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Buletin Limbah
ISSN : 08535221     EISSN : -     DOI : -
Buletin LIMBAH terdiri dari rubrik atrikel dan info limbah. Rubrik artikel memuat makalah tentang Iptek Limbah meliputi tren teknologi pengolahan limbah serta aspek keselamatan lingkungan. Sedangkan info limbah berisi informasi mutakhir tentang Iptek limbah dari dalam dan luar negeri, serta aktifitas PTLR-BATAN.
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BIOAKUMULASI METIL MERKURI OLEH PERNA VIRIDIS DAN ANADARA INDICA MELALUI JALUR PAKAN Budiawan, Budiawan
Buletin Limbah Vol 16, No 2 (2013): Desember 2013
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BIOAKUMULASI METIL MERKURI OLEH PERNA VIRIDIS DAN ANADARA INDICA MELALUI JALUR PAKAN. Telah dilakukan penelitian bioakumulasi metil merkuri melalui jalur pakan menggunakan radioisotop CH3 203Hg+. Perna viridis dan Anadara indica diberi pakan isochrysis sp yang terlabel CH3 203Hg+. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Efisiensi asimilasi Perna viridis setelah 24 jam sebesar 1,147% sedangkan efisiensi asimilasi Anadara indica setelah 24 jam sebesar 0,393%. Nilai BAF pada Perna viridis adalah 5760,737 sampai dengan 10877,491 dan nilai BAF pada Anadara indica adalah 6756,617 sampai dengan 10522,4923 Kata kunci: Bioakumulasi, Perna viridis, Anadara indica, CH3 203Hg + , jalur pakan BIOACCUMULATION OF METHYLMERCURY BY PERNA VIRIDIS AND ANADARA INDICA THROUGH FOOD PATHWAY. Research of bioaccumulation of methyl mercury through food pathway that use of radioisotopes CH3 203Hg+ has been conducted. Perna viridis and Anadara indica were fed by Isochrysis sp that been have labeled wit CH3 203Hg+ . The results were showed that assimilation efficiency of Perna viridis after 24 hours were 1.147% while the efficiency of assimilation Anadara indica after 24 hours were 0.393%. BAF values in Perna viridis were up to 10877.491 5760.737 and BAF values on Anadara indica is were 6756.617 up to 10522.4923 Keywords: Bioaccumulation, Perna viridis, Anadara indica , CH3 203Hg+, Food pathway
DOSE RATE FROM NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES AND 137Cs TO THE BIOTA MARINE OF BANGKA SEA Lubis, Erwansyah; Suseno, Heny; Prihatiningsih, Wahyu Retno; Yahya, Muhamad Nur
Buletin Limbah Vol 16, No 2 (2013): Desember 2013
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DOSE RATE FROM NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES AND 137Cs TO BIOTA MARINE OF BANGKA SEA. The estimation of dose rate (External + Internal) from natural radionuclides γ-emitter and 137Cs contain in sea water and marine sediment to larvae/ small insect, mollusk/ large insect, small fish, large fish and turtle has carried out using Point Source Dose Distribution (PSDD) methodology. The results shown that the total dose rateof β and γ radiations from natural radionuclides and 137Cs from sea water and marine sediment to larvae/ small insect, mollusk/ large insect, small fish, large fish and turtle were low, just 1.6 – 15.0 % that was recommended by IAEA and DOE’s`. Base on this assessmentresults further investigation is not needed and this data can be used as a base-line for marine monitoring program if nuclear power plant (NPP) built and operated in Bangka islands. The total dose ratecalculated with PSDD methodology is compared tothe results using ERICA computer code, shownunsignificantly different. Keywords: Natural Radionuclides, 137Cs, Marine Biota, Dose rate, Base-line Data. LAJU DOSIS RADIONUKLIDA ALAM DAN 137Cs TERHADAP BIOTA LAUT PULAU BANGKA. Perkiraan laju dosis (Ekternal + Internal) dari radionuklida alam pemancar γ dan137Cs yang terdapat dalam air dan sedimen laut pesisir pulau Bangka terhadap larva/ jentik ikan, moluska, ikan kecil, ikan besar dan kura-kura telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan metodologi Point Source Dose Distribution (PSDD). Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukan bahwa laju dosis dari radiasi γ dan β yang diterima dari radionuklida alam dan 137Cs yang terdapat dalam air dan sedimen laut oleh larva/ jentik ikan, moluska, ikan kecil, ikan besar dan kura-kura relative lebih kecil dari batasan yang direkomendasikan oleh IAEA dan DOE,hanya 1.5 – 15.0 % dari yang ditetapkan sebesar 40 uGy/ jam. Berdasarkan data yang diperoleh ini tidak perlu dilakukan investigasi lebih lanjut dan data ini dapat digunakan sebagai data-dasar (base-line data) untuk program pemantauan lingkungan laut bila suatu saat PLTN beroperasi di pulau Bangka. Perhitungan laju dosis dengan menggunakan metodologi PSDD dibandingkan dengan hasil perhitungan menggunakan perangkat lunak ERICA, hasil yang diperoleh menunjukan tidaka daperbedaan yang signifikan. Kata kunci: Radionuklida alam, 137Cs, Biota Laut, Laju Dosis, Data-Dasar. INTRODUCTION Base on the assessment report in the Blue-print of National Energy Management, that
STRATEGY ON THE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL MANAGEMENT OF THE RESEARCH REACTORS IN INDONESIA Wisnubroto, Djarot Sulistyo
Buletin Limbah Vol 16, No 2 (2013): Desember 2013
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STRATEGY ON THE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL MANAGEMENT OF THE RESEARCH REACTORS IN INDONESIA. Indonesia is expected to apply the strategy of long terms to rage for spent fuel generated from the research reactors. The capacity of existing interim storage for spent fuel (ISSF) facility in principle able to accommodate all the spent fuel generated Serpong research reactor, but it must consider long-term conditions of thespent fuels and its wet storage facilities. This long-term strategy requires special attention to some parameters dealing with the water chemistry and the degradation of the materials. Besides it is necessary to built reserves pace to deal with emergencies. After the Serpong reactor decommissioned, it is recommended to build the new dry storage to accomodate all of the spent fuel in another location since the Serpong area will be very dense residential in the decades to come. The most realistic future back-end scenario is if Indonesia has nuclear power plants (NPP), then the disposal of the spent fuel generated from research reactor in the future can be done in one location with commercial spent fuel from the NPP. Keywords: Spent Nuclear Fuel. Research Reactor, Interim Storage, Long Term Storage INTRODUCTION Indonesia does not have nuclear power plant. At present Indonesia has 3 research reactors: a 30 MW MTR type multipurpose reactor at Serpong Site, a 2 MW TRIGA type research reactor at Bandung Site and a small 100 kW TRIGA type reactor at Yogyakarta site. The Research Reactors data and their status are shown in Table 1 below.The Government Regulation No. 27/2002 on Radioactive Waste Management stated that the spent nuclear fuel is prohibited to be reprocessed by user, and only gives two options, direct disposal by National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) or return to the supplier country [1]. Since it is not economical to carry out the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the research reactors, since the quantity is too small, so, Indonesia’s high interest in the safety of spent nuclear fuel management is related primarily to the repatriation to the origin country, and/or long term storage of that spent nuclear fuel generated from research reactors [2]. Table 1. Research Reactor Data in Indonesia Place/Site Maker Type Power Critical Status
SURVEI KELAUTAN DI PERAIRAN SAMUDERA HINDIA SELATAN JAWA BARAT (PERAIRAN SELAT PANAITAN SELATAN) Wahyono, Ikhsan Budi
Buletin Limbah Vol 16, No 2 (2013): Desember 2013
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SURVEI KELAUTAN DI PERAIRAN SAMUDERA HINDIA SELATAN JAWA BARAT (PERAIRAN SELAT PANAITAN SELATAN). Telah dilakukan survei kelautan yang berhubungan dengan dispersi radionuklida di perairan laut Samudera Hindia. Penilitian dilakukan dengan cara mengambil sampel air laut untuk mengetahui konsentrasi 137Cs dan melakukan pengukuran CTD. Untuk mengetahui kondisi fisis oseanografi daerah penelitian, maka dilakukan pengambilan data temperatur, salinitas, dan densitas secara vertikal dengan menggunakan CTD di tiga titik pemantauan. Data hasil rekaman CTD dapat digunakan sebagai bahan untuk menganalisis pola arus yang terjadi di lokasi penelitian. Menggunakan software Ocean Data View (ODV), data CTD diolah dan ditampilkan dalam bentuk grafik terhadap kedalaman. Konsentrasi 137Cs di perairan Selat Panaitan – Selatan Garut dengan kisaran 0,14 – 0,30 mBq/L. Konsentrasi tersebut belum mengindikasikan dampak kecelakaan Fukushima walaupun pola arus global mampu mentranspor 137Cs dari sumber (Fukushima) ke perarain Indonesia. Arus yang berada di Samudera Pasifik masuk ke perairan Indonesia melalui sistem ARLINDO. Nilai konsentrasi terendah dan tertinggi terjadi karena perbedaan jarak stasiun penelitian dengan ARLINDO. Kata kunci: survei, samudra hindia, 137Cs SURVEY OF MARINE IN SOUTH INDIAN OCEAN – EAST JAVA (STRAIT OF SOUTH PANAITAN). Marine surveys have been conducted relating to the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine waters of the Indian Ocean. The studies conducted by taking a sample of sea water to determine the concentration of 137Cs and CTD measurements. To determine the physical oceanographic conditions of the study area, then the data collection of temperature, salinity and density vertically using the CTD in three monitoring points have been performanced. CTD data recording can be used as material for analyzing the flow patterns that occur in the study site . Using the software Ocean Data View ( ODV ), CTD Data processed and displayed in graphical form on the depth . The concentration of 137Cs in Panaitan Strait - South Garut with a range of 0.14 to 0.30 mBq/L. This concentration of 137Cs has not indicated the impact the Fukushima accident although the global flow pattern although capable of transporting 137Cs source (Fukushima ) to Indonesia marine waters. The current of the Pacific Ocean waters can enter Indonesia through Arlindo system. Value of the lowest and highest concentrations occur due to differences in the distance with Arlindo research station . Keywords: Survey, Indian Ocean, 137Cs PENDAHULUAN
KORELASI KONSENTRASI 137Cs TERHADAP MINERAL LEMPUNG DALAM SEDIMEN PERAIRAN SEMENANJUNG MURIA JEPARA Suseno, Heny
Buletin Limbah Vol 16, No 2 (2013): Desember 2013
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KORELASI KONSENTRASI 137Cs TERHADAP MINERAL LEMPUNG DALAM SEDIMEN PERAIRAN SEMENANJUNG MURIA JEPARA. Penentuan kandungan 137Cs di dalam sedimen merupakan bagian dari program pemantauan lingkungan untuk memperoleh baseline data radionuklida di Semenanjung Muria Jepara. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh informasi status konsentrasi 137Cs dalam lingkungan pesisir Semenanjung Muria dan prilakunya dalam material pembentuk sedimen. Sample diambil dari 6 stasiun perairan Semenanjung Muria dan dianalisis kandungan 137Cs menggunakan gamma spektrometer. Komponen mineral pembentuk sedimen ditetapkan untuk memperoleh korelasi antara kandungan 137Cs terhadap mineral tersebut. Hasil analisis menunjukkan konsentrasi 137Cs dalam sedimen perairan Semenanjung Muria berkisar antara 1,451 ± 0,148 sampai dengan 1,630 ± 0,166 Bq.kg-1. Terdapat korelasi antara kandungan 137Cs dengan mineral lempung yang terkandung dalam sedimen. Disimpulkan sumber 137Cs dalam sedimen perairan Semenanjung Muria berasal dari run off partikel padat dari teristerial yang masuk ke perairan Semenanjung Muria Kata Kunci: Semenanjung Muria, 137Cs, Sedimen, lempung, kolerasi THE CORELATION OF 137Cs SEDIMENT CONCENTRATION TO CLAY MINERAL AT MURIA PENINSULA JEPARA. Determination of the content of 137Cs in sediments are part of the environmental monitoring program to obtain radionuclides baseline data at Muria Peninsula Jepara. This study aims to obtain information status of 137Cs concentration in the Muria Peninsula coastal environment and its behavior in sediments material. Samples was taken from 6 stations at Muria Peninsula waters and 137Cs content was analyzed using gamma spectrometer. Components of sediments mineral were determined to obtain a correlation between the 137Cs content and the mineral. The result of analysis showed that concentration of 137Cs in Muria Peninsula sediments ranged from 1.451 ± 0.148 to 1.630 ± 0.166 Bq.kg-1 . There were a correlation between the 137Cs content to clay minerals contained in the sediments. The conclution this research were the source of 137Cs in the Muria Peninsula sediments derived from the run off the solid particles that enter from terrestrial to Muria Peninsula. Keywords: Muria peninsula, 137Cs, Sediment, clay, corelation. PENDAHULUAN
PEMANFAATAN AMONIUM ZEOLIT DAN POLIMER DALAM PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH AIR PENDINGIN REAKTOR NUKLIR Aisyah, Aisyah
Buletin Limbah Vol 16, No 2 (2013): Desember 2013
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PEMANFAATAN AMONIUM ZEOLIT DAN POLIMER DALAM PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH AIR PENDINGIN REAKTOR NUKLIR. Pengoperasian reaktor nuklir akan menimbulkan limbah radioaktif yang salah satunya adalah limbah air pendingin primer yang mengandung hasil belah Sr90, Cs137 dan produk korosi Co60 . Limbah ini harus dikelola dengan baik agar tidak memberikan dampak bagi masyarakat dan lingkungan. Telah dilakukan penelitian pengolahan limbah air pendingin primer dengan memanfaatkan zeolit murni dan amonium zeolit, serta imobilisasi zeolit bekas menggunakan polimer. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari kemampuan penyerapan zeolit murni dan amonium zeolit terhadap Sr, Cs dan Co, serta karakteristik hasil imobilisasi. Percobaan dilakukan secara catu dengan mengkontakkan zeolit murni dan amonium zeolit dengan limbah air pendingin reaktor simulasi yang mengandung Sr, Cs dan Co dalam berbagai waktu kontak. Imobilisasi amonium zeolit bekas dengan polimer dilakukan pada berbagai kandungan limbah 10, 20, 30, 40 dan 50 % berat. Karakteristik blok polimer-amonium zeolit bekas yang dipelajari adalah densitas, kuat tekan dan laju pelindihan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa waktu kontak optimal adalah 90 menit dengan efisiensi penyerapan amonium zeolit lebih tinggi dibandingkan zeolit murni, dengan urutan: Sr > Co > Cs. Karakterisasi blok polimer-amonium zeolit bekas menunjukkan bahwa semakin besar kandungan limbah maka densitas dan laju pelindihan semakin tinggi dan kuat tekan semakin turun. Karakteristik blok polimer-amonium zeolit bekas terbaik diperoleh pada kandungan limbah 20 % berat dengan densitas 1,3051 g/cm-3, kuat tekan 9,68 kN/cm-2 dan tidak terdeteksi adanya hasil belah yang keluar dari blok polimer-amonium zeolit bekas. Kata kunci: Hasil belah, air pendingin reaktor, zeolit, polimer. UTILIZATION OF AMMONIUM ZEOLITES AND POLYMERS IN TREATMENT OF COOLANT WASTE OF NUCLEAR REACTOR. Operation of nuclear reactor generates radioactive wastes, and one them is the waste from primary coolant water that contain fission products Sr90, Cs137 and corrosion product Co60 . This waste must be managed to prevent impact to the community and environment. A research on treatment of primary cooling water that contain fission products by utilizing pure zeolite and ammonium zeolite, and immobilization of the spent ammonium zeolite with polymer has been completed. The aim of the research is to study both the sorption ability of pure zeolite and ammonium zeolite to Sr,Cs and Co, and the characteristics of the immobilization product. The experiments was carried out by contacting pure zeolite and ammonium zeolite with simulated waste which contain Sr,Cs and Co in a varied contact time. Immobilization of spent ammonium zeolite with a polymer is conducted in a varied waste loading, i.e.: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% weight. The characterization of the ammonium zeolite-polymer blocks was performed by the measurement of the density, compressive strength and leaching rate. The result, at the 90 minutes optimal contact time, showed that the ammonium zeolite sorption efficiency is higher than pure zeolite’s, in an order of Sr> Co> Cs. The characteristics of ammonium zeolite-polymer blocks was found to be the greater the waste loading the higher the density of the waste, as well as the compressive strength and the leaching rate. The best ammonium zeolite-polymer blocks were obtained at waste loading of 20% weight, the blocks density of 1.3051 g/cm3, and the compressive strength of 9.68 kN/cm2. The presence of fission product leaching was not detected. Keywords: Fission product, water-cooled reactor, zeolite, polymer.
OPTIMASI PENEMPATAN DISPOSAL DEMO DALAM LINGKUNGAN GEOLOGI KAWASAN NUKLIR SERPONG Sucipta, Sucipta
Buletin Limbah Vol 16, No 2 (2013): Desember 2013
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OPTIMASI PENEMPATAN DISPOSAL DEMO DALAM LINGKUNGAN GEOLOGI KAWASAN NUKLIR SERPONG. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan penyimpanan akhir sebagai fasilitas nasional pelayanan pengelolaan limbah radioaktif non PLTN dan sebagai demo-plant, akan dibangun dan dioperasikan fasilitas near surface disposal (NSD) di Kawasan Nuklir Serpong. Penyediaan fasilitas tersebut wajib mempertimbangkan aspek keselamatan masyarakat dan lingkungan. Untuk itu maka perlu dilakukan optimasi penempatan fasilitas disposal dalam lingkungan geologi berdasarkan data limbah dan data lingkungan geologi tapak sehingga sesuai dengan daya dukung lahan maupun keselamatan lingkungan. Aspek lingkungan geologi yang perlu dipertimbangkan meliputi geomorfologi, litostratigrafi, struktur geologi, geologi teknik, hidrogeologi dan potensi bencana geologi. Sasaran akhir penelitian adalah diperoleh disain fasilitas penyimpanan lestari limbah radioaktif aktivitas rendah, yang dirancang memenuhi kriteria keselamatan, yang siap untuk dilakukan konstruksi dan operasi. Berdasarkan data limbah dan karakteristik lingkungan geologi tapak Kawasan Nuklir Serpong, telah dilakukan optimasi penempatan disposal demo yang sesuai. Disposal demo yang diusulkan adalah tipe NSD dengan layout berbentuk bujur sangkar berukuran 34,60 m x 34,60 m dan tinggi 4,5 m, ditempatkan pada kedalaman 2 m dan gundukan (termasuk penutup) setinggi 2,5 m. NSD berada pada residual soil, dengan jarak antara fondasi dan muka air tanah terdangkal sebesar minimum 4 m. Konsep teknologi fasilitas NSD terdiri dari dua vault kompartemen kembar beton bertulang (reinforced concrete vault) yang dilengkapi dengan semua sistem pendukungnya. Vault sisi kiri untuk menampung paket limbah dalam shell beton 950 l sebanyak 72 shell beton dengan susunan lajur 6, baris 6 dan tumpukan 2. Vault sisi kanan untuk menampung paket limbah dalam drum 200 l sebanyak 675 drum dengan susunan lajur 15, baris 15 dan tumpukan 3. Kata kunci : optimasi, penempatan, disposal, lingkungan geologi OPTIMIZATION OF DEMONSTRATION DISPOSAL PLACEMENT IN THE GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT AT SERPONG NUCLEAR AREA. To meet the need of disposal as a national facility in services of non NPP radioactive waste management and as a demonstration plant, the near surface disposal (NSD) facility will be constructed and operated at Serpong Nuclear Area. The facility shall consider safety aspects of the public and the environment. So that, the optimization of disposal placement in the geological environment needs to be performed based on the data of waste and geological environment of the site to meet the suitability with the land capability and environmental safety. The aspects of environmental geology that must be considered are geomorphology, lithostratigraphy, geological structure, engineering geology, hydrogeology and potency of geological hazards. The end target of the study is to obtain the design of low level radioactive waste disposal facility, that is designed to meet the safety criteria, and ready to be constructed and operated. Based on the data of waste and characteristic of geological environment of Serpong Nuclear Area, the suitable optimization of demonstration disposal placement has been performed. The proposed demonstration disposal is NSD type with layout as a square 34,60 m x 34,60 m and 4,5 m in height, placed on 2 m depth and mound (include cover) 2,5 m. NSD located on residual soil zone, with minimum distance between base of foundation to highest groundwater level is 4 m. The proposed technological concept of NSD facility consists of two reinforced concrete vault, completed with all supporting system. Left vault to accomodate 72 waste packages in concrete shell 950 l with configuration 6 line, 6 column and 2 overlay. Right vault is to accomodate 675 waste packages in drum 200 l with configuration 15 line, 15 column and 3 overlay
PENETAPAN FAKTOR KOREKSI SELF ATTENUATION PADA ANALISIS SAMPEL SEDIMEN DENGAN SPEKTROMETRI GAMMA Cahyana, Chevy; Yahya, Mohamad Nur
Buletin Limbah Vol 16, No 2 (2013): Desember 2013
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PENETAPAN FAKTOR KOREKSI SELF ATTENUATION PADA ANALISIS SAMPEL SEDIMEN DENGAN SPEKTROMETRI GAMMA. Efisiensi pengukuran konsentrasi radionuklida pada analisis sampel sedimen dengan sistem spektrometri gamma dapat dipengaruhi oleh gejala self attenuation. Oleh karena itu faktor koreksi efisiensi harus ditetapkan untuk memperoleh hasil pengukuran yang lebih baik. Penetapan faktor koreksi efisiensi untuk pengukuran konsentrasi radionuklida telah dilakukan dengan metoda transmisi menggunakan sumber standar titik Cs-137 (energi 662.61 keV). Sumber standar tanah IAEA Reference Material 375 Soil digunakan sebagai standar kalibrasi efisiensi yang akan dikoreksi. Pada penelitian ini, sampel sedimen laut dicuplik dari perairan laut Jepara, Madura, Parepare, Bangka dan Balikpapan. Diperoleh faktor koreksi efisiensi berturut-turut sebesar 0.8621, 0.8266, 0.8026, 0.7705 dan 0.7406. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa faktor koreksi efisiensi akan mendekati satu jika selisih kerapatan matriksnya mendekati nol dan dimensi sampel sama dengan sumber standar Kata kunci : self attenuation, metoda transmisi, faktor koreksi DETERMINATION OF SELF ATTENUATION CORRECTION FACTOR ON SEDIMENT SAMPLE ANALYSIS BY MEAN OF GAMMA SPECTROMETRY. The efficiency of radionuclide concentration measurement on sediment sample analysis by mean of gamma spectrometry system can be influenced by self attenuation phenomenon. Based on this reason, the efficiency correction factor must be determined to get better measurement results. The determination of efficiency correction factor for radionuclide concentration measurement have been done by mean of transmision method using Cs-137 point source standard (662.61 keV energy). IAEA Reference Material 375 Soil source standard was used as efficiency calibration standard to be corrected. On this study, sea sediment samples were taken from Jepara, Madura, Parepare, Bangka and Balikpapan. The efficiency correction factors are 0.8621, 0.8266, 0.8026, 0.7705 and 0.7406. These results show that efficiency correction factor will close to one if matrix density difference close to zero and the samples have similar dimension with standard source. Keywords: self attenuation, transmision method, correction factor PENDAHULUAN Pengukuran konsentrasi radionuklida pemancar gamma pada sampe
EFFECTS OF CONCENTRATION AND BODY SIZE ON THE BIOACCUMULATION OF MERCURY ON THE ARK COCKLES ANADARA ANTIQUATA Prihatini, Wahyu; Suseno, Heny; Solihin, Dedy Duryadi
Buletin Limbah Vol 16, No 2 (2013): Desember 2013
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EFFECTS OF CONCENTRATION, AND BODY SIZE ON THE BIOACCUMULATION OF MERCURY ON THE ARK COCKLES ANADARA ANTIQUATA. The kinetics of mercury bioaccumulation on the ark cockles Anadara antiquata were investigated by using radiotracer. An aquaria experiments applied to two groups of cockles, that were smaller (10-20mm) and bigger cockles (35-45 mm), three individuals each, with two replications. Four Hg2+ concentration (0.0025; 0.005; 0.01; and 0.02 μg.L-1) with 0.5 Bq.L-1 of 203Hg2+ were treated to both groups. The experiments of bioaccumulation lasted for 14 days, continued with 5 days depuration treatments. The observed variables were Bioconcentration Factor (BCF), uptake rates, efflux rates, contents of mercury in the body, and elimination rates of mercury. The models to predict BCF and elimination rates also had made. The results showed that Hg2+ bioaccumulation on smaller cockles was higher than bigger cockles. The increased of Hg2+ concentration in the water decreased the BCF on both groups. By the steady state of exposure period, the Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) of Hg was 775,532 on smaller cockles, and 378,708 on bigger cockles. The increased of Hg2+ concentration in the medium effected the increased ofHg2+ efflux rates, and Hg2+ contents in the body on both groups, but decreased the uptake rates on bigger cockles. There were no significant differences of Hg2+ retention percentage during depuration time on both groups. Keywords: Bioaccumulation, mercury, kinetic, Bioconcentration Factor, Anadara antiquata. Pengaruh konsentrasi merkuri dan ukuran tubuh terhadap bioakumulasi merkuri pada kerang bulu Anadara antiquata. Kinetika bioakumulasi merkuri pada Anadara antiquate telah diteliti dengan menggunakan perunut radioaktif. Eksperimen akuaria dilakukan terhadap kelompok kerang ukuran kecil (10-20 mm) dan besar (35-45 mm), masing-masing tiga ekor,dengan dua ulangan. Digunakan empat konsentrasi Hg2+dalam air (0,0025; 0,005; 0,01; and 0,02 μg.L-1) yang mengandung0,5 Bq.L-1 perunut 203Hg2+. Percobaan bioakumulasi berlangsung selama 14 hari, diikuti dengan depurasi selama 5 hari. Peubah yang diukur adalah Faktor Biokonsentrasi (BCF), laju pengambilan, laju fluks masuk, kandungan Hg2+ dalam tubuh, serta laju pelepasan Hg2+. Dihasilkan pula model untuk memprediksi BCF dan laju pelepasan Hg2+. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan BCF Hg2+ pada kerang ukuran kecil lebih tinggi dibandingkan kerang ukuran besar. Peningkatan konsentrasi Hg2+ di air menyebabkan penurunan BCF kedua kelompok kerang. Pada kondisi tunak, diperoleh nilai BCF 775.532 pada kerang ukuran kecil; dan 378.708 pada kerang ukuran besar. Peningkatan konsentrasi Hg2+ di air menyebabkan peningkatan laju fluks masuk dan kandungan Hg2+ di tubuh kedua kelompok kerang, namun cenderung menurunkan laju pengambilan Hg2+ pada kerang besar. Persentase retensi Hg2+ antar kedua kelompok kerang tidak berbeda nyata selama masa depurasi. Kata kunci: Bioakumulasi, merkuri, kinetik, FaktorBiokonsentrasi, Anadaraantiquata
SEBARAN RADIONUKLIDA 239,240PU DI AIR PERMUKAAN SELAT BANGKA Makmur, Murdahayu
Buletin Limbah Vol 16, No 2 (2013): Desember 2013
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Abstract

SEBARAN RADIONUKLIDA 239,240PU DI AIR PERMUKAAN SELAT BANGKA. Telah dilakukan penentuan konsentrasi 239,240Pu di air permukaan Selat Bangka. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengumpulkan data dasar (baseline data) berkaitan dengan penetapan daerah Bangka Selatan sebagai salah satu calon tapak PLTN. Metoda yang dilakukan dengan melakukan prekonsentrasi plutonium dari 80 liter air laut yang dilakukan pada Maret dan April 2013 untuk 12 titik pengambilan sampel. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan purifikasi dan elektrodeposisi plutonium sehingga dapat dilakukan pengukuran dengan spektrometri alfa. Dari hasil pencacahan selama 48 jam, aktivitas 239,240Pu terdeteksi sangat kecil, yaitu sekitar 8.61278E-07 mBq/m3 sampai tidak terdeteksi. Melihat posisi Selat Bangka yang merupakan selat sempit antara Pulau Bangka dan Pulau Sumatera, air laut permukaannya sangat dipengaruhi oleh air sungai yang berasal dari Pulau Bangka dan Pulau Sumtera. Pengaruh tersebut juga terlihat dari salinitas yang rendah karena pengaruh pengenceran dari sungai serta mempunyai suhu yang lebih tinggi dibanding laut sekitar. Dengan demikian, dapat dikatakan kecilnya aktivitas 239,240Pu karena tidak adanya masukan bahan radioaktif dari daerah sekitar dan kecilnya pengaruh arus dunia di selat tersebut. Kata kunci: Radionuklida, 239,240Pu, air permukaan, Selat Bangka Determination of 239,240Pu concentrations have been done in surface water of Bangka Strait. This study aims to collect baseline data around of Bangka Island, as a one of the candidate site for the first nuclear power plant in Indonesia. Plutonium pre concentration from 80 liters of seawater was done in March and April 2013 around 12 point sampling. Then that samples was proceed for the purification and electro deposition of plutonium, before measured by alpha spectrometry. The results for 48 hours counting time, the activity of 239,240Pu was very low, less than 8.61278E-07 mBq/m3. Base on the position of the Bangka Strait is a narrow strait between Sumatra and Bangka Island, the sea water is strongly influenced by water from the Sumatera River. The influence is also be characterized by the low salinity due to the effect of dilution of the river and has a higher temperature than the surrounding sea. Thus, it can be said that is the absence of 239,240Pu in the Bangka Strait because no radioactive material inputs from the local area and the small effect of world ocean currents. Keywords: Radionuclides, 239,240Pu, surface water, Bangka Strait PENDAHULUAN

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