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INDONESIA
Atom Indonesia Journal
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Core Subject : Science,
Exist for publishing the results of research and development in nuclear science and technology Starting for 2010 Atom Indonesia published three times a year in April, August, and December The scope of this journal covers experimental and analytical research in all areas of nuclear science and technology. including nuclear physics, reactor physics, radioactive waste treatment, fuel element development, radioisotopes and radio pharmaceutical engineering, nuclear and radiation safety, neutron scattering, material science and technology, as well as utilization of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, industry, health and environment.
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Articles 7 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 38, No 1 (2012): April 2012" : 7 Documents clear
Conceptual Design Study of 13 MeV Proton Cyclotron Silakhuddin, Silakhuddin; Santosa, S.
Atom Indonesia Vol 38, No 1 (2012): April 2012
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (254.407 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2012.135

Abstract

A study to determine the conceptual design of a 13 MeV proton cyclotron for PET (Positron Emission Tomography) facility has been carried out. Based on studies on reactions of PET radioisotopes production, reaction cross-sections and some design references, a design of the proton cyclotron is proposed. The design criteria for the main components are decided using empirical and semitheoretical methods, as well as by referring to data regarding cyclotrons for PET production. The empirical method was carried out by using some data from operational experiences of BATAN cyclotron at Serpong, while the semitheoretical method was carried out by using the commonly used equations of cyclotron basic theory. The general layout of components and the main components, namely the ion source, the RF dees, the magnet, and the extractor are discussed. Based on the calculations and on the data used, the cyclotron is designed as a negative ion acceleration cyclotron with internal ion source. The designated proton energy and beam currents are 13 MeV and 50 µA. Its magnetic field is in the relativistic mode with sectors on the pole. The magnetic field intensity at the extraction radius is 12.745 kG and in the innermost radius is 12.571 kG. The magnetic poles consist of four sectors to make adequate space for components placement such as dees, ion source, extractor and beam probe. The dee angle is 430. The dee operates at 78 MHz on the fourth harmonic. A multifoil extractor is chosen to obtain an efficient operation.Received: 28 April 2011; Revised: 27 March 2012; Accepted: 30 April 2012
Preparation of Sulfonated Poly (ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene-graft-styrene) Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell by using Gamma Irradiation Technique Suliwarno, A.
Atom Indonesia Vol 38, No 1 (2012): April 2012
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (165.774 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2012.134

Abstract

Poly (ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene-graft-styrene-sulfonate) was successfully prepared by irradiation grafting of a styrene monomer into ethylenetetrafluoro-ethylene (ETFE) films and followed by sulfonation of the graft chains. Five film sheets of ETFE which having a size of 3 cm x 8 cm, thickness of 25 µm were packed in vacuum using a Y type tube filled with argon gas. The samples were irradiated using γ-rays with a dose of 15 kGy at 15 kGy/h. The iradiated samples were grafted by using styrene monomer at 60o C for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 h, respectively. The grafted samples (ETFE-g-St) were washed with xylene to remove homopolymer of polystyrene, and then its degree of grafting (DG) was determined. Sulfonation was carried out by using 0.2 M chlorosulfonic acid in dichloroethane solution at a water bath of 60oC for 6 h. Sulfonated samples (ETFE-g-St-SO3H) were washed with water to neutralize its acidity, and dried in a vacuum drier at 40oC for 15 h. The dried sample was weighed as sulfonated sample in order to determine the degree of sulfonation (%DS). Membrane properties of EFTE-g-St-SO3H sample such as ion exchange capacity (IEC), proton conductivity in cross direction (σ1), and in-plane direction (σ11) were determined by using a HIOKI-3522 LCR HI tester. Durability test of samples were conducted in hot water and 3% H2O2 respectively.. The proton conductivity measurement and durability of the membrane were compared to Nafion 112® as standard. The experimental results showed that the degree of grafting was increased with time of reaction for copolymerization, while %DS gave excellent results with an average of 92.7%. The IEC value was more affected by the %DG as compared to that of %DS effect. The average of σl value of the sample was 0.055 S/cm, compared to σ1 of Nafion112® that was 0.066 S/cm. The average of σ11 of the sample was 0.18 S/cm, while the σ11 of Nafion 112® was = 0.36 S/cm. The sample of SA004 with 53.49% DG was more stable than both the SA001 (21.48%DG) and SA003 (41.52% DG) in durability’s test of the samples against hot water (334 h resistance). On the peroxides test, all of samples were degraded at 114 h. Received: 20 November 2011; Revised: 28 March 2012; Accepted: 30 April 2012
Separation of Radiocopper 64/67Cu from the Matrix of Neutron-Irradiated Natural Zinc Applicable for 64Cu Production Soenarjo, S.; Sriyono, Sriyono; Rahman, W.Y.; Sarmini, E.; Hambali, Hambali; Triyanto, Triyanto
Atom Indonesia Vol 38, No 1 (2012): April 2012
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (237.644 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2012.136

Abstract

Radioisotope 64Cu is a promising radiometallic-isotope for molecular-targeted-radiopharmaceuticals. Having a half-life of 12.70 hours and emitting β+-radiation (Eβ+ = 0.6531 MeV) as well as β-ray (Eβ- = 0.5787 MeV), it is widely used in the form of biomedical-substrate-radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography (PET) diagnosis and simultaneously for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. The potential needs on the availability of 64Cu-labeled pharmaceuticals for domestic nuclear medicine hospitals lead to a necessity for the local production of carrier-free 64Cu using BATAN’s G.A. Siwabessy reactor because of the technical and economical constraints in the production using BATAN’s cyclotron. The presented work is accordingly to study whether the radioisotope 64Cu can be produced and separated from the matrix of post-neutron-irradiated-natural zinc. This study is expected can be further improved and implemented in production technology of carrier-free 64Cu based on 64Zn (n,p) 64Cu nuclear reaction exploiting the fast neutron fraction among the major thermal fraction due to unavailability of fast-neutron-irradiation facility in the BATAN’s G.A. Siwabessy reactor. The solution of post-neutron-irradiated-natural zinc in 1M acetic acid was loaded into Chelex-100 cation exchanger resin column to pass out the Zn/Zn* fraction whereas the Cu* fraction which remained in the column was then eluted out from the column by using 1.5 M HCl and loaded into the second column containing Dowex-1X8 anion exchanger resin. The second column was then eluted with 0.5 M HCl. The collected eluate was expected to be zinc-free Cu* fraction. It was observed from the half-life and the γ-spectrometric analysis that radioactive copper-64Cu containing 67Cu was produced by neutron activation on the natural Zn-foil target and can be separated from the target matrix by the presented two-steps-column-chromatographic separation technique. The radioactivity measurement showed that wrapping the Zn target with cadmium foil increased the activity of radioactive copper and, thus, the Cu*/Zn*-ratio.Received: 28 June 2011; Revised: 21 February 2012; Accepted: 24 February 2012
Study of 99mTc Pertechnetate Radiopharmaceuticals in Relation to Thyroid Hormone for Toxic and non-Toxic Diffuse Goiter Viantri, N.P.; Setiabudi, W.; Anam, C.; Nadzir, F.; Varuna, C.
Atom Indonesia Vol 38, No 1 (2012): April 2012
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1891.044 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2012.137

Abstract

Abnormalities of the thyroid gland in the form of enlargement of the thyroid gland are called a goiter. Goiter is divided into two types, namely toxic and non-toxic diffuse goiter. Diagnosis could be done with thyroid scan (in vivo) and test for thyroid hormone value (in vitro). Thyroid scan is applied by giving injection of 99mTc Pertechnetate as much as 2 - 5 mCi intravenally in the arm and then thyroid gland and salivary glands imaging were conducted in the fifth minute, tenth minute and fifteenth minute using gamma camera. Thyroid hormones test in blood is done with radioimmunoassay method. The same pattern showed the accumulation polad of the radioactive number from quotation of salivary glands. The accumulation percentage activity of 99mTc Pertechnetate in thyroid gland for the case of toxic diffuse goiter is larger than the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter. The results of this study indicate that the predictors for the case of toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by high thyroid uptake which the the value of T3 hormone ≥ 3.3 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone ≥ 165 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone ≤ 0.2 μIU/ml. While the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by low thyroid uptake which the value of T3 hormone ≥ 1.2 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone ≥ 90 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone ≤ 1.8 μIU/ml. Received: 14 November 2011; Revised: 18 April 2012; Accepted: 21 April 2012
Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City Damastuti, E.; Syahfitri, W.Y.N.; Santoso, M.; Lestiani, D.D.
Atom Indonesia Vol 38, No 1 (2012): April 2012
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1760.413 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2012.138

Abstract

Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 – 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement.Received: 5 December 2011; Revised: 7 April 2012; Accepted: 16 April 2012
Determination of Informal Sector as Urban Pollution Source : Fume Characterization of Small-scale Manual Metal Arc Welding using Factor Analysis in Bandung City Nastiti, A.; Pramudyastuti, D.Y.; Oginawati, K.; Santoso, M.
Atom Indonesia Vol 38, No 1 (2012): April 2012
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (262.896 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2012.139

Abstract

In developing countries, the informal sector, particularly small-scale welding activities, are considered to be an important contributor to urban air pollution although studies in this sector are limited. This study aims to identify the composition of small-scale welding fume in order to further investigate the effects and set control strategies and urban pollution abatement policies. Breathing zone air samples were collected from 30 mild steel manual metal arc welders and 17 non-welders in Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. The respirable particulates in air samples were analyzed using gravimetric method, and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was employed to identify characteristic of welding fume. It was found that respirable particulates concentration in welders (range : 315.6 and 3,735.93 µgm-3; average 1,545.436 µgm-3) were significantly higher than in non-welders (range : 41.84 and 1,688.03 µgm-3; average : 375.783 µgm-3). Welders’ breathing zones contain Fe>Na>K>Mn>Al >Cr>Ti>Cl>Br>I>Zn>Sb>V>Co>Sc; while non-welders’ breathing zones contain Cr>F>Al>Ti>Na>Br>I>Mn>Cl>Co>Zn>Sc. Inter-species correlation analysis conducted using Statgraphic Ver. 4.0 shows that Fe (range : n.d. – 775.19 µgm-3; average: 0.1674 µgm-3), Co (range : n.d. – 0.51 µgm-3; average: 0.000082 µgm-3), Mn (range : 0.39 – 148.37 µgm-3; average: 0.0374 µgm-3), Na (range: 0.17 and 623.85 µgm-3; average: 0.0973 µgm-3) and K (range : n.d. – 301.15 µgm-3; average: 0.0535 µgm-3) were emitted from welding activity, and thus are considered as components of welding fume which contribute to urban air pollution. Although welding fume and the identified species in welding fume were still below permissible limit, small-scale welding activities have great potential in emitting higher fume concentration due to due to high variability of welding activities, such as welding frequency, materials being welded, and varied environmental conditions.Received: 5 December 2011; Revised: 17 April 2012; Accepted: 20 April 2012
Model Validation of Radiocaesium Transfer from Soil to Leafy Vegetables Sukmabuana, P.; Tjahaja, P.I.
Atom Indonesia Vol 38, No 1 (2012): April 2012
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (168.403 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2012.140

Abstract

The accumulation of radionuclide in plant tissues can be estimated using a mathematical model, however the applicability of the model into field experiment still needs to be evaluated. A model validation has been conducted for radiocaesium transfer from soil to two leafy vegetables generally consumed by Indonesian people, i.e. spinach and morning glory in order to validate the transfer model toward field experimental data. The vegetable plants were grown on the soil contaminated with 134CsNO3 of 19 MBq for about 70 days. As the control, vegetables plant were also grown on soil without 134CsNO3 contamination. Every 5 days, both of contaminated and un contaminated plants were sampled for 3 persons respectively. The soil media was also tested. The samples were dried by infra red lamp and then the radioactivity was counted using gamma spectrometer. Data of 134Cs radioactivity on soil and plants were substituted into mathematical equation to obtain the coeficient of transfer rate (k12). The values of k12 were then used for calculating the 134Cs radioactivity in the vegetable plants. The 134Cs radioactivity in plants obtained from mathematical model analysis was compared with the radioactivity data obtained from the experiment. Correlation of 134Cs radioactivity in vegetables plant obtained from the experiment with those obtained from model analysis was expressed as correlation coefficient, and it was obtained to be 0.90 and 0.71 for spinach and morning glory plants respectively. The values of 134Cs in plants obtained from the model analysis can be corrected using standard deviation values, namely 48.65 and 20 for spinach at 0<t<55 days and at 0<t<78 days, respectively. Whereas for morning glory the standard deviation value was 0.36. Although there are differences between 134Cs radioactivity in vegetable plants obtained from model analysis and experiment data, the model of 134Cs transfer from soil to plant can be used for analysing 134Cs radioactivity on leafy vegetable plants grown on radiocesium contaminated soil. Received:  31 March 2010;  Revised: 23 April  2012;  Accepted:  27 April 2012

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