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Atom Indonesia Journal
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Core Subject : Science,
Exist for publishing the results of research and development in nuclear science and technology Starting for 2010 Atom Indonesia published three times a year in April, August, and December The scope of this journal covers experimental and analytical research in all areas of nuclear science and technology. including nuclear physics, reactor physics, radioactive waste treatment, fuel element development, radioisotopes and radio pharmaceutical engineering, nuclear and radiation safety, neutron scattering, material science and technology, as well as utilization of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, industry, health and environment.
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Articles 7 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 41, No 1 (2015): April 2015" : 7 Documents clear
Terrestrial Gamma Radiation Exposure in Bangka-Belitung Islands, Indonesia Syarbaini, Syarbaini; Setiawan, A.
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 1 (2015): April 2015
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (18.541 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.354

Abstract

Bangka-Belitung is known as tin producer and it geologically contains higher concentrations of natural radionuclides than most other areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of terrestrial gamma radiation in Bangka-Belitung Islands. The external gamma radiation dose rate from terrestrial gamma-rays have been measured at one meter above the ground by means of a portable gamma spectrometer at 66 survey points. The terrestrial gamma dose rates in Bangka island range from 43.67 to 511.54 nGy h-1 with a mean of 183.45 nGy h-1, while in Belitung island they range from 15.54 to 416.39 nGy h-1 with a mean of 132.60 nGy h-1. From this work, a strong correlation was found between dose rates found from in-situ radiation measurements and dose rates calculated theoretically from radioactivity contents of the soil at the same locations. Generally, Bangka-Belitung islands have higher outdoor natural gamma dose rates than the world average value of 0.058 μGy h-1 for the regions with normal background radiation specified by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR).Received: 27 August 2014; Revised: 05 March 2015; Accepted: 30 March 2015
Distribution of 137Cs Radionuclide in Industrial Wastes Effluents of Gresik, East Java, Indonesia Muslim, Muslim; Suseno, H.; Rafsani, F.
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 1 (2015): April 2015
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (110.947 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.355

Abstract

The distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs was measured from industrial waste effluent of Gresik to Gresik Sea in east Java, Indonesia. The activity of 37Cs detected at all stations was much lower than in northeast Japan both before and after NPP Fukushima accident. This indicated that in Gresik industrials waste did not consist of 137Cs. The lowest activity 137Cs occurred at the station nearest to the industrial waste effluent that contained some particle ions that were able to scavenge 137Cs and then precipate this radionuclide. Furthermore, the greatest 137Cs occured at the station that has high current speeds that stirred up sediment to release 137Cs in seawater as a secondary source. The lowest salinity did not effect on the activity of 137Cs even though the lowest salinity and activity 137Cs occured at the same station.Received: 04 October 2014; Revised: 09 March 2015; Accepted 23 March 2015
Estimation of Phonon Dispersion Relations Using Correlation Effects Among Thermal Displacements of Atoms Ishikawa, Y.; Sakuma, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Xianglian, Xianglian; Kamishima, O.; Danilkin, S.A.
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 1 (2015): April 2015
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (20.323 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.349

Abstract

Neutron diffraction measurement of powder α-Fe sample at 295 K was carried out at the high resolution powder diffractometer installed at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Crystal parameters were determined from Rietveld analysis. The correlation effects among thermal displacements of atoms were estimated from a generalized equation based on the results of fomer diffuse scattering analysis. The force constants among atoms were obtained using an equation for transforming of the correlation effects to force constants. The force constants and the crystal structure of α-Fe were used to estimate the phonon dispersion relations, phonon density of states, and specific heat by computer simulation. The obtained force constants among first-nearest-neighboring atoms is 2.3 eV/Å2 at 295 K and the specific heat is 185 meV/K at 150 K. The calculated phonon dispersion relations and specific heat of α-Fe are similar to those obtained from inelastic neutron scattering and specific heat measurements, respectively. Received: 04 October 2014; Revised: 22 January 2015; Accepted: 30 March 2015
Preliminary Neutronic Design of High Burnup OTTO Cycle Pebble Bed Reactor Setiadipura, T.; Irwanto, D.; Zuhair, Zuhair
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 1 (2015): April 2015
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (695.867 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.350

Abstract

The pebble bed type High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is among the interesting nuclear reactor designs in terms of safety and flexibility for co-generation applications. In addition, the strong inherent safety characteristics of the pebble bed reactor (PBR) which is based on natural mechanisms improve the simplicity of the PBR design, in particular for the Once-Through-Then-Out (OTTO) cycle PBR design. One of the important challenges of the OTTO cycle PBR design, and nuclear reactor design in general, is improving the nuclear fuel utilization which is shown by attaining a higher burnup value. This study performed a preliminary neutronic design study of a 200 MWt OTTO cycle PBR with high burnup while fulfilling the safety criteria of the PBR design.The safety criteria of the design was represented by the per-fuel-pebble maximum power generation of 4.5 kW/pebble. The maximum burnup value was also limited by the tested maximum burnup value which maintained the integrity of the pebble fuel. Parametric surveys were performed to obtain the optimized parameters used in this study, which are the fuel enrichment, per-pebble heavy metal (HM) loading, and the average axial speed of the fuel. An optimum design with burnup value of 131.1 MWd/Kg-HM was achieved in this study which is much higher compare to the burnup of the reference design HTR-MODUL and a previously proposed OTTO-cycle PBR design. This optimum design uses 17% U-235 enrichment with 4 g HM-loading per fuel pebble.Received: 04 October 2014; Revised: 26 February 2015; Accepted: 27 February 2015
Temperature and Stretching Effects on Complementarity Determining Regions (CDRs) Conformation and Stability of Nimotuzumab F(ab)-Fragment Humani, T.S.; Martoprawiro, M.A.; Mutalib, A.
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 1 (2015): April 2015
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (11.402 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.351

Abstract

Nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb), a potential anticancer against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)overexpressed by glioma, head and neck, lung, ovarium, and colon cancers. The combination of its use with both external and internal beam radiotherapies showed improvement of the therapeutic effect. However, the high molecular weight slows its uptake on tumor cells. In a recent development, nimotuzumab has been fragmented and then labeled using diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides, such as gallium-68, yttrium-90, lutetium-177, and holmium-166. In that preparation, nimotuzumab is often conditioned in various environments with variations of pH, temperature and the presence of other compounds. In this research, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation have been carried out to study the CDRs conformational change of nimotuzumab due to the effect of temperature, and also steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation to study the stability of nimotuzumab domain as a result of external forces. The simulations were performed using the Not Just Another Molecular Dynamics (NAMD) program package and the analysis was performed with the Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) program package. Based on the stability analysis of each residue on the heavy chain, the active site (CDR3 region) that is at residues numbered 98 (Tryptophan) and 99 (Phenylalanine) has the highest conformational changes. On the light chain, the change occurs at residues numbered 1 (Aspartat), 127 (Serin), and 186 (Tyrosine); and that none of that residues is part of active site or CDRs region of the light chain. The SMD simulation was carried out by fixing the N-terminal end of the heavy chain and applying external forces to the C-terminal end. The pulling was set at a constant velocity of 0.5 Å/ps. The force peak arising at the beginning of the unfolding process is 1226 pN. This force was allegedly caused by the rupture of hydrogen bonds between the heavy chain residue VAL211 (Valine) and the heavy chain residue TYR194 (Tyrosine).Received: 04 October 2014; Revised: 13 March 2015; Accepted 23 March 2015
Determination of Lactic Acid Bacteria Viability in the Small Intestine of Catfish (Pangasius djambal) by Using the 32P Radioisotope Sugoro, I.; Fairuz, D.; Citraresmini, A.; Murni, A.P.
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 1 (2015): April 2015
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (153.178 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.352

Abstract

The viability of probiotics is important to be determined, as is its probiotic potency in the small instestine of fish. The result can be used as a basis to determine the feeding frequency of the probiotics to the fish.The aim of this study is to gain information about the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the small intestine of fish by using the 32P isotope technique. Catfish (Pangasius djambal) was used as a test fish, and the LAB with the code of P2.1 PTB was the subject of the experiment. Before its viability was tested, the LAB had been labelled with radioisotope 32P, then mixed into catfish feed. Its viability could be determined by counting the activity of 32P. The results showed that the percentage of LAB viability in the small intestine of catfish declined until day 7. The percentage of LAB viability was decreased at an amount of 30% at day 3. Based on this result, the feeding frequency of LAB P2.1 PTB is every 3 days.Received: 04 October 2014 Revised: 26 March 2015; Accepted: 05 April 2015
Study of Leachate Contamination in Bantar Gebang Landfill to Its Shallow Groundwater using Natural Isotope Tracers of 18O, 2H and 3H Pujiindiyati, E.R.; Sidauruk, P.
Atom Indonesia Vol 41, No 1 (2015): April 2015
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (291.405 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2015.353

Abstract

Leaching from Bantar Gebang landfill, Jakarta’s main municipal landfill, especially from its two waste water treatment plants (plant A in zone-3 and plant B in Sumur Batu) to underlying aquifer has been studied using isotope techniques. The study was based on the abundances of the heavier isotopes in water molocules namely 18O, 2H (deuterium) and 3H (tritium). Because both water in the waste-water treatment plants and groundwater have undergone different independent physical processes, it was assumed that each water source has its own typical finger-print in term of the abundances of 18O, 2H (deuterium) and 3H (tritium). Leachate from the two waste water treatment plants have higher 2H, 3H activities, and physical parameters (EC, TDS, and pH) values than those of groundwater samples. Because of the age and size of the two waste water treatment plants are significantly different, it was also observed that the isotope contents of plant B, younger age and smaller size, was relatively lower in 2H values and 3H activities compared to those of plant A. These phenomena have been used to identify the leaching from waste-water treatment plants of Bantar Gebang landfill to the underlying aquifer. During the dry season, it was observed that 2H values in leachate were generally higher than those in rainy season. This result might be due to the extensive methane production in the treatment plants. Conversely, 18O-shifting in leachate from local meteoric line indicated that the leachate had experienced evaporation. Buried luminescent paints in the landfill were most likely the source of high tritium activity in leachate. Based on the samples collected from the study area (mostly from dug or bore wells), it was found that the underlying aquifer especially shallow groundwater has been contaminated up to as high as 33% with leachate.Received: 19 June 2014; Revised: 13 February 2015; Accepted 22 February 2015

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