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INDONESIA
Atom Indonesia Journal
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Core Subject : Science,
Exist for publishing the results of research and development in nuclear science and technology Starting for 2010 Atom Indonesia published three times a year in April, August, and December The scope of this journal covers experimental and analytical research in all areas of nuclear science and technology. including nuclear physics, reactor physics, radioactive waste treatment, fuel element development, radioisotopes and radio pharmaceutical engineering, nuclear and radiation safety, neutron scattering, material science and technology, as well as utilization of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, industry, health and environment.
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Articles 11 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 43, No 1 (2017): April 2017" : 11 Documents clear
Preparation and Characterization of Zirconia Nanomaterial as a Molybdenum-99 Adsorbent Marlina, M; Sarmini, E.; Herlina, H; Sriyono, S; Saptiama, I.; Setiawan, H.; Kadarisman, K
Atom Indonesia Vol 43, No 1 (2017): April 2017
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (13.393 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2017.587

Abstract

The present study deals with the synthesis and characterization of ZrO2 nanomaterial which can be used as an adsorbent for Molybdenum-99 (99Mo). The adsorbent can potentially be utilized as the material for 99Mo/99mTc generator column. Using the sol-gel method, monoclinic nanocrystalline zirconia was synthesized from zirconium oxychloride in isopropyl alcohol reacted with ammonium hydroxide solution in isopropyl alcohol resulting in a white gel. The gel was subsequently refluxed for 12 hours at ~95°C and pH at ~4 and then dried at 100°C. The drying gel was then calcined at 600°C for two hours. Meanwhile the orthorhombic nanocrystalline zirconia was obtained by reacting zirconium oxychloride solution with 2.5 M ammonium hydroxide solution which resulted in a white gel. The gel was then refluxed for 24 hours at ~95°C and pH at ~11 and then dried at 100°C. The drying gel was then calcined at 600°C for two hours. These materials were characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The Scherrer method is used for determination of crystallite size. The FT-IR spectra for both materials show absorption peak at 450-500 cm-1 which are attributed to Zr-O bond. The XRD pattern of monoclinic nanocrystalline form shows crystalline peaks at 2θ regions of 28.37°, 31.65°, 34°, 36°, and 50.3° with average crystallite size of 2.68 nm. Meanwhile, the XRD pattern of orthorhombic nanocrystalline form shows crystalline peaks at 2θ regions of 30°, 35°, 50°, and 60° with average crystallite size of 0.98 nm. The TEM micrograph indicates that the zirconia nanomaterials prepared were quite uniform in size and shape.Received: 12 November 2015; Revised: 9 September 2016; Accepted: 20 September 2016
Behavior of 137Cs Activity in the Sayung Waters, Demak, Indonesia Muslim, M; Suseno, H.; Pratiwi, M.J.
Atom Indonesia Vol 43, No 1 (2017): April 2017
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (64.392 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2017.588

Abstract

The behavior of anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs in the water and sediment has been examined with regard to particle size, organic sediment, and other physical conditions in the Sayung estuarine waters of Demak. Previously, this estuary was used as shrimp culture brackish water ponds that were affected by serious erosion and intrusion. Furthermore, this regency rapidly industrialized over the last three decades. The activities of 137Cs in the six stations in water and sediment were in the 0.0116-0.4509 mBq/L and 0.3747-1.2442 Bq/kg ranges with mean activities of 0.2278 mBq/L and 0.8594 Bq/kg, respectively, depending on the prevailing physicochemical regime at the sampling station. The highest activities of aqueous 137Cs occurred in station 2 but the highest in sediment occurred in station 6 located closed to the main land of Sayung. Fast current effectively diluted 137Cs as a conservative radionuclide in seawater, thus the activity of 137Cs in seawater decreased when the current speed increased. This effect was caused in part by industrial pollutants that adsorbed 137Cs and precipitated onto the surface sediment. Organic matters and clay materials in sediment were not significantly effective at binding 137Cs in Sayung waters in the industrial coastal area, but the correlation increased in open areas separated by a breakwater (second group stations) and the location further from the beach or in open sea. This indicates that industrial pollutants are more effective at binding 137Cs than organic matters and clay materials. Fine grain size sediment is also more ineffective at binding 137Cs; it may be caused by the sediments high total organic matter content.Received: 25 April 2016; Revised: 27 October 2016; Accepted: 8 November 2016
Assessment of Ionizing Radiation Induced Dicentric Chromosome and Micronuclei in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes for Preliminary Reconstruction of Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Syaifudin, M.; Lusiyanti, Y.; Purnami, S.; Lee, Y.S; Kang, C.M.
Atom Indonesia Vol 43, No 1 (2017): April 2017
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (610.974 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2017.624

Abstract

Cytological biodosimetry methodology has been widely used for determining and estimating the precise irradiation dose received by victims in the situation of emergency irradiation exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the gamma-ray induced dicentric chromosomes and micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes for preliminary reconstruction of cytogenetic biodosimetry. The study was performed by exposing blood samples taken from seven healthy donors to gamma rays at dose range of 0.1 to 4.0 Gy, followed by culturing them for 48-72 hours at 37 °C by the standard technique. After being harvested, the chromosome spread at metaphase and MN were stained with Giemsas solution. The results showed that the frequency of both dicentrics and MN of samples were increased with the increase of radiation dose. Considerable increases of both cytologic damages were found in the samples exposed to higher doses (>2 Gy). Significant differences (p>0.05) only found in mean frequencies of MN for all doses tested. Reconstruction of the relationship of these frequencies with doses was found to follow linear-quadratic curve lines and was consistent with that of other studies. Due to the aforementioned advantages namely the dependence of radiation dose and dose rate on the frequency of of both dicentric and MN, despite some limitations, these assays have been found to be suitable to be used as biological dosimetry.  It is concluded that in order for this cytogenetic biodosimety method by means of scoring/assessing the radiation-induced dicentrics and MN could be used in radiation emergency and protection, and further studies with larger numbers of samples need to be done.Received: 12 November 2015; Revised: 18 Mei 2016; Accepted: 08 December 2016
The Evaluation of the Effective Diameter (Deff) Calculation and its Impact on the Size-Specific Dose Estimate (SSDE) Anam, C.; Haryanto, F.; Widita, R.; Arif, I.; Dougherty, G.
Atom Indonesia Vol 43, No 1 (2017): April 2017
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1089.445 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2017.617

Abstract

Information on the effective diameter (Deff) is essential for estimating the dose for patients undergoing CT examinations. The purpose of this study was to calculate the effective diameter using the maximum values of lateral (LAT) and anterior-posterior (AP) diameters (Deff,m) and using LAT and AP diameters taken from the center of the image (Deff,c), and compared both estimates to the effective diameter calculated directly from the cross-sectional area of the patient (Deff,A). We evaluated 164 patients who underwent the four most frequent CT examinations, namely pelvic, abdominal, thoracic, and head examinations, using a multi-detector CT (MDCT), the Toshiba Aquilion 128. We calculated the percentage differences between Deff,c and Deff,m from Deff,A. We also used the Wilcoxon-Mann-Witney U test to statistically determine whether differences were significant. While Deff,m is statistically no different (p > 0.05) from Deff,A, Deff,c is statistically different (p ˂ 0.05) from Deff,A except for head examinations.Received: 31 May 2016; Revised: 14 December 2016; Accepted: 20 January 2017
Preface Atom Indonesia Vol 43 No 1 cover, cover
Atom Indonesia Vol 43, No 1 (2017): April 2017
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1696.042 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2017.667

Abstract

Acknowledgement Atom Indonesia Vol 43 No 1 cover, cover
Atom Indonesia Vol 43, No 1 (2017): April 2017
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (233.994 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2017.668

Abstract

Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Ruminal Degradation of Samurai 1 Sweet Sorghum Bagasse Wahyono, T.; Lelananingtyas, N.; Sihono, S
Atom Indonesia Vol 43, No 1 (2017): April 2017
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (15.672 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2017.620

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber degradability of Samurai 1 sweet sorghum bagasse, to facilitate its utilization in ruminant diets. Sorghum bagasse was obtained from Samurai 1 sorghum stem by-product after juice extraction. Gamma irradiation was carried out in a cobalt-60 irradiator in the Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation. Two polyethylene packages of samples were irradiated in gamma cell (Co-60) at doses of 50 and 100 kGy in the presence of air. Treatments were untreated/unirradiated and  50- and 100-kGy gamma irradiation. Sample were incubated in the rumen for periods of 0, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h with in sacco method. The observed parameters were the degradations of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). DM, OM and NDF degradation characteristics were also observed. DM degradation of 50 kGy irradiation dose started higher than untreated samples after 24 hours incubation while OM degradation started higher than untreated samples after 48 hours incubation. DM and OM degradation of 100 kGy irradiation started higher than untreated after 8 hours incubation. Gamma irradiation treatment of 50 kGy and 100 kGy could increase NDF degradation on 8 to 72 hours incubation. Irradiation was also capable to increase NDF degradation rate (c fraction) and ruminal effective degradation (ED) value on Samurai 1 sweet sorghum bagasse. Gamma Irradiation could break down the lignocellulose materials, break β 1,4 branch chain of cellulose and make it easily digested for rumen bacteria. The best dose of gamma irradiation for processing Samurai 1 sweet sorghum bagasse as a fiber source for ruminants was 100 kGy.Received: 10 December 2015; Revised: 10 October 2016; Accepted: 10 October 2016
Optimization of Electrodeposition Parameters to Increase 99mTc Radioactive Concentration Febrian, M.B.; Setiadi, Y.; Wibawa, T.H.A.
Atom Indonesia Vol 43, No 1 (2017): April 2017
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (220.894 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2017.618

Abstract

The use of low activity concentration 99mTc would result in low-quality labeled compound for diagnostic purpose. The low activity concentration of labeled compound will alter biodistribution and lead to false imaging in diagnostic applications. Electrodeposition could be an alternative method for increasing the activity concentration of 99mTc solution. The influence of electrodeposition parameters such as electrolytes, concentration of electrolyte, and voltage and time of deposition were examined to find the optimum condition for electrodeposition. Electrolytes to be evaluated were NaNO2, Na-oxalate, NaOH, and NaCl. Concentration factor is defined by ratio of final against initial concentration of 99mTc. The quality assessment of 99mTc after electrodeposition was conducted by labeling test of methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and 1,4,8,11-tetraaza cyclotetradecyl-1,4,8,11-tetramethylene phosphonic acid (CTMP). The results showed that the addition of NaNO2 electrolyte gave the highest electrodeposition yield in comparison with Na-oxalate, NaOH, and NaCl, while the optimum concentration of electrolytes was 0.67 M. The optimum depostion voltage and duration were 7 V and 90 minutes, respectively. The electrodeposition yield was 96 % under optimized condition with a concentration factor of up to 7.96. In the quality assessment, MDP and CTMP were successfully labeled by concentrated 99mTc to give 99mTc-MDP and 99mTc-CTMP labeled compounds with radiochemical purities of more than 95 %.Received: 2 November 2015; Revised: 14 July 2016; Accepted: 3 October 2016
Radiolabeled Antibody Fragment for Preparation of (177Lu-DOTA)m-PAMAM G3.0-F(ab’)2 trastuzumab as a Radiopharmaceutical for Cancer Therapy Haryuni, R.D.; Ramli, M.; Triningsih, T; Sutari, S
Atom Indonesia Vol 43, No 1 (2017): April 2017
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (126.025 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2017.623

Abstract

Several radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been used as radioimmunotherapy (RIT) agents for cancer therapy. The use of mAbs as RIT agents is due to their ability to carry effectors, in the form of radionuclides which emit alpha (α) particles, beta (β) particles, or auger electrons, and bind specifically to cancer expressed receptor. This paper reports the preparation of radiolabelled trastuzumab in form of (177Lu-DOTA)m-PAMAM G3-F(ab)2-trastuzumab, which will be expected as a potential RIT agent for therapy of breast cancer overexpressed human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Due to its reduced molecular weight, the use of F(ab)2-trastuzumab on the aforementioned RIT agent candidate is expected to reach its target much faster compared to the intact trastuzumab. Meanwhile, the role of PAMAM G3 is to increase the specific activity of the radiotherapeutic agent of Lu-177 due to the ability of its 32 –NH2 functional groups that are able to bind many DOTAs (£ 31) which in turn can bind a large number of 177Lu. The preparation was initiated by fragmentation of trastuzumab using pepsin enzyme in 0.02 M acetic acid buffer with a pH of 4.5 to produce F(ab)2-trastuzumab with a purity of 95 % after purification with PD-10 column. The F(ab)2-trastuzumab was then reacted with succinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC) to produce SMCC-F(ab)2-trastuzumab. The next reaction was to conjugate SMCC-F(ab)2-trastuzumab with DOTA-PAMAM G3.0-SH, which was prepared by reaction NHS-DOTA with PAMAM G3.0 and followed by reacting it with 2-iminothiolane to give (DOTA)m-PAMAM G3.0-F(ab)2-trastuzumab. Finally, the (DOTA)m-PAMAM G3.0-F(ab)2-trastuzumab was radiolabelled with 177Lu to produce (177Lu-DOTA)m-PAMAM G3.0-F(ab)2-trastuzumab, resulting in a radiochemical purity of 98 % after purification with PD-10 column.Received: 31 October 2015; Revised: 30 June 2016; Accepted: 25 September 2016
Experimental Validation of Ex-Vessel Neutron Spectrum by Means of Dosimeter Materials Activation Method Santa, S.A.
Atom Indonesia Vol 43, No 1 (2017): April 2017
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (122.481 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2017.616

Abstract

Neutron spectrum information in reactor core and around of ex-vessel reactor needs to be known with a certain degree of accuracy to support the development of fuels, materials, and other components. The most common method to determine neutron spectra is by utilizing the radioactivation of dosimeter materials. This report presents the evaluation of neutron flux incident on M3dosimeter sets which were irradiated outside the reactor vessel,as well as the validation of  neutron spectrum calculation. Al capsules containing both dosimeter set covered withCd and dosimeter set without Cd cover have been irradiated during the 35th operational cycle in the M3 ex-vessel irradiation hole position207 cmfrom core centerline at the space between the reactor vessel and the safety vessel. The capsules were positioned at Z=0.0 cm of core midplane. Each dosimeter set consists of Co-Al, Sc, Fe, Np, Nb, Ni, B, and Ta. The gamma-ray spectra of irradiated dosimeter materials were measured by 63 cc HPGe solid-state detector and photo-peak spectra were analyzed using BOB75 code. The reaction rates of each dosimeter materials and its uncertainty were analyzed based on 59Co (n,g) 60Co, 237Np (n,f) 95Zr-103Ru,  45Sc (n,g) 46Sc, 58Fe (n,g) 59Fe, 181Ta (n,g) 182Ta, and 58Ni (n,p)58Co reactions. The measured Cd ratios indicate that neutron spectrum at the irradiated dosimeter sets was dominated by low energy neutron. The experimental result shows that the calculated neutron spectra by DORT code at the ex-vessel positions need correction, especially in the fast neutron energy region, so as to obtain reasonable unfolding result consistent with the reaction rate measurement without any exception. Using biased DORT initial spectrum, the neutron spectrum and its integral quantity were unfolded by NEUPAC code. The result shows that total neutron flux, flux above 1.0 MeV, flux above 0.1 MeV, and the displacement rate of the dosimeter set not covered with Cd were 1.75× 1012 n cm2 s-1, 1.83× 108 n cm2 s-1, 2.94× 1010 n cm2 s-1, and 2.39× 10-11 dpa s-1, respectively. The uncertainty of neutron flux by NEUPAC was mainly due to the error of the initial spectrum.Received: 10 December 2015; Revised: 14 July 2016; Accepted: 25 September 2016

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