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Atom Indonesia Journal
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Core Subject : Science,
Exist for publishing the results of research and development in nuclear science and technology Starting for 2010 Atom Indonesia published three times a year in April, August, and December The scope of this journal covers experimental and analytical research in all areas of nuclear science and technology. including nuclear physics, reactor physics, radioactive waste treatment, fuel element development, radioisotopes and radio pharmaceutical engineering, nuclear and radiation safety, neutron scattering, material science and technology, as well as utilization of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, industry, health and environment.
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Articles 7 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 41, No 2 (2015): August 2015" : 7 Documents clear
The Use of Sodium Hypochlorite Solution for (n,γ)99Mo/99mTc Generator Based on Zirconium-Based Material (ZBM) Saptiama, I.; Marlina, M; Sarmini, E.; Herlina, H; Sriyono, S; Abidin, A; Setiawan, H.; Kadarisman, K; Lubis, H.; Mutalib, A.
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 2 (2015): August 2015
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (337.436 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.384

Abstract

The many problems in preparing fission product 99Mo led into this work to develop 99Mo/99mTc generator using neutron-irradiated natural MoO3 targets and, more specifically, to develop a zirconium-based material (ZBM) for chromatography columns that have an adsorption capacity of more than 100 mg Mo/g ZBM. This paper reports our recent experiments in the use of sodium hypochlorite solution of various concentrations to improve the yield of 99mTc in performance of (n,γ)99Mo/99mTc generators based on the ZBM. The synthesized ZBM was coated with tetraethyl orthosilicate for improving the hardness of the material. The adsorption of [99Mo]molybdate into ZBM was carried out by reacting ZBM into [99Mo]molybdate solution at 90°C to form ZBM-[99Mo] molybdate. ZBM-[99Mo]molybdate was then packed into generator column, then eluted with 10 × 1 mL of saline followed by 1 × 5 mL of NaOCl solution. The NaOCl solution concentrations used were 0.5%; 1%; 3%; and 5% for each column, respectively. This study resulted in a ZBM which has a 99Mo adsorption capacity of 167.5 ± 3.4 mgMo/g ZBM, as well as in a yield eluate of 99mTc of up to 70%, and the find that the optimum NaOCl concentration was 3%. The use of sodium hypochlorite solution affected 99Mo breakthrough. The higher sodium hypochlorite concentration used, the more 99Mo breaktrough exist on 99mTc eluate.Received: 22 October 2014; Revised: 21 April 2015; Accepted: 21 May 2015
A Paradigm Shift in Low Dose Radiation Biology Alatas, Z.
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 2 (2015): August 2015
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (58.388 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.379

Abstract

When ionizing radiation traverses biological material, some energy depositions occur and ionize directly deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules, the critical target. A classical paradigm in radiobiology is that the deposition of energy in the cell nucleus and the resulting damage to DNA are responsible for the detrimental biological effects of radiation. It is presumed that no radiation effect would be expected in cells that receive no direct radiation exposure through nucleus. The risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to high dose radiation. However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living organisms, including humans, respond differently to low dose radiation than they do to high dose radiation. Moreover, recent experimental evidences from many laboratories reveal the fact that radiation effects also occur in cells that were not exposed to radiation and in the progeny of irradiated cells at delayed times after radiation exposure where cells do not encounter direct DNA damage. Recently, the classical paradigm in radiobiology has been shifted from the nucleus, specifically the DNA, as the principal target for the biological effects of radiation to cells. The universality of target theory has been challenged by phenomena of radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effect and adaptive response. The new radiation biology paradigm would cover both targeted and non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation. The mechanisms underlying these responses involve biochemical/molecular signals that respond to targeted and non-targeted events. These results brought in understanding that the biological response to low dose radiation at tissue or organism level is a complex process of integrated response of cellular targets as well as extra-cellular factors. Biological understanding of the effects of radiation can be used to improve the assessment of low dose radiation risk. In this article, the mechanisms of targeted and non-targeted responses, and interrelation between the phenomena on cellular injury after exposure to low doses of radiation as they relate to low dose radiation effects will be reviewed. Received:14 October 2014; Revised:1 April 2015; Accepted: 14 April 2015
Bacterial Diversity in Buffalo Meat and Bowel from Traditional Market and the Sensitivity of Some Bacteria to Irradiation and Antibiotics Harsojo, H.; Sari, S.Y.
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 2 (2015): August 2015
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (56.481 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.381

Abstract

The population of buffaloes in Indonesia was 1.37 million in 2012, representing an increase of 5.5 % over its population the previous year. Buffaloes have been in Indonesia for such a long time, they have become a part of the lives of the majority of the Indonesian society. Research has been conducted to know the bacteria diversity in domestic buffalo meat and bowels from traditional markets in Pandeglang, Banten, in order to ascertain their safety based on their initial contamination and also to study the sensitivity of several of the bacteria to irradiation and antibiotics. The total bacterial was assessed by total plate count method as index of quality. The buffalo meat and bowel samples were taken from livers, intestines, lymph, lungs and tripe. Results showed that the contaminating bacteria were aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria including Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Staphylococcus spp. in buffalo meat and bowel. The numbers of aerobic bacteria were in the 1.7×105- 2.3×106 CFU/g range, while the total coliform bacteria were in the 2.0×103- 6.8×104 CFU/g range. The total number of E. coli was in the 2.0×103- 6.0×104 CFU/g range, and Staphylococcus spp. was in the 2.0×104- 2.7×105 CFU/g range. No Salmonella was detected in any of the samples observed. The total coliform bacteria, E. coli, and Staphylococcus spp. in all buffalo meat and bowel samples exceeded the maximum numbers of microbes permitted by the Indonesian National Standard (SNI). The maximum of total coliform, E. coli, and Staphylococcus spp. permitted by SNI are 1.0×102, 1.0×10 and 1.0×102 CFU/g, respectively. The D10 values of S. aureus were in the 0.13 - 0.23 kGy range, while for E. coli they were in the 0.07 - 0.13 kGy range. The isolate of S. aureus from the lungs was the most resistant to cefoxitin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin antibiotics. The isolate of E. coli from buffalo bowels were almost sensitive to cefoxitin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin antibiotics.  Received: 4 October 2014; Revised: 24 April 2015; Accepted: 11 May 2015
Studies of Modification of Zeolite by Tandem Acid-Base Treatments and its Adsorptions Performance Towards Thorium Nurliati, G.; Krisnandi, Y.K.; Sihombing, R.; Salimin, Z.
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 2 (2015): August 2015
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (727.76 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.382

Abstract

Hierarchical zeolite was prepared from natural zeolite using tandem acid-base treatments and applied as adsorbent for Th(IV) removal. Natural zeolite occurred naturally as microporous material. It was modified using two familiar methods simultaneously, dealumination and desilication techniques, to change its micropore size into hierarchical pores.. Extensive characterization of both natural and modified zeolites were conducted using XRD, BET, SEM-EDS, and AAS. XRD Patterns of raw, pre-treated , and acid-base tandem modified zeolites show that the modification process has not changed the crystal properties of this material. However, the Si/Al ratio is increased from 6.688 to 11.401 for Na-zeolite (NaZ) and modified zeolite, ZA2B respectively. The surface area is increased from 125.4 m2/g (NaZ) to 216.8 m2/g (ZA2B), indicative of the creation of mesopore in addition to naturally micropore structure. The application of these zeolite materials as adsorbent were carried out using solution of 50 ppm Th4+measured using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The UV-Vis result shows that the modified zeolite (ca. 10 mg) has higher adsorption capacity than natural zeolite. The adsorption process does not fit into Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm and the adsorption capacity of this material increase from 909 mg/g to 2000 mg/g for NaZ and ZA2B respectively.Received: 26 January 2015; Revised: 20 May 2015: Accepted  21 May 2015
Effect of Temperature and Mole Ratio on the Synthesis Yield of Rhenium-Tetrofosmin Widyastuti, W; Gunawan, A.H.
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 2 (2015): August 2015
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (338.599 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.380

Abstract

Technetium-99m (99mTc) tetrofosmin is widely used in nuclear medicine as a diagnostic agent for myocardial perfusion and as a tumor imaging agent. As a parenteral preparation it requires an evaluation of its pharmacokinetics and stability in-vivo. Since 99mTc has a short half-life and is only available in very low concentrations, it is impossible to characterize its chemical properties and presence in the body. Due to this reason, only technetium-99 (T1/2 = 5 × 105 years), which is available in macro quantities, or natural rhenium can be used for this purpose. In this study rhenium-188 (188Re) tetrofosmin will be synthesized and applied, because non-radioactive Re can be easily obtained. Synthesis and radiochemical purity analysis of carrier-added 188Re-tetrofosmin were carried out as a model to study the in-vivo stability of technetium-99m tetrofosmin. Rhenium-188 was used as a tracer to identify the formation of rhenium tetrofosmin. Rhenium gluconate was synthesized first prior to the formation of rhenium tetrofosmin. The quality of labeling for both rhenium gluconate and rhenium tetrofosmin was analyzed using paper- and thin-layer chromatography, respectively. Rhenium gluconate can be synthesized with high labeling yield within 1 hour, whereas rhenium tetrofosmin was synthesized both in room temperature and in an elevated temperature with various tetrofosmin-to-rhenium mole ratios.The results showed that heating at 95oC led to a higher yield of more than 90% within 30 minutes. Rhenium tetrofosmin could be produced in high radiochemical purity using an excess of tetrofosmin with mole ratio of 2000. It is concluded that rhenium tetrofosmin could be synthesized through the formation of rhenium gluconate, and a higher yield could be obtained in a shorter time by heating process. Received: 04 October 2014; Revised:14 April 2015; Accepted:15 April 2015
Feasibility of Thorium Fuel Cycles in a Very High Temperature Pebble-Bed Hybrid System Rodriguez, L.P.; Milian, D.; García, C.R.; Milian, D.E.; Brayner, C.A.; Cadavid, M.
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 2 (2015): August 2015
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (433.412 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.378

Abstract

Nuclear energy presents key challenges to be successful as a sustainable energy source. Currently, the viability of the use thorium-based fuel cycles in an innovative nuclear energy generation system is being investigated in order to solve these key challenges. In this work, the feasibility of three thorium-based fuel cycles (232Th-233U, 232Th-239Pu, and 232Th-U) in a hybrid system formed by a Very High Temperature Pebble-Bed Reactor (VHTR) and two Pebble-Bed Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs) was evaluated using parameters related to the neutronic behavior such as nuclear fuel breeding, minor actinide stockpile, the energetic contribution of each fissile isotope, and the radiotoxicity of the long lived wastes. These parameters were used to compare the fuel cycles using the well-known MCNPX ver. 2.6e computational code. The results obtained confirm that the 232Th-233U fuel cycle is the best cycle for minimizing the production of plutonium isotopes and minor actinides. Moreover, the inclusion of the second stage in the ADSs demonstrated the possibility of extending the burnup cycle duration and reducing the radiotoxicity of the discharged fuel from the VHTR.Received: 09 February 2015; Revised: 12 May 2015; Accepted: 20 May 2015
Design and Development of Carborne Survey Equipment Syarbaini, S; Bunawas, B; Susila, I.P.
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 2 (2015): August 2015
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (57.582 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.383

Abstract

In most nuclear and radiological emergencies involving the release of radioactive materials to environment, it is important that data on the geographic distribution of potentially hazardous radioactive materials be quickly presented to the authorities. The mobile radiation detection system makes it possible to measure radioactive materials in the environment at random places because of its easy mobility from place to place. The purpose of the work is to develop a mobile radiation detection system to measure gamma exposure rate, radioactive material on the ground and airborne radioactive particulate in the environment quickly. In this work, we have developed a carborne survey equipment system consisting of three gamma ray detectors, one airbome radioactive particulate sampler, a GPS (Global Positioning System), meteorological sensors, a data acquisition system and an operation software. Performance of the carborne survey equipment has been successfully demonstrated to measure iodine and argon release from medical isotope production facility on Serpong in western Java, Indonesia.Received: 04 October 2014; Revised:16 March 2015; Accepted: 23 March 2015  

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