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Atom Indonesia Journal
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Core Subject : Science,
Exist for publishing the results of research and development in nuclear science and technology Starting for 2010 Atom Indonesia published three times a year in April, August, and December The scope of this journal covers experimental and analytical research in all areas of nuclear science and technology. including nuclear physics, reactor physics, radioactive waste treatment, fuel element development, radioisotopes and radio pharmaceutical engineering, nuclear and radiation safety, neutron scattering, material science and technology, as well as utilization of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, industry, health and environment.
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Articles 7 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 39, No 2 (2013): August 2013" : 7 Documents clear
Synthesis and Characterization of Graft Copolymer Rice Straw Cellulose-Acrylamide Hydrogels Using Gamma Irradiation Swantomo, D.; Rochmadi, Rochmadi; Basuki, K.T.; Sudiyo, R.
Atom Indonesia Vol 39, No 2 (2013): August 2013
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (319.713 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2013.232

Abstract

Rice straw cellulose available as waste biomass was graft copolymerized with acrylamide monomer by simultaneous gamma irradiation as initiator. The effects of bleaching of cellulose and irradiation dose were evaluated. Evidence of grafting is obtained from comparison of Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR) of the cellulose and grafted cellulose. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that crystallinity was reduced through graft copolymerization. Kinetic investigations of the graft copolymerization were also carried out, and the rate constant parameter (kp/kt0.5) has been found to be 4.9922 l0.5. mol-0.5.s-0.5. The results show that for the same dose, grafting efficiency is higher with the bleached cellulose form than with the unbleached form. The grafting efficiency and the gel fraction increases with increasing total irradiation doses. At higher radiation doses crosslink density starts to increase considerably while swelling degree decreases with the increasing crosslink density.Received: 16 January 2013 Revised: 3 June 2013; Accepted: 21 June 2013
Non-destructive Residual Stress Analysis Around The Weld-Joint of Fuel Cladding Materials of ZrNbMoGe Alloys Parikin, Parikin; Bandriyana, Bandriyana; Wahyono, I.; Ismoyo, A.H.
Atom Indonesia Vol 39, No 2 (2013): August 2013
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (420.585 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2013.233

Abstract

The residual stress measurements around weld-joint of ZrNbMoGe alloy have been carried out by using X-ray diffraction technique in PTBIN-BATAN. The research was performed to investigate the structure of a cladding material with high temperature corrosion resistance and good weldability. The equivalent composition of the specimens (in %wt.) was 97.5%Zr1%Nb1%Mo½%Ge. Welding was carried out by using TIG (tungsten inert gas) technique that completed butt-joint with a current 20 amperes. Three region tests were taken in specimen while diffraction scanning, While diffraction scanning, tests were performed on three regions, i.e., the weldcore, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the base metal. The reference region was determined at the base metal to be compared with other regions of the specimen, in obtaining refinement structure parameters. Base metal, HAZ and weldcore were diffracted by X-ray, and lattice strain changes were calculated by using Rietveld analysis program. The results show that while the quantity of minor phases tend to increase in the direction from the base metal to the HAZ and to the weldcore, the quantity of the ZrGe phase in the HAZ is less than the quantity of the ZrMo2 phase due to tGe element evaporation. The residual stress behavior in the material shows that minor phases, i.e., Zr3Ge and ZrMo2, are more dominant than the Zr matrix. The Zr3Ge and ZrMo2 experienced sharp straining, while the Zr phase was weak-lined from HAZ to weldcore. The hydrostatic residual stress (σ) in around weld-joint of ZrNbMoGe alloy is compressive stress which has minimum value at about -2.73 GPa in weldcore region. Received: 16 January 2013; Revised: 25 April 2013; Accepted: 10 June 2013
On the Temperature Dependence of the Rate Constant of the Bimolecular Reaction of Two Hydrated Electrons Butarbutar, S.L.; Muroya, Y.; Kohan, L.M.; Sanguanmith, S.; Meesungnoen, J.; Jay-Gerin, J.-P.
Atom Indonesia Vol 39, No 2 (2013): August 2013
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (126.488 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2013.231

Abstract

It has been a longstanding issue in the radiation chemistry of water that, even though H2 is a molecular product, its “escape” yield g(H2) increases with increasing temperature. A main source of H2 is the bimolecular reaction of two hydrated electrons (e-aq). The temperature dependence of the rate constant of this reaction (k1), measured under alkaline conditions, reveals that the rate constant drops abruptly above ~150°C. Recently, it has been suggested that this temperature dependence should be regarded as being independent of pH and used in high-temperature modeling of near-neutral water radiolysis. However, when this drop in the e-aq self-reaction rate constant is included in low (isolated spurs) and high (cylindrical tracks) linear energy transfer (LET) modeling calculations, g(H2) shows a marked downward discontinuity at ~150°C which is not observed experimentally. The consequences of the presence of this discontinuity in g(H2) for both low and high LET radiation are briefly discussed in this communication. It is concluded that the applicability of the sudden drop in k1 observed at ~150°C in alkaline water to near-neutral water is questionable and that further measurements of the rate constant in pure water are highly desirable.Received:13 June 2013; Revised: 27 August 2013; Accepted: 28 August 2013
Development of Data Acquisition and Control Software for Neutron Radiography Facility at Serpong, Indonesia Bharoto, Bharoto
Atom Indonesia Vol 39, No 2 (2013): August 2013
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (551.986 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2013.237

Abstract

A system for data acquisition and control software for the neutron radiography facility at Serpong has been developed. The software was developed to replace the previously existing control software which was no longer used due to problems on its computer hardware. Visual Basic running under Microsoft Windows operating system was used in developing the new software. In the hardware side, the film grabber and the motor driver were replaced. In the new system, the film grabber which was used to capture the image in the old system is replaced with a programmable CCD camera. The motor driver which was used to control the camera in two directions has been replaced with a four-direction motor driver. The software is capable of displaying the images in a real time mode and record the images in the hard disk of a personal computer. To obtain optimal image quality, the software processes the captured images by performing temperature adjustment, camera exposure time adjustment, and integration of the captured image in a certain frame numbers. The software is capable of taking a number of snapshots at a certain time interval. For neutron tomography purposes, the software takes the snapshots automatically at a sample position in line with the stepping movement of the rotating sample table. The snapshots were saved in a picture format and a numeric format for further processing. The software has been successfully tested for real time method and tomography reconstruction. The data captured by using this software has been verified using both commercial and in-house computed tomography software. Received: 16 January 2013; Revised: 20 August 2013; Accepted: 23 August 2013
The use of 32P Method to Evaluate the Growth of Lowland Rice Cultivated in a System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Citraresmini, A.; Anas, I.; Nurmayulis, Nurmayulis
Atom Indonesia Vol 39, No 2 (2013): August 2013
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (174.311 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2013.236

Abstract

A pot experiment has been conducted to evaluate the growth of the Dyah Suci, a lowland rice variety, in an SRI (System of Rice Intensification) planting system. The phosphorus-32 (32P) isotope technique was used to evaluate the growth of plants in relation with their phosphorus uptake. The uptake was assumed to vary in the same direction as the growth of the plant. The 32P uptake is assumed to vary in the opposite direction to the plant’s total phosphorus uptake. Here the 32P uptake is expressed in count per minutes (cpm) which is then transformed to disintegration per minute (dpm). The results show that, in terms of promoting the plant’s uptake of phosphorus, the SRI planting system is superior to the conventional planting system, and it is manifested in the higher dry weight of straw and grain. From this experiment it is concluded that the 32P method can be used satisfactorily as a tool for explaining therelation between P-uptake and plant growth.Received: 04 Juny 2013; Revised: 22 August 2013; Accepted: 30 August 2013
Physicochemical and Biological Analysis of 99mTc-Glutathione Radiopharmaceuticals Sriyani, M.E.; Zainuddin, N.
Atom Indonesia Vol 39, No 2 (2013): August 2013
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (165.277 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2013.235

Abstract

99mTc-glutation (99mTc-GSH) radiopharmaceutical is available in the GSH lyophilized-kit in which ready to use directly after adding 99mTc radionuclide. In nuclear medicine, 99mTc-GSH diagnostic kit is a radiopharmaceutical commonly utilized for cancer diagnoses using imaging method. This paper described the physicochemical and biological characteristics as well as the quality of 99mTc-GSH diagnostic kit prepared from the GSH lyophilized-kit. The radiochemical purity was determined with thin layer chromatography (TLC) method, performed on a TLC-SG stationary phase with a mobile phase of a dried acetone and 0,9% of NaCl solution. Studies on the effect of volume and radioactivity of Na99mTcO4 solution to the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-GSH were carried out. The sterility of GSH-lyophilized kit and toxicity of 99mTc-GSH were also investigated. The stability test on GSH lyophilized kit and 99mTc-GSH in several storage conditions, as well as the plasma stability of 99mTc-GSH was performed. The analysis result showed that the GSH lyophilized-kit was sterile; the 99mTc-GSH was non toxic with 99.54 ± 0.01% of radiochemical purity and remained stable 5 hours either at room temperature or 4 oC. The volume more than 4 mL of Na99mTcO4 solution on the labeling of GSH could decreased the 99mTc-GSH radiochemical purity, while the radioactivity more than 20 mCi in 7 mL of volume extended the incubation time. In-vitro stability test of 99mTc-GSH in plasma showed that in the two hours of storage, the radiochemical purity decreased to 51.84 ± 2.52%, and until 5 hours of storage it did not change significantly. From the result, it can be concluded that the GSH lyophilized-kit was remained stable after 13 month of storage either at room temperature or at 4 oC with 99% of 99mTc-GSH radiochemical purity.Received: 16 January 2013; Revised: 23 August 2013; Accepted: 24 August 2013
The Preliminary Prototype of Medium Dose Rate Brachytherapy Equipment Satmoko, A.; Harjanto, T.; Putra, I.M.; Kristiyanti, Kristiyanti
Atom Indonesia Vol 39, No 2 (2013): August 2013
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (374.904 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2013.234

Abstract

A preliminary prototype of a brachytherapy equipment has been constructed. The work started by developing conceptual design, followed by basic design and detailed design. In the conceptual design, design requirements are stated. In the basic design, technical specifications for main components are determined. In detailed design, general drawings are discussed. The prototype consists of three main systems: a mechanical system, an instrumentation system, and a safety system. The mechanical system assures the movement mechanism of the isotope source position beginning from the standby position until the applicators. It consists of three main modules: a position handling module, a container module, and a channel distribution module. The position handling module serves to move the isotope source position. As shielding, the second module is to store the source when the equipment is in standby position. The prototype provides 12 output channels.  The channel selection is performed by the third module. The instrumentation system controls the movement of source position by handling motor operations. It consists of several modules. A microcontroller module serves as a control center whose task includes both controlling motors and communicating with computer. A motor module serves to handle motors. 10 sensors, including their signal conditionings, are introduced to read the environment conditions of the equipment. LEDs are used to display these conditions. In order to facilitate the operators’ duty, communication via RS232 is provided. The brachytherapy equipment can therefore be operated by using computer. Interface software is developed using C# language. To complete both mechanical and instrumentation systems performance, a safety system is developed to make sure that the safety for operator and patients from receiving excessive radiation. An interlock system is introduced to guard against abnormal conditions. In the worst case, a manual intervention by the operator is provided when all other means are failing to store the isotope source into the safe container. The tests showed good results. The prototype can send the isotope source to applicators. The isotope source can be positioned with an accuracy of  ± 0.5 mm and with a speed of 550 mm/second. These characteristics meet the design criteria.Received: 16 January 2013; Revised: 26 August 2013; Accepted: 29 August 2013

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