PRODUCT USING LEU TARGET FOIL MADE IN P2TBDU – BATAN. Production of Mo-99 fission product using LEU target foil of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been performed several times recently in BATAN. In the production of Mo-99 using modified Cinthichem method, the LEU target foil was very critical. This paper reported production test on Mo-99 fission product using LEU target foil ( LEU < 20% U-235) made by P2TBDU – BATAN using modified Cintichem method. The process included dissolving of LEU foil with 9.5 N HNO3, suctioning of iodine gas, separation process using precipitation with α–benzoin oxime, and purification by column chromatography. The LEU foil was completely dissolved after 30 minutes and gas suction was performed by cooling with liquid nitrogen. After separation and two purification steps, the radionuclide impurities were remained high and activity of αimpurities exceeded international standard requirements, i.e. 7.716E-7 µCi/mCi Mo-99. Key words: Production of Mo-99 FP, Target foil LEU P2TBDU
PRODUKSI IODIUM-125 MENGGUNAKAN TARGET XENON ALAM Awaludin, Rohadi
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 8 (2005): JURNAL PRR 2005
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Iodium-125 merupakan radioisotop penting di bidang kedokteran nuklir. Iodium-125 dapat diproduksi melalui sasaran isotop Xe-124, baik menggunakan xenon diperkaya maupun xenon alam. Iodium-125 dengan radioaktivitas yang tinggi dapat diperoleh menggunakan xenon diperkaya. Namun, karena alasan penyediaannya, beberapa peneliti mengembangkan teknologi produksi menggunakan xenon alam. Tujuan dari kajian ini adalah mendapatkan karakteristik Iodium-125 yang dapat diperoleh dari fasilitas produksi yang ada di BATAN. Perhitungan dilakukan menggunakan gas xenon alam sebanyak 0,0223 mol. Iradiasi dilakukan sampai dengan 96 jam dan peluruhan sampai dengan 240 hari jam. Dari perhitungan diperoleh I-125 sebesar 0,384; 0,529 dan 0,583 GBq masing masing untuk iradiasi selama 24, 48 dan 72 jam. Konsentrasi radioaktivitas yang dapat diperoleh sebesar 0,128; 0,176 dan 0,194 GBq/ml. Pengotor radionuklida yang turut dihasilkan adalah Cs-135 dan Cs-137. Radioisotop Cs-135 dihasilkan sebesar 0,098; 0,113 dan 0,116 Bq dari iradiasi selama 24, 48 dan 72 jam. Sedangkan radioisotop Cs-137 dihasilkan sebesar 236 Bq dari iradiasi lebih dari 24 jam. Kata kunci : iodium-125, produksi radioisotop, xenon alam Iodine-125 is an important radioisotope in the field of nuclear medicine. Iodine-125 can be produced from Xe-124 target using natural or enriched xenon. Iodine with high radioactivity can be produced using enriched target. However, becauseof the availibility of the enriched xenon gas, some research groups develop the iodine production using natural xenon gas. The objective of this study is to obtain the characteritics of Iodine-125 produced by BATAN facility. Natural xenon gas 0.0223 mol is used in the calculation. Irradiation time is 96 hours and decay time is 240 hours. The calculation results show Iodine-125 with radioactivity 0.384, 0.529 and 0.583 GBq is obtained from irradiation time as long as 24, 48 and 72 hours. The maximum radioactivity concentrations are 0,128; 0,176 and 0,194 GBq/ml. Radionuclidic impurities are Cs-135 and Cs-137. Radioisotope of Cs-135 as high as 0.098, 0.113 and 0.116 Bq is produced from 24, 48 and 72 hours of irradiation. Cs-137 as high as 236 Bq is produced by more than 24 hours of irradiation.Key words:iodine-125, radioisotope production, natural xenon.
PEMISAHAN Mn-54 DARI HASIL IRADIASI Fe2O3 ALAM MENGGUNAKAN RESIN PENUKAR ANION Pujiyanto, Anung; Hambali, .; Kurniasih, Dede; Endang, .; Mujinah, .
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 8 (2005): JURNAL PRR 2005
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PEMISAHAN Mn-54 DARI HASIL IRADIASI Fe2O3ALAM MENGGUNAKAN RESIN PENUKAR ANION. Pembuatan radioisotop dari iradiasi target alam mempunyai keuntungan yaitu biaya produksi lebih murah, namun radioisotop yang dihasilkan mungkin mengandung radionuklida pengotor. Pembuatan Mn-54 dari iradiasi Fe2O3 alam mempunyai masalah yaitu dihasilkan juga radioisotop Fe-59. Pemisahan Mn-54 dari iradiasi Fe2O3 alam dapat dilakukan dengan melarutkan Fe2O3 alam dengan HCl kemudian hasil pelarutan dipisahkan dengan dowex 1x 8Cl- form. Telah dilakukan proses pemisahan Mn-54 dari Fe2O3 alam yang telah diiradiasi, dengan cara melarutkan Fe2O3 alam dengan HCl kemudian hasil pelarutan dipisahkan dengan dowex 1x 8Cl- form dengan variasi waktu kontak dan kosentrasi HCl yang berbeda. Hasil pemisahan Mn-54 dari hasil iradiasi Fe2O3 menunjukkan pada konsentrasi HCl 8 N dan waktu kontak 90 menit memberikan efisiensi pemisahan yang baik yaitu 7,55 % untuk Mn-54 dan 94,13% untuk Fe-59. Kata kunci:Pemisahan, Mn-54, resin penukar anion SEPARATION of Mn-54 FROM IRRADIATED NATURAL Fe2O3 USING ANION EXCHANGE RESIN. Preparation of radiosisotope from natural target has an advantage namely the production is cheaper, but the produced radioisotope may content radionuclidic impurities. Preparation of Mn-54 from irradiated natural Fe2O3 has a problem due to Fe-59 impurity . The separation of Mn-54 from irradiated natural Fe2O3 has been carried out by means of solving irradiated target using HCl and dowex resin 1 x 8 Cl form. The separation of Mn-54 from iradiated natural Fe2O3 showed a good result by 8 N HCl concentration and 90 minute contact time and efficiency was 7,55 % Mn-54 and 94,13 % for Fe-59. Key words: Separation, Mn-54 , anion exchange resin
PENGARUH PENCUCIAN LARUTAN NaOCl DAN PENAMBAHAN KOLOM KEDUA ALUMINA TERHADAP YIELD DAN LOLOSAN Mo-99 DARI GENERATOR Mo-99/Tc-99m BERBASIS PZC Gunawan, Adang Hardi; Mutalib, Abdul; Lubis, Hotman; Awaludin, Rohadi; Sulaeman, .
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 8 (2005): JURNAL PRR 2005
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PENGARUH PENCUCIAN LARUTAN NaOCl DAN PENAMBAHAN KOLOM KEDUA ALUMINA TERHADAP YIELDDAN LOLOSAN Mo-99 DARI GENERATOR Mo-99/Tc-99m BERBASIS PZC. Alumina merupakan salah satu bahan utama dalam generator Mo-99/Tc-99m yang berfungsi sebagai zat pengadsorpsi molibdenum. Keterbatasan daya serap alumina terhadap molibdenum menyebabkan senyawa ini tidak dapat digunakan sebagai pengisi kolom untuk generator Mo-99/Tc-99m yang menggunakan Mo-99 hasil aktivasi neutron. Dengan diketemukannya senyawa baru sebagai zat pengadsorpsi molibdenum yaitu PZC (poly zirconium compound), telah memberikan harapan baru untuk dapat dilakukannya pembuatan generator Mo-99/Tc-99m. Penelitian pembuatan generator Mo-99/Tc-99m dengan menggunakan senyawa PZC sebagai adsorbent merupakan bentuk kerjasama antara PRR-BATAN Serpong dengan JAERI dan Kaken Co. Jepang. Dalam penelitian ini telah dilakukan percobaan pembuatan generator Mo-99/Tc-99m dengan melihat pengaruh penambahan pencucian menggunakan larutan NaOCl terhadap Yield dan lolosan Mo-99(Mo-99 breakthrough) dalam larutan Tc-99m hasil elusi . Parameter lainnya yang digunakan untuk mengurangi lolosan Mo-99 dalam Tc-99m hasil elusi adalah penambahan kolom alumina yang ditempatkan setelah kolom Mo-99 PZC.Hasil penentuan kapasitas serap senyawa PZC terhadap molibdenum diperoleh dengan melihat aktivitas Mo-99 setelah pemanasan 3 jam campuran PZC dan molibdenum dan diperoleh hasil setiap gram PZC mampu menyerap 80-95 % mg dari 268 mg molibdenum yang direaksikan. Hasil penentuan yield elusi generator Mo-99/Tc-99m dengan larutan pencuci salin diperoleh < 50 % dan Yield meningkat menjadi > 80 % setelah pencucian dilakukan dengan menggunakan larutan NaOCl 0,5 % atau 1 % . Penggunaan larutan pencuci NaOCl 0,5 % dan penggunaan kolom alumina sebagai kolom kedua mampu menjaga kestabilan Yield hasil elusi dan meminimalkan lolosan Mo-99 pada Tc-99m hasil elusi. Kata kunci: alumina, generator PZC, Mo-99,Tc-99m, NaOCl Alumina is one of main material in Mo-99/Tc-99m generator as molybdenum adsorbent. Limitation of alumina adsorption capacity to molybdenum cause this material cannot be applied as column filler for generator Mo-99/Tc-99m using Mo-99 from neutron activation . The invention of new compound as molybdenum adsorbent , PZC ( poly zirconium compound), have shown that the materials is a promising adsorbent for generator Mo-99/Tc-99m from (n,γ) irradiated molybdenum. The research of generator Mo-99/Tc-99m by using adsorbent PZC is form of cooperation between PRR-BATAN Serpong with JAERI and Kaken Co. Japan. In this research, the effects of addition of NaOCl solution to elution yield and Mo-99 breakthrough have been done. The other parameter used in this experiment to minimize Mo-99 breakthrough in Tc-99m is addition of second column alumina placed after Mo-99 PZC column. Adsorption capacity of PZC material to molybdenum determined by heating Mo-99 solution with PZC up to 3 hours and the result indicated 1 gram PZC adsorbed 80-95 % Mo-99 from the reacted 268 mg molybdenum. Yield percentage of the Mo-99/Tc-99m generator without rinsed by saline solution obtained < 50 % and the yield increased > 80 % after the column washing by using NaOCl 0,5 % or 1 % solutions. Usage of both NaOCl 0,5 % solution and alumina column as second column can give yield stability and minimize Mo-99 breakthrough at Tc-99m effluent. Key words: Alumina, PZC generator,Mo-99,Tc-99m, NaOCl
PENGARUH WAKTU DAN SUHU INKUBASI PADA OPTIMASI ASSAY KIT RIA MIKROALBUMINARIA Susilo, Veronika Yulianti; Mondrida, Gina; Setiyowati, Sri; Sutari, .; Lestari, Wening
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 8 (2005): JURNAL PRR 2005
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Penentuan kadar albumin dalam jumlah mikro dalam urin pasien sangat penting dilakukan untuk deteksi dini mikroalbumin sebelum menjadinephropathy(gagal ginjal). Penentuan kadar mikroalbumin tersebut menggunakan teknik radioimmunoassay(RIA) dengan kit RIA Mikroalbuminuria. Kit RIA yang baru harus memberikan kinerja assayyang baik, maka setelah diproduksi komponen kit RIA Mikroalbuminuria yang memenuhi syarat perlu dilakukan rancangan assayyang tepat agar diperoleh kondisi assayyang optimum. Telah dilakukan optimasi rancangan assaykit RIA Mikroalbuminuria untuk memperoleh waktu dan suhu inkubasi yang terbaik, yaitu variasi waktu inkubasi 1 jam, 3 jam, 5 jam dan 18 jam dan suhu inkubasi 4°C, 25°C dan 37°C. Protokolassayyang optimum dicapai dengan inkubasi selama 3 jam pada 37°C, yang menghasilkan % ikatan maksimum sebesar 52% dan ikatan non spesifik (NSB) cukup rendah 0,15%. Kit RIA Mikroalbuminuria ini stabil memenuhi syarat %B/T dan %NSB dan dapat dipertahankan selama 8 minggu. Kata kunci: Optimasi, Radioimmunoassay, Mikroalbuminuria Determination of albumin content at micro quantity in a patient urine is very important for an early detection of microalbuminuria before a nephropathy (kidney failure) state to occure. Determination of albumin content in a patient urine is by radioimmunoassay technique using microalbuminuria RIA kit. In a production of a new. icroalbuminuria RIA Kit, a good assay performance should be quaranteed, therefore after RIA reagent that fulfil the required quality were obtained, an optimum assay condition should be esigned. Optimization for assay design of microalbuminuria RIA kit have been carried out in order to obtained the best incubation time and temperature. Incubation time and temperature investigated were 1 hour, 3 hour, 5 hour and 18 hour and 4°C, 25°C dan 37°C respectively. The optimum assay protocol was achieved by 3 hour incubation at 37°C, resulting a high maximum binding of 52% and very low non spesific binding (NSB) of 0,15% respectively. The microalbuminuria RIA kit was stable and comply the required %B/T and %NSB up to 8 weeks. Keywords: Optimize, Radioimmunoassay, Microalbuminuria.
ANALISIS PEMBENTUKAN PENGOTOR RADIONUKLIDA PADA UJI PRODUKSI IODIUM-125 Awaludin, Rohadi; Lubis, Hotman; Pujianto, Anung; Sarwono, Daya Agung; Suparman, Ibon
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 11 (2008): Jurnal PRR 2008
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ANALISIS PEMBENTUKAN PENGOTOR RADIONUKLIDA PADA UJI PRODUKSI IODIUM-125. Telah dilakukan evaluasi pembentukan radionuklida pada uji produksi Iodium-125 (125I) menggunakan target xenon diperkaya. Dari uji produksi yang telah dilakukan 9 kali diperoleh bahwa sampai dengan uji produksi ke-6 tidak ditemukan adanya pengotor radionuklida. Namun pada uji produksi ke 7, 8 dan 9 ditemukan adanya Iodium-126 (126I) dengan persentase 0,088%, 0,20% dan 0,28%. Radioisotop 126I dihasilkan dari penangkapan neutron oleh 125I yang telah terbentuk di dalam kamar iradiasi. Radioisotop ini ikut terbawa ke dalam botol peluruhan bersama sama dengan gas xenon hasil iradiasi pada saat pemindahan ke botol peluruhan. Diduga bahwa filter penyaring iodium yang telah dipasang di dalam fasilitas produksi 125I telah berkurang kinerjanya. Pengotor radionuklida lain yang memungkinkan terbentuk adalah 137Cs dari isotop 136Xe yang terkandung di dalam target xenon. Sampai dengan uji produksi ke-9 tidak ditemukan adanya pengotor 137Cs di dalam hasil uji produksi. Diduga bahwa 137Cs yang terbentuk tetap tertahan di kamar iradiasi. Kata kunci: Iodium-125, produksi radioisotop, pengotor radionuklida. ANALYSIS OF RADIONUCLIDE IMPURITY FORMATION IN IODINE-125 PRODUCTION TEST. Evaluation on formation of radionuclide impurity in iodine-125 (125I)production tests has been carried out. The production tests have been carried out 9 times and the radionuclide impurity was not found until the 6th test. However, The radionuclide impurity I was found in the 7th, 8th and 9th test with percentage of 0.088, 0.20 and 0.28%. Iodine-126 was produced by neutron capture of 125I in the irradiation chamber. The radioisotope moved to the decay pot together with the irradiated xenon gas. It is considered that the performance of the iodine filter has decreased. Other possibly produced radionuclide impurity is not detected in the product. It is considered that the produced chamber. Keywords: Iodine-125, radioisotope production, radionuclide impurity.
PRODUCTION OF IMMUNORADIOMETRICASSA Y (IRMA) CA 15.3 KIT COMPONENT FOR DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER Widayati, Puji; Ariyanto, Agus; Sutari, Sutari; Mondrida, Gina; Darwati, Siti
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 11 (2008): Jurnal PRR 2008
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PRODUCTION OF IMMUNORADIOMETRICASSA Y (IRMA) CA 15.3 KITCOMPONENT FOR DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER. YKI has ranked that breast cancer as a second deseas in causing death of Indonesian women (, 2007). This phenomenon has been caused by the low level of public awareness in early detection of cancers. As a consequences this kind of cancer has generally been diagnosed in advanced stadium which is difficult to be treated  In spite of this, the disease actually can be detected early by measuring level of CA 15.3, a tumor marker for breast cancer. One of such in vitro method is immunoradiometricassay (IRMA) for CA 15.3. The CA 15.3 itself is a glycoprotein of heterogen compound capable of reacting with monoclonal antibody CA 15.3. Production of the IRMA CA 15.3 kit has been performed in the Center for Radioisotope and Radiopharmac.eutical, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia. Optimization of the kit component has been carried out using several parameter including type ofmonoclonal antibody for tracer and buffer coating type. The results showed that monoclonal anti CA M37901M type is better than M37552M type for tracer production. The M3790lM gave yield about 79.51%, with specific activity 29.12 ~Ci/~g, radiochemical purity 94.21% and %B/T about11.94%. Several buffers have been evaluated and 0.05 M pH 9.6 carbonate bicarbonate buffer showed the highest specific binding when it was used as coating buffer. Preparation of IRMA CA 15.3 standard solution gave a linier relation between CA 15.3 concentration and the maximumbinding (%B/T) Y=0.227X+0.5177 and correlation coefficient R 0.9840Keywords: Radioimmunoassay, Immunoradiometricassay, tumor marker, CA-15.3
PREPARASI DAN STUDI AWAL BIODISTRIBUSI 99mTc -IMUNOGLOBULIN M YANG AKAN DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI PREPARAT PENATAH INFEKSI/INFLAMASI A, Laksmi; Setiowati, Sri; Karyadi, Karyadi; Mondrida, Gina; W, Widyastuti; A., Agus
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 11 (2008): Jurnal PRR 2008
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PREPARATION AND BIODISTRIBUTION STUDY OF 99mTc . IMMUNOGLOBULIN M AS INFECTION/INFLAMMA TION IMAGING AGENT. Thesuperiority of radiopharmaceutical compare to the other techniques of medical services, especially for diagnosis and therapy of several deadly diseases such as cancer or diagnosis of infection and iflammmation . Infection diseases are common in Indonesia, Nuclear medicine techniques which uses polyclonal antibody based radiopharmaceutical labeled with technetium-99m offers an alternative method of diagnosis infection/inflammation. Preparation of 99mTc- ImmunoglobulinM(99mTc_IgM) and its analysis have been carried out. This preparation needs several steps, first reducing IgM using mercaptoetanol with molar ratio 1:2000-12000, purification using PO-IO column ( sephadex G-25,Pharmacia), and the reduced IgM was labeled with 99mTcand MDP astranschelator. The reduced IgM was analysed using size exlusion_HPLC The radiochemical purity of 99mTc_IgM was analysed using TLC/paper chromatography. The stability in the human body was carried out by using fresh human serum after 1 and 2 hours incubation, Biodistribution test oninfected mice was carried out, the radiochemical purity of 99mTc_IgM analysed with TLC/paper chromatography was higher than 90 % for molar ratio Ab:Me 1:12000. The stability of labeled IgM in fresh human serum was stable after 1 and 2 hours incubation, biodistribution test showed higher uptake in the site of infection ( right thigh) compare to the site of uninfection ( left thigh).Keywords: Antibody, immunoglobulin-M, biodistribution,99mTc, infection/inflammation19
PERHITUNGAN PEMBUATAN EMAS-192, IRIDIUM-192 DAN LUTESIUM-177 DENGAN AKTIVASI NEUTRON UNTUK PARTIKEL NANO RADIOAKTIF Awaludin, Rohadi
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 11 (2008): Jurnal PRR 2008
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CALCULATION OF PRODUCTION OF GOLD-198, IRRIDIUM-192 ANDLUTETIUM-177 BY NEUTRON ACTIVATION FOR RADIOACTIVE NANOPARTICLE. It was reported that nanoparticle was effective for cancer treatment by thermotherapy. It is also possible to kill cancer cell by radiation of radioisotope from nanoparticle. A study on production ofradioactive nanoparticles by neutron activation has been carried out. Nanoparticles of gold, iridium and lutetium with diameter of 100 nm were studied. Calculations were carried out for irradiation at central irradiation position (CIP) of GA siwabessy reactor for 12 days. Calculation results showed that gold-198 with radioactivity of 0.378 Bq was produced in the gold nanoparticle. In the irridium nanoparticle, 192Irwith radioactivity of 0.179 Bq was produced. Radioisotope of 194Irwas also produced with radioactivity 0.337Bq at the end of irradiation in the iridium nanoparticle. The radioisotop decayed fast and became 0.000133Bq after 10 days. In the lutetium nanoparticle, I77Lu with radioactivity of 0.0884Bq was produced. In the lutetium nanoparticle, 176mLuand 177mLuwerealso produced. Lutetium-176m decayed fast and I77Lu radioactivity was 0.0095% of the I77Lu radioactivity at the end of irradiation. During neutron irradiation, the nanoparticle was put in the quartz ampule and aluminum capsules. Radioisotopes with short half life were produced in thequartz and aluminum.Keywords: gold-198, iridium-l92, lutetium-l77, neutron activation27
ANALISIS PENGAKTIVAN NEUTRON Soenarjo,, Sunarhadijoso
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 11 (2008): Jurnal PRR 2008
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NEUTRON ACT IVATION ANALYSIS. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is anelement analysis based on radioactivity characters induced by thermal neutron irradiation on target nucleus. This technique is one of the utilizations of nuclear technique in the field of chemical analysis. As compared to the non-nuclear technique based analytical method, the NAA can be superior although it can only be performed in certain analytical chemistry laboratory due to the requirement and regulation on radiation protection. The presented paper is to give brief introduction on basic principle, grouping, methodology as well as data interpretation and calculation of the NAA method. Some important aspects in connection with implementation of NAA are also discussed. In general, this paper is expected to give positive insight and understanding on the application ofnuclear techniques in the daily life, especially concerning to principle, procedure and data interpretation of NAA.keywords: Neutron activation analysis, application of nuclear techniques, radioactivity, yspectrometry,Kayzero method.

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