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Atom Indonesia Journal
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Core Subject : Science,
Exist for publishing the results of research and development in nuclear science and technology Starting for 2010 Atom Indonesia published three times a year in April, August, and December The scope of this journal covers experimental and analytical research in all areas of nuclear science and technology. including nuclear physics, reactor physics, radioactive waste treatment, fuel element development, radioisotopes and radio pharmaceutical engineering, nuclear and radiation safety, neutron scattering, material science and technology, as well as utilization of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, industry, health and environment.
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Articles 10 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 45, No 1 (2019): April 2019" : 10 Documents clear
Interaction of 137Cs with Sumedang Clay as Natural Barrier of Radwaste Disposal Setiawan, B.; Zhafirah, U.; Saefumillah, A.
Atom Indonesia Vol 45, No 1 (2019): April 2019
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (16.352 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2019.934

Abstract

The interaction of 137Cs with Sumedang clay as a natural barrier for radwaste disposal system has been studied. The initial concentration of Cs was 10‑8 M for the experiments on the contact time and the effect of Na and K concentrations on the sorption of 137Cs; however, the initial concentration ranging from 10‑8 to 10‑3 M of CsCl in the solution for the effect of CsCl concentration. The distribution coefficient Kd is used as the indicator of 137Cs sorption into samples. It was found that the Kd values decreased nonlinearly with the concentration of Na and K, and also to the effects of CsCl concentration. A Freundlich isotherm was proposed to explain the sorption phenomena observed in the experiment. Conclusion of the experiments shown that the presence of metal ions such as Na+ and K+ and variation of CsCl concentrations in the solution have a significant effect on the sorption of 137Cs to the samples. The results should be taken into account for the assessment or selection of the site of radwaste disposal facility in the future.
Early Lung Cancer Detection Using Artificial Neural Network Pandiangan, T.; Bali, I.; Silalahi, A. R.J.
Atom Indonesia Vol 45, No 1 (2019): April 2019
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (110.977 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2019.860

Abstract

Lung carcinoma is a malignant lung tumor that is deadly and is characterized by the uncontrolled cell growth in the tissue of lung. Normally the lung cancer detection is done by visual inspection of x-ray image by medical doctor. The purpose of this study is to create a computational tool that can automatically detect early lung cancer from x-ray image. This research has two main steps, with first being to characterize cancer or cancer symptoms based on x-ray images and second step is to develop an artificial neural network (ANN). In first step, particularly it is wanted to lay out a rigorous image processing framework with sequential steps: (i) image noise reduction, (ii) image enhancement, (iii) lung organ segmentation, (iv) object edge detection, and (v) tumor boundary detection. The framework incorporates image processing techniques such as thresholding and morphological detections (erosion and dilation). The framework is expected to reveal the relevant features that define lung cancer or early lung cancer such as area, perimeter, density profile and shape ratio. For the second step, the ANN is built based on machine learning algorithm to study a large set of x-ray images of positively diagnosed lung cancer patients. In addition to learning solely based on the 2D x-ray images, it is also incorporated the previously studied tumor features. The two combined with a large dataset is expected to enable the machine to reach a close to 100 % detection accuracy. Based on the test results of 10 samples obtained the comparative value of the calculated by the ANN with the results of measurement with Matlab program is tends to approach the same. It can be concluded that ANN has been successfully educated so that can identify 10 samples correctly.
Occupational and Patient Doses in Interventional Cardiology in Indonesia: A Preliminary Result Hiswara, E.; Ng, K.H.; Sofyan, H.; Kartikasari, D.; Nuraeni, N.
Atom Indonesia Vol 45, No 1 (2019): April 2019
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (40.96 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2019.862

Abstract

Interventional cardiology is a branch of cardiology that manages the catheter based treatment of structural heart illnesses. These minimally invasive procedures involve inserting catheters and other devices through superficial arterial and venous access sites. Due to increased reliability and advancing technology, the number and complexity of interventional cardiology procedures haves increased in recent years. The increasing complexity of the procedures, however, require longer fluoroscopic duration, leading to increased exposure time to ionizing radiation for the patient and also for the medical staff since they need to remain close to the patient throughout the procedure. This study attempts to investigate the occupational and patient doses during the course of several interventional cardiology procedures in Indonesia, i.e. CA, PCI, cathscan, PA, PTCA, TACE, PAC and peripheral vascular. Occupational doses were measured by using individually packed three chips of TLD-100 placed in over- and under-thyroid shield used by medical staff, over- and under-apron in waist position, inside a special ‘eye-D’ holder, and inside a ring holder, while patient doses were estimated by using individually packed three TLD-100 chips attached in the x-ray tube. All TLDs were calibrated in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) Jakarta. The study was performed in three big hospitals in the cities of Jakarta, Yogyakarta and Semarang. The results show that PCI procedure was the most performed one during the course of this study and gave the highest radiation doses to the staff for all type of doses calculated and measured. The maximum effective doses, eye lens doses, extremity doses, thyroid doses and gonad/ovary doses were 0.098 mSv, 0.1967 mSv, 0.7604 mSv, 0.1760 mSv and 0.0990 mSv, respectively. In the case of patient doses, the mean value of DAP for PTCA procedure of 776.76 Gy cm2 was the highest compared with those for other procedures. The results of measurement for occupational doses were in general similar to those reported by other authors, but not for patient doses that was found to be 4-5 times higher. Due to the involving of various parameters during the course of interventional cardiology procedures, it was difficult to establish a correlation between the doses received by medical staff and by the patients.
Experimental and Numerical Simulation Investigation of Single-Phase Natural Circulation in a Large Scale Rectangular Loop Antariksawan, A.R.; Widodo, S.; Juarsa, M.; Ismarwanti, S.; Saptoadi, D.; Kusuma, M.H.; Ardiyati, T.; Mahlia, T. M.I.
Atom Indonesia Vol 45, No 1 (2019): April 2019
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (145.636 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2019.762

Abstract

In order to anticipate station blackout, the use of safety system based on passive features is highly considered in advanced nuclear power plant designs, especially after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station accident. An example is the application of natural circulation in the emergency cooling system. To study the reliability of such an application, a research project on natural circulation was carried out. This paper describes the investigation results on the natural circulation phenomena obtained using a large rectangular experimental loop named FASSIP-01. The experiments were conducted at two different heat source powers. The experimental results are analysed using existing correlation and numerical model simulation. The RELAP5 system code is applied to model the natural circulation. FLUENT computational fluid dynamic code is used to visualize the flow distribution. The experimental results show the establishment of stable natural circulation in all heat power input with the mass flow rate of about 0.0012 kg/s. Calculation using the existing correlation shows that the experimental Reynold numbers are lower than predicted by the correlation. The computational fluid dynamics-based tool could show the three dimensional distribution of the temperature, while the model of RELAP5 predict well the dynamic of the single-phase natural circulation established in the experimental loop. It is concluded that the stable natural circulation have been established in the large rectangular loop and the model of the RELAP5 could simulate the observed natural circulation phenomenon reasonably well.
Investigation on Neutron Flux Effect onto Irradiated Fuel Burn-up Stored in the Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI Husain, M.A.A.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D.; Rabir, M.H.; Zakaria, N.; Zin, M.R.M.
Atom Indonesia Vol 45, No 1 (2019): April 2019
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (112.947 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2019.859

Abstract

An investigation on the out-core neutron flux in the Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI is carried out in this work to determine whether the thermal and/or fast neutron from the core would cause burn-up of the irradiated fuel stored in the same vicinity of the reactor core. The storage rack is positioned at 1 m from the central thimble.MCNPX code is used to calculate the fast and thermal neutron flux at 750 kW reactor power using 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm mesh while MATLAB model on 20 cm x 20 cm mesh model is used to plot the axial and radial distribution of the neutron flux density. The results show that the thermal neutrons occurred at  energy lower than 1 x 10-6 MeV and traveled to a maximum distance of 78 cm. The greatest flux for thermal and fast neutrons is 1 x 1013 n.cm2.s-1 and 5 x 1013 n.cm2.s-1 respectively.  The fission-rate of the fuel in the core is determined to be 3.18 x 1014 particle/s compared to 1.51 x 107 particle/s of the irradiated fuel in the storage rack. The burn-up of the fuel in the storage rack is in the order of micrograms and therefore is negligible. It is concluded that neutron flux from the core would not impart burn up effect onto the irradiated fuel stored at the storage rack in the reactor pool.
Assessment of Individual Radiosensitivity in Inhabitants of Takandeang Village - A High Background Radiation Area in Indonesia Ramadhani, D.; Purnami, S.; Nurhayati, S.; Lubis, M.; Tetriana, D.; Mailana, W.; Purwanti, K. D.; Pudjadi, E.; Kashiwakura, I.; Okazaki, R.; Syaifudin, M.
Atom Indonesia Vol 45, No 1 (2019): April 2019
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (130.989 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2019.724

Abstract

People living in high background radiation area (HBRA) possibly developed the radioadaptive response (RAR) phenomena. Mamuju area in West Sulawesi Indonesia also known as the HBRA in Indonesia due to high natural uranium contents. It is possible that RAR was developed in Mamuju inhabitants. To prove this hypothesis, here in this study evaluation of the individual radiosensitivity in Takandeang Village, Mamuju inhabitants using G2 micronucleus (MN) assay was conducted. Association between blood groups and TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism with individual radiosensitivity also evaluated in this study. Using G2 MN assay we assessed the individual radiosensitivity of Takandeang Village inhabitants and control samples. For each sample, three parameters were calculated. The spontaneous (baseline) MN number, MN number after 0.5 Gy in vitro irradiation and radiation induced MN were calculated to predict the individual radiosensitivity. The radiation induced MN was defined by subtracting the spontaneous MN number from the MN number after irradiation. The mean and SD of the number of micronucleus induced by radiation found in control group (CG) was set as the cut-off value to determine the individual radiosensitivity in all samples. The radiation induced MN higher than the mean CG + 1SD CS was scored as 1, indicating a milder radiosensitive phenotype, whereas a result higher than the mean CG + 2SD CG was scored as 2, and indicated a more severe radiosensitive phenotype. When the individual value was lower than the mean CG + 1SD CG, a score of 0 was attributed to the tested subject. Results showed that four individuals in Takandeang Village inhabitants were having a milder radiosensitive phenotype, whilst the other was categorized as normal radiosensitive. The similar finding also found in control samples. Our study failed to find a correlation between radiosensitivity and blood group also the TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism. Overall our study revealed the possibility of RAR phenomena in Takandeang Village inhabitants. Further investigation using a different point of radiation dose value and larger sample number should be performed to validate this study results.        
Assessment of Human Milk Intake by Breastfed Infants Using Deuterium Oxide Dose-to-Mother Technique in “Tumbuh Kembang Anak” Cohort, Indonesia Winarno, E.K.; Winarno, H.; Susanto, S; Fajarwati, T.; Thomas, T.
Atom Indonesia Vol 45, No 1 (2019): April 2019
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1001.478 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2019.844

Abstract

Indonesia government has done the WHO recomendation that the infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimum growth, development and health. Nevertheless, the percentage of exclusive breastfed infants have not achieved the target yet and has not been scientifically quantified. The objective of the study is to measure the intake of human milk of Indonesian infants during first 6 months and to record the breastfeeding practices of mothers. Thirty healthy mother-infant pairs were recruited randomly for the cross-sectional study at “TumbuhKembangAnak” cohort in Bogor. Milk intake to the infant was measured using the deuterium oxide technique over 14 days. The interviews were done by members of team using the questionnaire to get the information on breastfeeding practice of respondents. The results showed that intake of human milk was 784 ± 117g.d-1 (mean ± SD), 787 ± 180 g.d-1 for infants 3 and 6 moths of age. It showed that the milk intake were not different between 3 and 6 months. The body composition of mothers, age, or parityhad no effects on milk intake of infants, education of mothers (3 months aged, P = 0.061, r = -0.097 and 6 months,  P = 0.616, r = -0.095), infants of3 months aged, P = 0.200, r = -0.290 and 6 months, P = -0.078, r = 0.684). Body mass index of mother (P < 0.05, r = 0.963) were correlated with the milk intake. About 53 % of the lactating mothers started breastfeeding within less than one hour of delivery. Breast-milk intake of the Indonesian infants were documented using deuterium oxide-to-the-mother technique.In the current study concluded that the exclusive breastfeeding practices with 30 pairs of mother-infant still shows that the conditions of exclusive breastfeeding practices have not been properly adhered to by mothers who deliver babies. It is recommended that "mother and baby health officer"  in Indonesia are increasingly promoting in order mothers in urban and rural areas to breastfeed exclusively for up to 6 months
Cover Atom Indonesia Vol 45 No 1 cover, cover
Atom Indonesia Vol 45, No 1 (2019): April 2019
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (210.538 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2019.952

Abstract

Preface Atom Indonesia Vol 45 No 1 preface, preface
Atom Indonesia Vol 45, No 1 (2019): April 2019
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1105.7 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2019.953

Abstract

Acknowledgement Atom Indonesia Vol 45 No 1 ack, ack
Atom Indonesia Vol 45, No 1 (2019): April 2019
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (235.406 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2019.954

Abstract

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