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Atom Indonesia Journal
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Core Subject : Science,
Exist for publishing the results of research and development in nuclear science and technology Starting for 2010 Atom Indonesia published three times a year in April, August, and December The scope of this journal covers experimental and analytical research in all areas of nuclear science and technology. including nuclear physics, reactor physics, radioactive waste treatment, fuel element development, radioisotopes and radio pharmaceutical engineering, nuclear and radiation safety, neutron scattering, material science and technology, as well as utilization of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, industry, health and environment.
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Articles 7 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 37, No 2 (2011): August 2011" : 7 Documents clear
Experimental Study on the Effect of Initial Temperature on CHF in a Vertical Annulus Narrow Channel with Bilateral Heated Juarsa, M.; Koestoer, RA.; Putra, N.; Indarto, Indarto; Habsari, S.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 2 (2011): August 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (311.213 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.61

Abstract

Study on understanding of the complexities of boiling in the narrow channel which was occured in a severe accident on nuclear power plant has been carried out in experimentally using simulation apparatus in order to achieve the safety management capability. Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is one important parameter to control heat during transient accident. The methodology of research is an experiment using experiment apparatus called HeaTiNG-01 test section with modifications in the outside pipe using stainless steel material as the reactor vessel wall simulation. Experiments were conducted by heating the heated rod as a simulation of debris until the desired initial temperature by bilateral heated. Then water with a saturation temperature in atmospheric was poured gravitationally into the narrow channel. Data acquisition system recorded temperature changes in transient during the cooling process. The transient temperature profile in double heating surface and rewetting point (rewet fronts) was characterized. Experiment was conducted at three initial temperature variations i.e. 650oC, 750oC and 850oC and using channel width 1 mm. Experiment data was used to calculate heat flux then to fitting CHF form boiling curve. The results showed that CHF in outer pipe is higher than heated rod, these conditions explain that more heat is released through the outer pipe, so that the heat control can be done from outside the system to reduce the temperature quickly. The average value of CHF for each vertical position 100 mm and 400 mm at outer pipe are 380 kW/m2 and 733 kW/m2, and then at the heated rod are 250 kW/m2 and 497 kW/m2. Received: 20 November 2010; Revised: 25 July 2011; Accepted: 08 August 2011
Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia Lestiani, D.D.; Santoso, M.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 2 (2011): August 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (128.092 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.62

Abstract

Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment. Received: 20 November 2010; Revised: 09 August 2011; Accepted: 15 August 2011
Distribution of 137Cs In the Surface Soil of Serpong Nuclear Site Lubis, E.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 2 (2011): August 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (571.432 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.63

Abstract

The distribution of 137Cs in the surface soil layer of Serpong Nuclear Site (SNS) was investigated by field sampling. The Objectives of the investigation is finding the profile of 137Cs distribution in the surface soil and the Tf value that can be used for estimation of radiation dose from livestock product-man pathways. The results indicates that the 137Cs activity in surface soil of SNS is 0.80 ± 0,29 Bq/kg, much lower than in the Antarctic. The contribution value of 137Cs from the operation of G.A.Siwabessy Reactor until now is undetectable. The Tf of 137Cs from surface soil to Panisetum Purpureum, Setaria Spha Celata and Imperata Cylindrica grasses were 0.71 ± 0.14, 0.84 ± 0.27 and 0.81 ± 0.11 respectively. The results show that value of the transfer factor of 137Cs varies between cultivated and uncultivated soil and also with the soils with thick humus. Received: 18 May 2010; Revised: 13 July 2011; Accepted: 20 July 2011
Micronutrient Daily Intake of Elementary School Children in Bandung as Determined by Using NAA and AAS Methods Damastuti, E.; Ariyani, W.D.; Santoso, M.; Kurniawati, S.; Syahfitri, WYN.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 2 (2011): August 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2727.435 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.64

Abstract

Micronutrients in human diet are known to be among the most essential sources of nutrition, that required by the human body in small amount to maintain normal physiological function. Micronutrient malnutrition (MNM) is widespread all over the world, mostly in the developing country, where young children tend to be the most at risk of developing micronutrient deficiencies. In Indonesia, data of micronutrient status of children is limited. Therefore, the assessment of micronutrient intake of young children is needed to carry out. Food samples were taken by duplicate diet method of 19 elementary school children in Bandung and were analyzed using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet. The result was giving the average daily intake of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were 228, 0.15, 0.57, 9.3, 929, 106, 2,1, 2314, 0.022 and 4.6 mg/day respectively and gives 22, 527, 86, 111, 17, 54, 116, 49 and 63% of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) values. Its generally concluded that these children are still lack of micronutrient intake, and many of them were below their recommended dietary allowances. These result were expected could be used as baseline data and reference to encourage government and related institution in making policies for public health improvement and micronutrient malnutrition solution as well. Received: 20 November 2010; Revised: 03 April 2011; Accepted: 04 April 2011
Assessment of Nugget Size of Spot Weld using Neutron Radiography Triyono, Triyono; Jamasri, Jamasri; Ilman, M.N.; Soekrisno, R.; Sutiarso, Sutiarso
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 2 (2011): August 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3269.481 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.65

Abstract

Resistance spot welding (RSW) has been widely used for many years in the fabrication of car body structures, mainly due to the cost and time considerations. The weld quality as well as the nugget size is an issue in various manufacturing and processes due to the strong link between the weld quality and safety. It has led to the development of various destructive and non-destructive tests for spot welding such as peel testing, ultrasonic inspections, digital shearography, and infrared thermography. However, such methods cannot show spot weld nugget visually and the results are very operator’s skill dependent. The present work proposes a method to visualize the nugget size of spot welds using neutron radiography. Water, oil and various concentrations of gadolinium oxide-alcohol mixture were evaluated as a contrast media to obtain the best quality of radiography. Results show that mixture of 5 g gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) in 25 ml alcohol produces the best contrast. It provides the possibility to visualize the shape and size of the nugget spot weld. Furthermore, it can discriminate between nugget and corona bond. The result of neutron radiography evaluation shows reasonable agreement with that of destructive test. Received: 13 October 2010; Revised: 25 August 2011; Accepted 26 August 2011
Application of Deuterium and Oxygen-18 to Trace Leachate Movement in Bantar Gebang Sanitary Landfill Pujiindiyati, E.R.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 2 (2011): August 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (211.746 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.66

Abstract

Bantar Gebang landfill was constructed in 1986 with total area of 108 ha and approximately 6000 ton/day solid waste is disposed to this landfill. Mostly, the people living surrounding landfill get afraid of impact of the hazardous chemicals produced by waste disposal to their health. The purpose of this investigation was to study the migration of leachate to Cibitung River water and shallow groundwaters near to the river. It is possible to be done because chemical contents and isotopic characteristics of municipal landfill leachate are unique, relative to aqueous media in the most natural environments. Laser absorption method developed by the LGR (Los Gatos Research) was used to measure absolute abundances of 2HHO, HH18O and HHO in a number of water samples. In-situ measurements were also conducted as an additional parameter besides their isotopes. The δ2H of the H2O in landfill leachate was significantly enriched, with values of - 22.6 ‰ to + 4.3 ‰. This deuterium enrichment was undoubtedly due to the extensive production of microbial methane within the limited reservoir of the landfill. However, the enriched deuterium value in leachate was not detected in the river which still had depleted values. It was probably caused by the amount of natural water in the river was comparatively large, with respect to limited leachate discarded to the river. The electrical conductivity of the leachate was higher (3200 to 7600 μS) and the decreasing values were still monitored in the river to approximately 12 km after streaming the landfills. The effect of the high electrical conductivity and enriched deuterium of leachate was not clearly indicated in the groundwater samples which still represented the local precipitation recharge, except a monitoring well located in Bantar Gebang landfill area which has an indication of leachate contamination. Received: 20 November 2010; Revised: 15 June 2011; Accepted: 25 July 2011
Piping Flexibility Analysis of the Primary Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Bandung Reactor due to Earthquake Rahardjo, H.P.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 2 (2011): August 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (160.021 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.67

Abstract

Earthquakes in a nuclear installation can overload a piping system which is not flexible enough. These loads can be forces, moments and stresses working on the pipes or equipments. If the load is too large and exceed the allowable limits, the piping and equipment can be damaged and lead to overall system operation failure. The load received by piping systems can be reduced by making adequate piping flexibility, so all the loads can be transmitted homogenously throughout the pipe without load concentration at certain point. In this research the analysis of piping stress has been conducted to determine the size of loads that occured in the piping of primary cooling system of TRIGA 2000 Reactor, Bandung if an earthquake happened in the reactor site. The analysis was performed using Caesar II software-based finite element method. The ASME code B31.1 arranging the design of piping systems for power generating system (Power Piping Code) was used as reference analysis method. Modeling of piping systems was based on the cooling piping that has already been installed and the existing data reported in Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) of TRIGA 2000 reactor, Bandung. The quake considered in this analysis is the earthquake that occurred due to the Lembang fault, since it has the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) in the Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor site. The analysis results showed that in the static condition for sustain and expansion loads, the stress fraction in all piping lines does not exceed the allowable limit. However, during operation moment, in dynamic condition, the primary cooling system is less flexible at sustain load, ekspansi load, and combination load and the stress fraction have reached 95,5%. Therefore a pipeline modification (rerouting) is needed to make pipe stress does not exceed the allowable stress. The pipeline modification was carried out by applied a gap of 3 mm in the X direction of the support at node 25 and eliminate the support at the node 30, also a gap of 3 mm was applied in X and Z directions of the support at the node 155. The axial force (FY) that occurred in the pump outlet nozzle (dia. 4 in.) of PriPump line have also exceeded the allowable limit that lead to the pump nozzle failure during an earthquake of Lembang fault. The modifications is necessary to be applied on the cooling system for PriPump line so the nozzle would not receive the force that exceed the allowable limits. The modification can be done by removing the support at node 105 and node 135 so the primary cooling system piping of Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor would be safe to operate during an earthquake originated from Lembang fault. Received: 20 November 2010; Revised: 18 July 2011; Accepted: 20 July 2011

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