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Atom Indonesia Journal
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Core Subject : Science,
Exist for publishing the results of research and development in nuclear science and technology Starting for 2010 Atom Indonesia published three times a year in April, August, and December The scope of this journal covers experimental and analytical research in all areas of nuclear science and technology. including nuclear physics, reactor physics, radioactive waste treatment, fuel element development, radioisotopes and radio pharmaceutical engineering, nuclear and radiation safety, neutron scattering, material science and technology, as well as utilization of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, industry, health and environment.
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Articles 7 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 37, No 1 (2011): April 2011" : 7 Documents clear
Linacs for Medical Isotope Production Pramudita, A.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 1 (2011): April 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (150.726 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.68

Abstract

This paper reviews efforts on using high energy (25-30 MeV) and high power (10-20 kW) electron linacs and lower energy (7 MeV) proton linacs for medical radioisotope production. Using high energy x-rays from the electron linacs, PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radioisotopes are produced through photonuclear reactions such as 19F(γ,n)18F, which also allow production of other PET radionuclides 11C, 13N, and 15O. Other mostly used medical radionuclides 99mTc can also be obtained by using the electron linacs, through photofission or photonuclear reactions. Proton linacs for PET have also been recently developed and the product has been available in the market since 2005. The linacs have been tested for 18F production. As a proton accelerator, the target systems and nuclear reactions are similar to the ones used in PET cyclotrons. Received: 01 February 2010; Revised: 05 April 2011; Accepted: 20 April 2011
Reliability Study of the Liquid Target Chamber for 18F Production at the BATAN’s Cyclotron Facilities Kambali, I.; Heryanto, T.; Rajiman, Rajiman; Ichwan, S.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 1 (2011): April 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (85.262 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.69

Abstract

The liquid target chamber for 18F production at the Cyclotron Division, Centre for Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals (PRR) of the National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN) has been analysed for its reliability in enduring high pressures and heat transfer requirements during proton beam bombardment as well as the recommended irradiation parameters for effective 18F production. The target chamber was subject to house the 18O-enriched water bombarded with high energy proton beam to produce 18F. A range of SRIM-computer simulations have also been conducted to calculate the ranges of several energetic proton beams (of up to 20 MeV) into pure water target. A study of radioactive impurities which might be produced from the proton-irradiated chamber’s materials was also included based on some references. Due to concern over the heat produced during target irradiation, a heat transfer analysis - particularly for the target’s cavity - was also included in the presented studies to obtain a brief preliminary calculation of the heating impacts prior to irradiation tests. The calculation was performed for various proton beam currents and energies of up to 30 μA and 20 MeV respectively. It was found that the chamber was reliable for production of 18F from proton irradiated-18O enriched-water target by maintaining the chamber’s pressure of up to 3.6 bar if the proton beam current was kept below 16 μA for all energies or the proton beam energy was kept to or below 10 MeV for any employed beam currents. The overall heat transfer coefficient was also found to depend on the power deposited into the water target. Received: 25 June 2010; Revised: 20 March 2011; Accepted: 08 April 2011
The Measurements of Calcification Rates in Reef Corals Using Radioisotope 45Ca at Pongok Sea, South Bangka Diansyah, G.; Ulqodry, TZ.; Rasyid, M.; Djawanas, A.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 1 (2011): April 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (131.76 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.70

Abstract

Coral reef ecosystem is one of the most important ecological systems in the Indonesian coastal zone. The aim of this study which was undertaken between August - October 2006, is to measure the calcification of corals in a reef coral in the Pongok Sea, South Bangka using 45Ca. The steps in conducting this study were surveying of the site, preparation, transplanting, incubation in the 45Ca - solution, and analysis of the coral fragments. The results showed that at the depth of 5 m different counts per minute (cpm) trend occurred. For the samples taken from the transplantation of the Artificial Colony (Ac) the cpm showed that with the progress of time the cpm declined, reaching its lowest cpm at 5 hours after retransplanting of the coral fragments. On the other hand the samples obtained from the natural (Nc) colony showed that the cpm increased with time progress. At the 10 m depth where only the coral fragment of the natural colony (Nc) was observed a different pattern showed up. Here with the progress of time up to 3 hours the cpm increased and after that it declined to reach a low cpm at 5 hours of observation. The cpm values were then transformed to disintegrations per minute (dpm), μCi and at the end to 45Ca content. The same trend is shown for dpm, μCi/0.5 g sample and μg Ca/0.5 g sample. The 45Ca content (μg/0.5g sample) were used to show the calcification rates of coral fragments. It showed clearly that 45Ca could be used to calculate the magnitude of calcification. Received: 08 December 2009; Revised: 05 April 2011; Accepted: 05 April 2011
Chromatogram Profiles and Cytotoxic Activity of Irradiated Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria Macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl) Leaves Katrin, E.; Selvie, Selvie; Winarno, H.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 1 (2011): April 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (406.332 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.71

Abstract

Gamma irradiation has been used by the industries for preservation of herbal medicine, but it has not been studied the effect of gamma irradiation on their efficacy, especially their bioactivity as anticancer substances. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the mahkota dewa leaves which has been claimed to contain potent anticancer substances. Maceration of dried mahkota dewa leaves successively with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol gave crude extracts which the ethyl acetate was the most cytotoxic extract against leukemia L1210 cells with an inhibition concentration fifty (IC50) value of 10.3 µg/ml. Further separation of ethyl acetate extract by column chromatograph gave 7 fractions, and fraction 2 showed the most cytotoxic fraction exhibited the most cytotoxic extract against leukemia L1210 cells with an IC50 value of 1.9 µg/ml. Since, the fraction 2 of ethyl acetate extract was the most potent fraction, the irradiated samples were treated with the same procedure as treatment of fraction 2 from control sample. Cytotoxic activity test of fractions 2 from irradiated samples showed that the cytotoxic activity decreased depending on increasing of irradiation dose. Gamma irradiation dose up to 7.5 kGy on mahkota dewa leaves could decreased the cytotoxic activity of fraction 2 as the most cytotoxic-potential fraction against leukemia L1210 cells, but decreasing the cytotoxic activity has not exceeded the limit of the fraction declared inactive. So that the irradiation dose up to 7.5 kGy can be used for decontamination of bacteria and fungus/yeast without eliminating the cytotoxic activity. Gamma irradiation also caused changes in the thin layer chromatograph (TLC) spots and HPLC chromatograms profiles of fraction 2 which was the most cytotoxic fraction in ethyl acetate extract of mahkota dewa leaves against leukemia L1210 cells. One of the main peaks (peak 1) on HPLC chromatograms decreased with increasing the irradiation dose. In agree with the decreasing peak 1 in chromatogram of fraction 2 due to irradiation, cytotoxic activity of fraction 2 also decreased along with increasing doses of irradiation. It suggested that peak 1 is the component that contributes to the cytotoxic activity of fraction 2 in ethyl acetate extract of mahkota dewa leaves.Received: 20 November 2010; Revised: 06 April 2011; Accepted: 14 April 2011
Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate Monomer onto Starch and Natural Rubber Latex Initiated by Gamma Irradiation Iskandar, S.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 1 (2011): April 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (111.064 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.72

Abstract

To obtain the degradable plastic, the graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto starch and natural rubber latex was conducted by a simultaneous irradiation technique. Gamma-ray from cobalt-60 source was used as the initiator. The grafted copolymer of starch-polymethyl methacrylate and the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate were mixed in the blender, and dried it in the oven. The dried grafted copolymer mixture was then molded using hydraulic press machine. The effect of irradiation dose, composition of the grafted copolymer mixture, film forming condition and recycle effect was evaluated. The parameters observed were tensile strength, gel fraction and soil burial degradability of grafted copolymer mixture. It was found that the tensile strength of grafted copolymer mixture increased by γ-ray irradiation. Increasing of the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate content, the gel fraction and tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture increased. The tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture was increased from 18 MPa to 23 MPa after recycled (film forming reprocessed) 3 times. The grafted copolymer mixture was degraded completely after soil buried for 6 months. Received: 20 July 2010; Revised: 04 February 2011; Accepted: 10 March 2011
Monte-Carlo Simulation of γ-ray and Fast Neutron Radiolysis of Liquid Water and 0.4 M H2SO4 Solutions at Temperatures up to 325oC Sunaryo, G.R.; Jintana, M.; Gerin, JPJ.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 1 (2011): April 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (169.355 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.73

Abstract

Monte-Carlo simulations were used to study the radiolysis of liquid water at 25-325oC when subjected to low linear energy transfer (LET) of 60Co γ-ray radiation and fast neutrons of 2 and 0.8 MeV. The energy deposited in the early stage of 60Co γ-ray irradiation was approximated by considering short segments (~150 μm) of 300 MeV proton tracks, corresponding to an average LET of ~0.3 keV/μm. In case of 2 MeV fast neutrons, the energy deposited was considered by using short segments (~5 μm) of energy at 1.264, 0.465, 0.171, 0.063 and 0.24 MeV. 0.8 MeV fast neutrons were approximated by 0.505, 0.186, 0.069 and 0.025 MeV protons. The effect of 0.4 M H2SO4 solution on radiolysis was also studied by this method for both 60Co γ-rays and 0.8 MeV fast neutrons. The simulated results at the time of 10-7s after irradiation were obtained and compared with the available experimental results published by other researchers to be in excellent agreement with them over the entire temperature ranges and radiation sources studied. Except for g(H2) that increase with temperature rises, the general behaviors of higher radical products and lower molecular products at higher temperatures were obtained. The LET effect is also validated by this study, showing that the increase in LET would yield higher molecular and lower radical products. Studies on 0.4 M H2SO4 solutions also show good agreement between the computed and experimental data for γ-ray irrradiation: the presence of 0.4 M H+, except for g(H2) that gives lower value at 25oC and higher value at 325oC, gives the higher values for radicals and g(H2O2) at 25oC and lower values at 325oC, compared with that for neutral water. The computed data show good agreement with the experimental data for 0.4 M H2SO4 solutions induced by 0.8 MeV fast neutrons, except for g(H2) and g(H●) that gives good agreement up to 50oC, then the opposite tendencies with the further temperature rises. However, the simulated fast neutron radiolysis on acidic demonstrates similar tendencies on temperature dependence with that for simulated 60Co γ-radiolysis, but in different magnitude. For better understanding, more experimental data for fast neutrons are needed, especially under the acidic conditions. Received: 20 November 2009; Revised: 06 April 2011; Accepted: 12 April 2011
Fuzzy Logic Application in Boron and Cadmium Analysis in U3O8 use of Emission Spectrograph Method Simbolon, S.; Supriyono, Supriyono; Aryadi, Aryadi; Rahardjo, T.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 1 (2011): April 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (221.108 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.74

Abstract

Boron and cadmium in U3O8 have been analyzed with emission spectrograph. Three inputs of emission spectrograph, current (A), exposure time (second) and gap between electrodes (mm) were varied. Two outputs, boron and cadmium lines intensities respectively were selected and measured. Thirteen experiments have been carried out and data found were calculated by fuzzy logic Mamdani-type. Three and five memberships functions of straight-line (Triangular, Trapezoidal), Generalized-bell and Gaussian curve were used to analyze the found data. The result found that five memberships functions had less error percentage range than three memberships functions of straight-line (Triangular, Trapezoidal), Generalized-bell and Gaussian curve. The error percentage range of cadmium analysis was wider than boron analysis with this method. Analysis of cadmium in U3O8 with this method needs much exposure time compare to analysis of boron. Received: 28 December 2009; Revised: 29 November 2010; Accepted: 8 February 2011

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