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bionature
BIONATURE adalah jurnal yang berisi tulisan yang diangkat dari hasil penelitian, gagasan konseptual, kajian dan aplikasi teori di bidang biologi. Diterbitkan dua kali setahun pada bulan april dan oktober oleh Jurusan Biologi Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Negeri Makasar
Articles
211
Articles
Inventarisasi Tanaman Berpotensi Sebagai Indikator Asam-Basa Alami Di Kota Kupang

Mahmud, Nur R. Adawiyah ( Universitas Muhammadiyah Kupang ) , Ihwan, Ihwan ( Universitas Muhammadiyah Kupang ) , Jannah, Nur ( Universitas Muhammadiyah Kupang )

bionature Vol 19, No 01 (2018): April
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

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Abstract

Abstract.  This study investigated a natural acid-base indicator which is extracted from plants in Kupang city. There are 14 plants that potential as a source of natural indicator for acid base titration, i.e, Kol Ungu (Brassica oleracea Capitata Group), Turi Merah flower (Sesbania grandiflora L. Pers), Belimbing Wuluh flower (Averhoa bilimbi L), Kaktus Merah fruit (Opuntia vulgaris Mill), Ruelia flower (Ruellia simplex), Flamboyan flower (Delonix regia), bugenvil flower (Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.), Bayam Merah leaves (Amaranthus tricolor L.) Jamblang fruit (Syzygium cumini L.), Murbey fruit (Morus alba L.), Pinang fruit (Areca catechu L.), Sirih fruit (Piper betle L.), Kunyit (Curcuma longa Linn), and Nanas Kerang leaves (Rhoeo discolor). Plants extract shows a sharp color change in acid and base solution. Promising results as a natural indicator also shown in acid base titration which is have similar equivalent point to synthetic indicator. We can use these natural indicators as an alternative to synthetic indicator because they are found to be simple, very useful, cheap, easy to extract, accurate, and eco-friendly. Keywords: Plant, Natural indicator, Acid-Base

Penentuan Kandungan Fenolik Total Dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Daun Maja (Crescentia cujete L)

Narhaeda, Narhaeda ( UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MAKASSAR ) , Hartati, Hartati ( Universitas Negeri Makassar ) , abd muis, Abd muis ( Universitas Negeri Makassar )

bionature Vol 19, No 01 (2018): April
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

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Abstract

Abstract. Maja leaves are a traditional medicine that can be used to treat wounds, headaches and diarrhea. This study aims to determine the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of maja leaf. This research was begun by extracting maja leaf using 2 solvents 70% ethanol and ethyl acetate to obtain the result of thick extract. Then it was followed by phytochemical testing to find out the secondary metabolite types contained in maja leaves and calculate the total phenolic counts in the sample with 70% ethanol solvent and ethyl acetate. The amount of phenolic content was determined by spectrophotometer technique using Folin-Ciocalteau Reagent, the results showed that 70% ethanol extract had higher phenolic content (34,5 mg / gram) than ethyl acetate solvent. The antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by the DPPH method and using BHT as a standard of free radical damping. The extract result obtained by diffraction using the partition method to separate the compounds contained in the extract. The fractionated sample yielded fractions of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and 70 % ethanol. The result of subsequent fraction determined antioxidant activity with DPPH radical color damping using spectrophotometer.  The result of antioxidant analysis showed that significant value of maja leaf extract samples was significantly different with BHT result as standard which had free radical damping result of 83,266%. Research shows that the results of maja leaf extract have the highest antioxidant activity by using 70% ethanol solvent by 57,966% and 70% ethanol fraction yield equal to 75,433%.Keyword: Leave maja, Phenolik, DPPH and Antioxidant 

Pertumbuhan dan Alokasi Biomassa Organ Tanaman Mahoni (Swietenia mahagoni L.) yang Ditanam Pada Tanah Bekas Tambang Emas dengan Perlakuan Pupuk Kandang

Ambardini, Sri ( Universitas Halu Oleo ) , Ningsih, Rita ( Universitas Halu Oleo ) , Kali, Yustina Rante ( Universitas Halu Oleo )

bionature Vol 19, No 01 (2018): April
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

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Abstract

Abstract.  The purpose of this study is to determine the growth and biomass allocation of Mahagony plant organs are planted on ex-gold mining soil with manure treatment. The experimental research with four treatments are control (without manure), manure (cow, goat, chicken) with five replications. The plant growth parameters are observed consist of plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, leaf area, rooth lenght, dry weight, and biomass percentage are located to leaves, stems and plant roots. The data are tested anova and continue with t-test. The result showed that the treatment of manure had efeect on the growth and mahagony planted on ex-golg mining soil. Plant biomass on all manure treatment are largest alloccated to leaves organ then to stems and roots. Based on t-test result that the cow manure treatment is better to supporting growth and biomass of mahagony plant than chicken manure, goat manure and control.Keywords: growth, biomass, mahagony, ex-gold mining soil, manure

Penentuan Kandungan Fenolik Dan Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Daun Tanaman Lada (Piper nigrum L.)

Hartati, Hartati ( Universitas Negeri Makassar ) , azis, andi Asmawati ( Universitas Negeri Makassar )

bionature Vol 19, No 01 (2018): April
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

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Abstract

Abstract. The aim of this study is to determine the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of pepper plant leaves (Piper nigrum L.) by using semi-polar and polar solvents. The pepper leaves are extracted using ethyl acetate and 70% ethanol.: The pepper plant leaves extracted by using maceration method and concentrated using evaporator. The determination of total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu method and measuring antioxidant activity by spectrophotometer using DPPH method (1,1 diphenyl-2-picrilhidrazil). The Result of determination of phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent method that using standard curve of gallicacid that is 4,75 mg GAE/g of 70% ethanol extract and 3.13 mg GAE / g of ethyl acetate extract. Then the antioxidant activity using ANOVA statistic analysis with Tukey test. Based on research, the results showed that there significant difference from each sample that is 70% ethanol extract results 66,13%, ethyl acetate extract results 41,30% and BHT (as control)results 83,27%. While the result of antioxidant activity from fractionation 70% ethanol, n-hexan and ethyl acetate extract results 51,10%, 51,55%, 5,23% sequentially and BHT results 83,27%.Keyword: Lada (Piper nigrum L.), extraction, phenolic content, antioxidant activity 

Analisis Ekologis Meiofauna Sebagai Bioindikator Di Pesisir Pantai Losari, Makassar

Yusal, Muh Sri ( Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Pembangunan Indonesia ) , Marfai, Muh Aris ( Sekolah Pascasarjana Lintas Disiplin Universitas Gadjah Mada ) , Hadisusanto, Suwarno ( Fakultas Geografi Universitas Gadjah Mada ) , Khakhim, Nurul ( Fakultas Biologi Universitas Gadjah Mada )

bionature Vol 19, No 01 (2018): April
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

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Abstract

Abstract.  The research aims to analyze ecological value of meiofauna as bioindicator in Losari Coast, Makassar. The total meiofauna abundance was 66791 indv/m2, consisted of 12 phylum and 91 species/genus. The stations located at the mouth of the Jeneberang River, Tanjung Merdeka, and the Tallo River  are research sites with high levels of abundance, due to the presence of organic contaminants produced by surrounding anthropogenic activity that trigger high growth of meiofauna.  ostracoda, oligochaeta, tunicata and ciliophora are the phylum with high levels of abundance compared to other meiofauna, as it that phylum has a high adaptability to the entry of pollutant material in the water. Diversity index and evenness indicates  the meioufauna in the Losari Coast categorized by a high level of diversity and evenly distributed. While  dominance index indicated that no dominant meifauna species, except at research stations located around the Losari Beach reclamation project. Keywords: Abundance, meiofauna, anthropogenic, Coastal Losari Beach, Makassar

Karakteristik Fragmen Gen Penyandi Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI) Hama Kepik Penghisap Buah Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.)

Muzuni, Muzuni ( Universitas Halu Oleo )

bionature Vol 19, No 01 (2018): April
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

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Abstract

Abstract The purpose of this research is to know the character of partial sequences of the COI gene form fruit-sucking pest. The gene fragments were isolated using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) techniques with specific primers, HlpF and HlpR. Character of gene fragments observed were fragment size, nucleotide sequence, similiarity, restriction map, and hydrophobicity. The size of the fragment was determined by electrophoresis of PCR products, similarity values were determined by aligning the nucleotide sequence of the PCR product with the nucleotides present in GenBank, the restriction map determined by the RestrictionMapper program, and the hydrophobicity profile determined by the BioEdit program. The results showed that PCR yield fragment size 552 pb. The results of alignment analysis showed that PCR fragment had similarity of 88% with Helopeltis theivora, 87% with Helopeltis antonii, 87% with Helopeltis bradyi and 84% with Pacipeltis maesarum. Based on the results of the analysis using RestrictionMapper program shows partial sequences of the COI gene form fruit-sucking pest has 25 sites of restriction enzyme cutting which is class of type II endonuclease enzyme. The results of the hydrophobicity analysis using the BioEdit program indicate that the COI protein is hydrophilic and hydrophobic which shows the integrated COI protein on the membrane.Keywords: COI gene fragment, fruit-sucking pest, PCR, Cocoa Crop

Optimasi Pembentukan Bioflok Dari Skeletonema sp., Nitzschia sp. Dan Bakteri Probiotik Melalui Variasi pH Secara In Vitro

Malle, Asnady Ibrahim ( UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MAKASSAR )

bionature Vol 19, No 01 (2018): April
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

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Abstract

Abstract. Bioflok is a microbial community consisting of bacteria, protozoa and zooplankton, as a shrimp feed supplement containing amino acids methionin, vitamins, minerals and enzymes that can help the process of digestion of feed on shrimp. Bioflux is a suspension contained in water consisting of microalgae, and bacteria that are potentially developed in the field of aquaculture that is as natural food because of high protein content as well as an alternative solution to the problem of cultivation waste. This study aims to find out how optimization of biofloc formation from Skeletonema sp., Nitzschia sp. and probiotic bacteria through the optimum salinity level used on the Walne medium. This research was conducted at Biology Laboratory of Makassar State University. This research was an experimental research using Completely Randomized Design (RAL) consisting of 5 treatments and 3 replications, ie treatment with pH 9, treatment with pH 8,5, treatment with pH 8, treatment with pH 7,5, treatment with pH 7 , pH 6.5 treatment, pH 6 treatment, and pH 5 treatment, on Walne medium using a combination of inoculant Skeletonema sp., Nitzschia sp. and probiotic bacteria. Parameters observed were biomass (dry weight) floc, floc volume, floc activity, temperature, pH, light intensity, and aeration rate. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and continued by Duncan test (α 0,05). The results showed that the treatment with pH 6.5 was the optimum salinity for biofloc formation shown by the highest floc biomass, the highest floc volume, and the highest floc activity with the floc volume indicator 0.01278 ml, dry weight (biomass) 0.00733 g / ml and floc activity 83.45 ml.Keywords: biofloc, ph, skeletonema sp., nitzschia sp., probiotic bacteria. 

Produksi Gas Nitrogen Oksida (N2O), Karbon Dioksida (CO2), dan Laju Nitrifikasi Serta Respon Mikroba Tanah Terhadap

Pagoga, Selvi ( UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MAKASSAR ) , Jumadi, Oslan ( Universitas Negeri Makassar ) , Rachmawaty, Rachmawaty ( Universitas Negeri Makassar )

bionature Vol 19, No 01 (2018): April
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

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Abstract

Abstract. The aim of this research is to know the production of nitrogen oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonium nitrate changes in soil which is given urea fertilizer with slow release material and to know the microbial population of soil bacteria oxidizing ammonium and fungi on soil which is given urea fertilizer with material slow-release ammonium. This research uses Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The gas samples taken were then analyzed by gas chromatography while the measurement of ammonium nitrate concentration was performed by using the spektofotometer. The analysis used for the test of nitrogen oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonium nitrate is the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and continued with the tukey test while the ammonium oxidizing bacteria method using the most probable number (MPN) method while the mushroom with the standard method plate count (SPC). The result showed that urea fertilizer with slow release material in incubation soil sample had significant effect on carbon dioxide gas (CO2) production and no significant effect on nitrogen oxide (N2O). The provision of slow-release urea fertilizer in incubation soil samples is significantly affected by ammonium and nitrate changes. Fertilization of slow-release urea materials in incubation soil samples did not significantly affect the number of soil microbial populations ie ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and soil fungi. Keywords: N2O, CO2, Urea, Zeolite, Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria

Pengaruh Pemberian Pupuk Urea dengan Polimer Poliakrilat, Zeolit dan Mimba (Azadirachta indica) terhadap Pertumbuhan Tanaman Jagung

Jumadi, Oslan ( Universitas Negeri Makassar ) , Karim, Hilda ( Universitas Negeri Makassar )

bionature Vol 19, No 01 (2018): April
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

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Abstract

Abstract. This research was aimed to know the growth of corn plants (Zea mays) given composite urea fertilizer with slow release material (polyacrylic polymer and zeolite) and nitrification inhibitor (mimba). This study used Randomized Block Design (RAK) with 3 repetitions. The parameters studied were growth of corn plant  comprise  stem circumference (cm), leaf chlorophyll content (%), vegetative biomass (gram), ear weight (gram), ear height (cm), leaf  nitrogen content (%) and seeds nitrogen content(%). The results showed that urea composed of polyacrylate, zeolite and neem with significant effect on ear weight and ear height, but not significantly on stem circumference, leaf chlorophyll content, vegetative biomass, leaf nitrogen and seed nitrogen content. Although it is not real and quantitatively the growth of corn plant with urea composed of polyacrylate polymers, zeolite and neem are better than negative control (yara kista MKP/ Mono Kalium Phosphate fertilizer) and positive control (urea fertilizer and yara krista MKP).Keywords: Nitrogen, corn plant growth, urea compounded polyacrylate, zeolite and neem

ptimasi Pembentukan Bioflok Dari Chaetoceros sp., Thalassiosira sp. dan Bakteri Probiotik Melalui Variasi Salinitas Secara In Vitro

Nurdin, Suciati ( UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MAKASSAR )

bionature Vol 18, No 2 (2017): Oktober
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

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Abstract

Abstract. Biofloc is a suspension contained in water consisting of microalgae, and bacteria that are potentially developed in the field of aquaculture that is as a natural food because of high protein content as well as alternative solutions to the problem of cultivation waste. This study aims to find out how the optimization of biofloc formation from Chaetoceros sp., Thalassiosira sp. and probiotic bacteria through the optimum salinity level used on the walne medium. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Biology, State University of Makassar. This study was an experimental study using a completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of 5 treatments and 3 replications, namely with salinity 30 ppt (S1), treatment with salinity 25 ppt (S2), treatment with salinity 20 ppt (S3), treatment with salinity 15 ppt (S4), and 5 ppt (S5) salinity treatment on walne medium with using a combination of inoculants Chaetoceros sp., Thalassiosira sp. and probiotic bacteria. Parameters observed were biomass (dry weight) floc, floc volume, floc activity, temperature, pH, light intensity, and aeration rate. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan test (α 0.05). The result of the research shows that the salinity of 25 ppt is the optimum salinity for biofloc formation which is indicated by the highest floc biomass, the highest floc volume, and the highest floc activity with floc biomass indicator 0.00546 g / ml, floc volume 0.0071 ml, and floc activity 77.0262%.            Keywords: Biofloc, Salinity, Chaetoceros sp., Thalassiosira sp., Probiotic Bacteria