cover
Filter by Year
bionature
BIONATURE adalah jurnal yang berisi tulisan yang diangkat dari hasil penelitian, gagasan konseptual, kajian dan aplikasi teori di bidang biologi. Diterbitkan dua kali setahun pada bulan april dan oktober oleh Jurusan Biologi Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Negeri Makasar
Articles
202
Articles
ptimasi Pembentukan Bioflok Dari Chaetoceros sp., Thalassiosira sp. dan Bakteri Probiotik Melalui Variasi Salinitas Secara In Vitro

Nurdin, Suciati ( UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MAKASSAR )

bionature Vol 18, No 2 (2017): Oktober
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (368.74 KB)

Abstract

Abstract. Biofloc is a suspension contained in water consisting of microalgae, and bacteria that are potentially developed in the field of aquaculture that is as a natural food because of high protein content as well as alternative solutions to the problem of cultivation waste. This study aims to find out how the optimization of biofloc formation from Chaetoceros sp., Thalassiosira sp. and probiotic bacteria through the optimum salinity level used on the walne medium. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Biology, State University of Makassar. This study was an experimental study using a completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of 5 treatments and 3 replications, namely with salinity 30 ppt (S1), treatment with salinity 25 ppt (S2), treatment with salinity 20 ppt (S3), treatment with salinity 15 ppt (S4), and 5 ppt (S5) salinity treatment on walne medium with using a combination of inoculants Chaetoceros sp., Thalassiosira sp. and probiotic bacteria. Parameters observed were biomass (dry weight) floc, floc volume, floc activity, temperature, pH, light intensity, and aeration rate. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan test (α 0.05). The result of the research shows that the salinity of 25 ppt is the optimum salinity for biofloc formation which is indicated by the highest floc biomass, the highest floc volume, and the highest floc activity with floc biomass indicator 0.00546 g / ml, floc volume 0.0071 ml, and floc activity 77.0262%.            Keywords: Biofloc, Salinity, Chaetoceros sp., Thalassiosira sp., Probiotic Bacteria

Aktivitas Bakteri Kitinolitik dari Cangkang Perna viridis sebagai Antifungi Phytophthora palmivora Penyebab Penyakit Busuk Buah Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.)

Khikmah, Ulfia Nurul ( Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta ) , Isroni, Muhson Isroni ( Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta ) , Maulidiya, Anisa ( Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta )

bionature Vol 18, No 2 (2017): Oktober
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (340.543 KB)

Abstract

Abstract. The emphasis on the growth of Phytophthora palmivora was important in order to reduce Pod Rot Disease of cacao (Theobrorna cacao L.) which could harm agriculture sector. Some bacteria had chitinolytic enzyme activity that is potentially used as an antifungal against Phytophthora palmivora, because the cell wall of the fungi composed of chitin. The purpose of this research was to know chitinolytic bacteria from Perna viridis shell which had higher activity of chitinase enzyme, the amount of chitinase enzyme activity of each selected isolate, and to know the effect of chitinolytic bacterial isolates from Perna viridis shell to reduce the growth of Phytophthora palmivora. The bacteria were isolated from Perna viridis shell at Depok Beach, Kretek, Bantul, Yogyakarta. This research was an explorative research which include bacterial characterization and experimental research which include antagonistic test of chitinolytic bacteria against Phytophthora palmivora. The chitinolytic bacteria was isolated using selective chitin agar medium by pour plate method and then screening the isolates that had chitinase enzyme activity by measuring the enzyme activity of each bacterial isolates by spectrophotometric method. Selected bacterial isolates were characterized by macroscopic, microscopic and physiological characters. The bacteria that had been selected tested for their ability to reduce the growth of Phytophthora palmivora by Kirby Bauer modification method. The result showed that there were 10 isolates that had chitinase enzyme activity which two selected isolates had the higher chitinase enzyme activity. There were 7D and 6B isolates. The isolate 7D had 1,258 u/ml chitinase enzyme activity and isolate 6B had 1,212 u/ml chitinase enzyme activity. The result of chitinolytic bacterial antagonist test on Phytophthora palmivora growth showed that both bacterial isolates were potential to antifungal Phytophthora palmivora and showed a real effect in inhibiting the growth of Phytophthora palmivora with significance value < 0,05.Keywords: Chitinolytic Bacteria, Perna viridis, Phytophthora palmivora

Respon Pertumbuhan Jagung (Zea mays) Dengan Pemberian Urea Bersalut Zeolit Sebagai Nitrogen Lepas Lambat

Aina, Nur ( UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MAKASSAR ) , Jumadi, Oslan ( UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MAKASSAR ) , Hiola, St. Fatmah Hiola ( UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MAKASSAR )

bionature Vol 18, No 2 (2017): Oktober
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (593.976 KB)

Abstract

Abstract. This study is an experimental research that aims to find out how the response of corn growth (Zea mays) with urea-coated zeolite as nitrogen release slowly, implemented from April to December 2017. The making of fertilizer is done in Biology Laboratory of East III Floor Department of Biology Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of Makassar State University. The cultivation and maintenance of maize was conducted at Greenhouse of Ecophysiology of Seraca Crops Research Institute (Balitsereal) Maros and Analysis of nitrogen data at Soil Laboratory of Agricultural Technology Assessment Institute (BPTP) Regency. Maros South Sulawesi. This research used Randomized Block Design (RAK) 3 grouping with Control, Urea, Phosphate, Potassium (UPK), UPK Zeolite 10%, UPK Zeolit 30%, and UPK Zeolit 50%. The corn variety used was HJ 21 Agritan. Observation parameters were stem circumference, leaf chlorophyll content, plant biomass (root, stem and leaves), cob weight, ear length, seed weight, leaf nitrogen and seed nitrogen. The technique of data origin is done by using variance analysis technique (F test) / ANOVA at the level of trust α = 0,05%. Then proceed with Duncans advanced test using SPSS statistic program 20. The results showed that there was an interaction between zeolite-coated urea fertilizer on the yield of cob and corncob with different results on the other treatment. The best results on urea-coated zeolite treatment with 10% concentration. While for stem circumference, leaf chlorophyll content, plant biomass (root, stem and leaf), seed weight, leaf nitrogen and seed nitrogen showed no effect but when viewed the average result of urea coated application of zeolite with the highest 30% concentration.Keywords: The growth of corn, the application of urea zeolite coated, slow release fertilizersp., Thalassiosira sp., Probiotic Bacteria

ersentase Mortalitas Ulat Grayak Terhadap Pemberian Ekstrak Daun Bunga Pukul Empat

Suryani, A.Irma ( UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MAKASSAR ) , Hariani, Nova ( Universitas Mulawarman Samarinda ) , Majid, Ahmad Fudhail ( UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MAKASSAR ) , Risqa, Siti ( Universitas Mulawarman Samarinda )

bionature Vol 18, No 2 (2017): Oktober
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (298.044 KB)

Abstract

Abstract. Caterpillar grayak (Spodoptera litura) is one of the pests in various types of vegetable plants are polyphagous and have a wide range of hosts. One common way of controlling farmers to overcome Spodoptera litura attack is to use insecticide. The use of insecticides that are not rational will accelerate the occurrence of pest resistance against insecticides. An alternative is needed to develop biological products which are generally narrow-spectrum chemicals to target organisms. Flowers at four (Mirabilis jalapa) contain bioactive compounds that are toxic. M. Jalapa contains some secondary metabolite compounds such as saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and polyphenols. Based on the description above it is necessary to conduct a research to determine the percentage mortality of caterpillar grayak on giving the leaf extract at four oclock flowers. The method used is leaf dipping methods and analysis with POLO-PC software. The results showed that 1.6% concentration of extract of M. jalapa can kill the number of larvae as much as 30 tails with a percentage of 75% within 48 hours. The LC50 value of mortality of M. jalapa extract on Spodoptera litura larvae was 0,507% (0,378-0,661 with p <0,05) with slope1,516 ± 0,318.Keywords: Bioinsecticides, Mirabilis jalapa, Spodoptera litura, Mortality 

Eksplorasi Dan Inventarisasi Anggrek Di Desa Tompobulu Resort Balocci Taman Nasional Bantimurung Bulusaraung

Hilmiah, Hilmiah ( UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MAKASSAR )

bionature Vol 18, No 2 (2017): Oktober
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (484.472 KB)

Abstract

Abstract. Resort Balocci of Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park is location grown many natural orchids. This research aims to knew the natural orchids species. This research used the exploration method by tracing did the study area investigation and documentation includes of took the picture and morphological characterization as basic to identification of orchids type. Exploration of natural orchid conducted in 1 location with 94 distribution point had height from 764 m dpl until 1252 m dpl. The results of research got 44 types of orchid, the research there were 3 kinds of orchids growth characteristic, epiphytic amount 38, terrestic 5, and litofit 2, while the type its growth dominated by simpodial orchid amount 26 types. Type many found that was Eulophia spectabilis. Based on the height of place, type grow in higher position was Trichotosia sp that is 1252 m dpl while lower position was Bulbophyllum sp.2, Dendrobium stuartii, Oberonia sp.1, Pholidota sp.2, dan Luisia sp.1 that is 764 m dpl. Based on light intensity visually, the most commonly found orchid in the light intensity is half as much as 35. Keywords: Natural orchids, Epiphytic, Resort Balocci, Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park Area

Variasi Pertumbuhan dan Estimasi Parameter Genetik Semai Nyawai (Ficus variegata Blume)

Haryjanto, Liliek ( Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan Jl. Palagan Tentara Pelajar Km. 15, Purwobinangun, Pakem, Sleman, Yogyakarta. )

bionature Vol 18, No 2 (2017): Oktober
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (523.27 KB)

Abstract

Abstract. Growth variation and genetic parameter estimation of Ficus variegata Blume seedlings were done at The Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, Yogyakarta at 8 months of age. Genetic materials from Banyuwangi population which comprised of 15 families and Cilacap-Pangandaran population comprised of 19 families. The trial was designed as a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with family as treatment, 3 replications and each replication comprises 10 seedlings. The purpose of this study was to observe  growth variation and genetic parameter of these populations at seedlings level. Analysis of variance was performed to find out family effect on height and diameter traits. Analysis of variance component was used to estimate coefficient of genetic variation, heritability and genetic correlation. This study showed that family effect on height and diameter variation was very significant at both populations. The estimation of coefficient of genetic variation for height and diameter trait ranged from 10.80% (categorized as intermediate) to 18.04%  (categorized as high). Family heritability estimation for height trait ranged from 0.96 to 0.99 and diameter trait ranged from 0.89 to 0.96, both categorized as high. Strong genetic correlation for height and diameter trait ranged from 0.87 to 0.89.Keywords: Nyawai, Ficus variegata,  growth, genetic parameter, seedling.

Perbandingan Konsentrasi ZPT (BAP dan NAA) Pada Media MS Terhadap Pertumbuhan Kalus Eksplan Daun Muda Tanaman Karet (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg)

Sukamto, Dwi Sucianingtyas ( IKIP PGRI Jember ) , Maharani, Lila ( IKIP PGRI Jember ) , Lestari, Inget Puji ( IKIP PGRI Jember )

bionature Vol 18, No 2 (2017): Oktober
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (279.949 KB)

Abstract

Abstract. Rubber is known in Indonesia since the Dutch colonial period. Indonesia is the second largest natural rubber producer in the world after Thailand, rubber production contributes greatly to the Indonesian economy. Propagation of rubber seedlings to date is still done by grafting is by using the eyes of buds and seed plants, one of the alternatives to meet the demand for rubber seedlings that are increasing and not dependent on the season and to produce the clonal rootstock is homogeneous by tissue culture techniques. This study aims to find out the response of callus formation of young leaf rubber plant leaves (Hevea brasiliensis Muell, Arg) on MS medium with different concentration of ZPT (BAP and NAA). This research uses Cross Sectional type of observation research, with combination of MS and ZPT media used ie MS with BAP 1.5 ppm + NAA 0,05 ppm, BAP 2 ppm + NAA 0,1 ppm, BAP 2.5 ppm + NAA 0.2 ppm. The parameters observed were the forming of callus, callus texture and callus color for 21 days. Based on the results of the study showed that MS treatment with ZPT concentration (BAP 1.5 ppm + NAA 0.05ppm) gave the best result for callus formation response with highest explanation percentage of 0,06%.Keywords. Calli, Concentration ZPT, Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg. 

Identifikasi Uji Kemampuan Hidrolisis Lemak Dan Penentuan Indeks Zona Bening Asam Laktat Pada Bakteri Dalam Wadi Makanan Traditional Kalimantan Tengah

Rizky, Mirza Yanuar ( Universitas Negeri Malang ) , Fitri, Rizka Diah ( Universitas Negeri Malang ) , Hastuti, Utami Sri ( Universitas Negeri Malang ) , Prabaningtyas, Sitoresmi ( Universitas Negeri Malang )

bionature Vol 18, No 2 (2017): Oktober
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (492.629 KB)

Abstract

Abstract. Wadi is a sort of fermented fish product from Dayak tribe in Central Kalimantan. Wadi is made with the addition of lumu, sugar, and salt, and fermented for 7-10 x 24 hours. During the fermentation process, there are microflora from fish, and microflora from lumu that play a role in fermentation process. Some species of bacteria that play a role in the wadi fermentation process are lipolytic bacteria and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). This research aims to: (1) identify the species of lipolytic bacteria and LAB that present in the wadi, (2) determine the lipid hydrolysis index and lactic acid clearance zone index of lipolytic bacteria and LAB that present in the wadi, and (3) determine the species of lipolytic bacteria and LAB which have highest ability to hydrolyze lipid and have the highest ability to produce lactic acid based on lipid hydrolysis index and lactic acid clearance zone index. The results showed that, (1) there are four species of lipolytic bacteria and LAB present in wadi: Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus casei, Nitrococcus mobilis and Streptococcus lactis; (2) the four species of bacteria have  different lipid hydrolysis index and lactic acid clearance zone index which are Lactobacillus coryniformis has a lipid hydrolysis index of 1.63 and lactic acid clearance zone index of 3.31; Lactobacillus casei has index of 1.94 and 3.96; Streptococcus lactis has index of 1.51 and 1.54 and Nitrococcus mobilis has index of 0.98 and 1.52; (3) Lactobacillus casei is a species of lipolytic bacteria and LAB which has the highest ability to hydrolyze lipid and to produce the highest lactic acid based on the lipid hydrolysis index and lactic acid clearance zone index, which are 1.94 and 3.96. Keywords: lipolitic bacteria, LAB, lipid hydrolysis index, lactic acid clearance zone, wadi.

Pengaruh Penambahan Sari Buah Tomat (Solanum lycopersicum ) Sebagai Pengencer Alami Terhadap Kualitas Penyimpanan Spermatozoa Sapi Bali (Bos sondaicus)

Astuti, Mindy Eka ( UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MAKASSAR )

bionature Vol 18, No 2 (2017): Oktober
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (378.749 KB)

Abstract

Abstract. The purpose of this research was examine the effect of juice tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as diluent on the quality of spermatozoa Bali cattle (Bos sondaicus). This research used Completely Random Design consisting of five treatments and three repetition. The treatmens are andromed, jus tomatoes- yolk egg – honey with concentration of 0 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 %. The parameters were time of formation in a macroscopic (volume, color, pH and consistency) and microscopic               (motility, life sperm percentage and abnormality). Observations were made at 0, 2, 4, 6 until 8 hour after refrigeration. The results showed that addition jus tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum)  was quality spermatozoa Bali cattle after refrigeration. Juice tomato- yolk egg – honey diluents with concentration of 20 % can produce of spermatozoa quality whether. Keywords: Spermatozoa, andromed, juice tomato, honey, yolk egg.

Identifikasi dan Uji Kemampuan Hidrolisis pada Bakteri Amilolitik dan Proteolitik yang Diisolasi dari Wadi, Makanan Khas Kalimantan Tengah

Choirunnisa, Hesti Nur ( Universitas Negeri Malang ) , Sari, Ria Yustika ( Universitas Negeri Malang ) , Hastuti, Utami Sri ( Universitas Negeri Malang ) , Witjoro, Agung Witjoro ( Universitas Negeri Malang )

bionature Vol 18, No 2 (2017): Oktober
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (433.895 KB)

Abstract

Abstract. Wadi is a sort of traditional foods that made of fish from Dayak tribe in Central Kalimantan. Wadi is made by the addition of salt and lumu. People make wadi as a supply of side dishes during difficult seasons of fish and stock for farming, hunting, or collecting forest products. In wadi, there are several bacteria species that capable in degrading amylum and protein. The bacteria capability in amylum and protein degradation can be determined by calculating the hydrolysis index. The aims of this study are to: (1) identify the amylolytic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria species from wadi, (2) determine the amylum and protein hydrolysis index on each amylolytic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria species isolated from wadi, and (3) determine the amylolytic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria species that have the highest hydrolysis index. This research is descriptive explorative research. The research results showed that: (1) there were four isolates of amylolytic bacteria isolated from wadi, i.e: Enterobacter agglomerans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Micrococcus varians, and there were five species of isolated proteolytic bacteria from wadi, i.e: Enterobacter agglomerans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Nitrococcus mobilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Micrococcus varians, (2) the amylum hydrolysis index of Enterobacter agglomerans is 3.77; on Pseudomonas fluorescens is 3.00; on Acinetobacter baumannii is 4.16; and on Micrococcus varians is 7.23. The protein hydrolysis index of Enterobacter agglomerans is 3.22; on Pseudomonas fluorescens is 2.25; on Nitrococcus mobilis is 1.67; on Acinetobacter baumannii is 3.42; and on Micrococcus varians is 3.45, (3) Micrococcus varians has the highest amylum, i.e:  7.23 and protein hydrolysis index is 3.45.Keywords: hydrolysis index, amylolytic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, wadi.