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Atom Indonesia Journal
Exist for publishing the results of research and development in nuclear science and technology Starting for 2010 Atom Indonesia published three times a year in April, August, and December The scope of this journal covers experimental and analytical research in all areas of nuclear science and technology. including nuclear physics, reactor physics, radioactive waste treatment, fuel element development, radioisotopes and radio pharmaceutical engineering, nuclear and radiation safety, neutron scattering, material science and technology, as well as utilization of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, industry, health and environment.
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Cover Atom Indonesia Vol 44 No 3

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Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 3 (2018): December 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Preface Atom Indonesia Vol 44 No 3

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Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 3 (2018): December 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Acknowledgement Atom Indonesia Vol 44 No 3

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Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 3 (2018): December 2018
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Phosphate Solubilizing Study on the Determination of Inoculant Dose and Composition for Biofossi Fertilizer

Citraresmini, A. ( Center for Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Lebak Bulus Raya 49, Jakarta 12440, Indonesia ) , Sofyan, E.T. ( Agriculture Faculty, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM 21, Jatinangor, Kab. Sumedang 45363, Indonesia )

Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 3 (2018): December 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Phosphorus availability becomes a major problem on the productivity of soil and rice in Indonesia. Utilization of P source which has a slow release property is one of the solutions to these problems. Biofossi fertilizer is a natural phosphate organic fertilizer which is enriched with phosphate solubilizer bacteria (PSB), to improve the solubility of P and absorption by the plant so that P fertilization becomes more efficient. Experiment conducted on January 2015 at the experimental station of Agriculture Faculty-Padjadjaran University, Bandung, located in Ciparay, West Java. The aim of the experiment was to determine the PSB composition and its inoculation dose toward natural phosphate. Inoculum used was of Bacillus sp and Pseudomonas sp, which was injected to a carrier material. Through previous test results, the carrier used had a composition of 50 % peat + 28 % compost + 5 % humic acid + 2 % nutrition + 15 % rice husk. To test the dose of PSB inoculation, experimental design of factorial randomized complete block was applied. As the first factor was P2O5 content in the phosphate source, consisting of four levels as follows: (1) p0 = without P2O5 (as control); (2) p1 = 22 % P2O5 (163 kg ha-1 natural phosphate from Blora); (3) p2 = 26 % P2O5 (138 kg ha-1 natural phosphate from Morocco); (4) p3 = 36 % P2O5 (100 kg ha-1 SP-36 fertilizer). Second factor was the combination of dose and type of PSB inoculant, consisting of seven levels as follows: (1) b0 = without inoculation of PSB (as control); (2)b1 = Bacillus sp inoculant in the dose of 1 kg ha-1; (3)b2 = Bacillus sp inoculant in the dose of 2 kg ha-1; (4) b3 = Pseudomonas sp inoculant in the dose of 1 kg ha-1; (5)b4 = Pseudomonas sp inoculant in the dose of 2 kg ha-1; (6)b5 = Bacillus sp + Pseudomonas sp consortium in the dose of 1 kg ha-1; (7) b6 = Bacillus sp + Pseudomonas sp consortium in the dose of 2 kg ha-1. By using the 32P radioisotope techniques it was known that a consortium of bacteria Bacillus sp + Pseudomonas sp was capable of dissolving P on the treatment p0, as well as in the treatments p1, p2 and p3. In this treatment, some of the highest response was obtained, i.e. the grain dry weight, P uptake and P fertilizer efficiency.

Essential Minerals of Rice in West Java Indonesia and Its Daily Intake Estimation

Syahfitri, W.Y.N. ( Center For Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132, Indonesia ) , Damastuti, E. ( Center For Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132, Indonesia ) , Adventini, N. ( Center For Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132, Indonesia ) , Atmodjo, D.P.D. ( Center For Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132, Indonesia ) , Kusmartini, I. ( Center For Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132, Indonesia ) , Kurniawati, S. ( Center For Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132, Indonesia ) , Lestiani, D.D. ( Center For Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132, Indonesia ) , Santoso, M. ( Center For Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132, Indonesia )

Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 3 (2018): December 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the staple food for more than half of the world’s population and a major source of essential minerals. Essential minerals such as cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) play an important role in metabolism and physiological function. Information of rice micronutrient and its content quality in Indonesia is limited; however, its availability is important for estimating the daily intake of the nutrients and its contribution tothe Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The research aimed to determine the micronutrient content in rice from twelve regions in West Java by means of neutron activation analysis (NAA) and estimate the nutrient intake from rice. The samples were irradiated with thermal neutron flux of 1013n/(cm2 s) at the rabbit system facilites of the G.A. Siwabessymultipurpose reactor, then counted using a HPGe detector. The contents of Co, Cr, Fe, Se, and Zn in rice were found to be in the ranges of0.003 to 0.220, ≤0.001-0.679, ≤0.060-18.36, ≤0.020-0.975, and 8.558-28.83 mg/kg respectively. The daily intakes of Co and Cr were found generally sufficient, while Fe, Se, and Zn intakes were significantly less than the RDA in almost all regions observed. The exception was found for Se intake in Garut which exceeded its RDA. It can be concluded that rice is the main contributor of essential minerals intake; however, for nutritional fulfillment of human body, a balanced varied diet should be taken into consideration

Pharmacokinetics Interaction of Non-Steroid Anti Inflammatory Drugs to 99mTc-MDP Radiopharmaceuticals for Bone Imaging and Its Biodistribution

Mahendra, I. ( Center for Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nucler Energy Agency, Jl. Tamansari No.71, Bandung 40132, Indonesia ) , Daruwati, I. ( Center for Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nucler Energy Agency, Jl. Tamansari No.71, Bandung 40132, Indonesia ) , Halimah, I. ( Center for Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nucler Energy Agency, Jl. Tamansari No.71, Bandung 40132, Indonesia ) , Pajrin, S.R. ( Indonesian College of Pharmacy (STFI), Soekarno Hatta 345, Bandung, Indonesia )

Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 3 (2018): December 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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99mTc-MDP has been developed as a radiopharmaceutical for bone imaging in nuclear medicine. A drug therapy can alter the pharmacokinetic profiles and biodistribution patterns of radiopharmaceuticals. To achieve an optimum diagnostic outcome, this research focused on pharmacokinetics interaction between two kinds of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) drugs, meloxicam and sodium diclofenac with 99mTc-MDP using mice(Mus musculus). Therewerefive groups of animal modeland each group consists of three mice except for group II and III which consists of six mice. The groups were classified asuntreated mice (I), mice treated withmeloxicam for 3 days (II), treated with sodium diclofenac for 3 days (III), treated with meloxicam once or at onset (IV), and mice with sodium diclofenac once or at onset (V). Pharmacokinetics interaction and biodistribution test were conducted by injecting 100 µCi/100 µL 99mTc-MDP intravenously. Blood samples were withdrawn from each mouse which were then weighted and counted using single channel analyzer. The %ID/g of 99mTc-MDP in blood of untreated mice (I), mice treated with meloxicam (II) and sodium diclofenac (III) 5 minutes post injection were 3.71, 8.96 and 9.15 % respectively, then decrease to 0.12, 0.01, and 0.01 %, respectively, 24 hours post injection. The results of T-test showed there were no significant differences in distribution of 99mTc-MDP in untreated mice (I) and in treated mice either with meloxicam (II) or sodium diclofenac (III). However, there was significant difference in elimination of 99mTc-MDP in untreated mice (I) and in treated mice either with meloxicam (II) or sodium diclofenac (III). The bone uptakes of 99mTc-MDP were 9.03 ± 0.41, 3.52 + 0.52, 3.62 + 0.45, 8.44 + 1.39, and 8.09 ± 0.86 % in group I, II, III, IV, and V, respectively. T-test showed there were significant differences in bone uptake of 99mTc-MDP in mice with previously treated with meloxicam and sodium diclofenac for 3 days. From these result, it can be concluded that anadministration of meloxicam and sodium diclofenac could accelerate elimination half-life that cause low uptake of 99mTc-MDP radiopharmaceuticalon the bone as the primary target. Therefore, it is necessary to follow up using image study to determine the significance of the effects on image quality.

Study of Cellulose-N,N'-Methylenebisacrylamide-Acrylic Acid as Pb2+ Ion Adsorbent

Suhartini, M. ( Center for Isotopes and Radiation Application, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Lebak Bulus Raya No.49, Jakarta 12440, Indonesia ) , Ginting, J. ( Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314, Indonesia ) , Sudirman, S ( Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314, Indonesia ) , Putri, A.D. ( Pancasila University, Jl. Raya Lenteng Agung No.56-80, Srengseng Sawah, Jagakarsa, Jakarta Selatan 12640, Indonesia ) , Mubarak, Z.R. ( Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia )

Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 3 (2018): December 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Cellulose can be used as a metal ion adsorbent. However, it is specific to certain metal ions and has some drawbacks. To increase the capture of certain metal ions,cellulose needs to be modified. Cellulose modification was carried out using N, N'- methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinking agent and acrylic acid (AA) as grafting agent. Gamma rays from Cobalt-60 was used as the initiator by simultaneous irradiation method. The aim of this study is to improve and observe the capture ability of cellulose as Pb2+metal ion adsorbent. The characterization was performed by FTIR, DSC, SEM, and EDX. The thermal analysis and ion exchange capacity measurement showed that the resulting copolymer has a better thermal stability and ion exchange ability thanpure cellulose.The applications of the copolymer on Pb2+ ion adsorption indicated that the maximum adsorption is 99.8 % of 3 ppm Pb2+ ion sorbent at pH ? 7. SEM analysis showed that the copolymer is porous while pure cellulose appears fibrous. EDX Analysis showed Pb2+ metal ion adsorption by cellulose-MBA-AA.

A Novel Technique for Removal of High Density White Spot Noise from Digital Neutron Radiographic Images

Hindasyah, A. ( 1. University of Indonesia, Jl. Margonda Raya, Depok 16424, Indonesia 2. Center for Science and Advanced Materials Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency ) , Sudiana, D. ( University of Indonesia, Jl. Margonda Raya, Depok 16424, Indonesia ) , Gunawan, D. ( University of Indonesia, Jl. Margonda Raya, Depok 16424, Indonesia )

Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 3 (2018): December 2018
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This paper proposes a novel technique of adaptive switching alternative median (ASAM) filter for high-density white spot noise removal. The ASAM filter is composed of two blocks filtering, namely main and secondary block filtering, respectively. The proposed secondary block filtering is a new technique in high-density impulse noise removal and the main contribution of this research. The ASAM algorithm was tested on the standard 8-bit gray-scale, 512×512 pixel Lena image and a real neutron radiographic image. The results showed significant reduction of white spot noise in both types of images through visual inspection.    To measure the performance of noise removal in simulation test we measured the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM) index, and denoising time, and in real application tests we measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). From the experiments of simulation test, at the highest level noise of 95 % the obtained PSNR and SSIM are 23.584 dB and 0.696 respectively. These are higher than the results of other algorithms that are 16.697 dB and 0.475, respectively, for DBA, 16.696 dB and 0.408 for NAFSM, and 18.860 dB and 0.568 for NASNLM. The denoising times for DBA, NAFSM, NASNLM, and ASAM were obtained as 6.469 s, 5.186 s, 36.735 s, and 5.197 s respectively. From the experiments of real application test we obtained the SNR for DBA, NAFSM, NASNLM, and ASAM as 32.42 dB, 6.01 dB, 18.77 dB, and 32.96 dB, respectively. In general, these results show that ASAM filter is superior to the existing filtering methods. The ASAM filter improved the image restoration quality, especially in removing the high-density white spot noise, and was able to yield good filtering result which exhibits better PSNR, SSIM, denoising time, and qualitative visual inspection.

Shielding Design for the PGNAA Experimental Facility at Kartini Reactor

Sutondo, T. ( Center for Accellerator Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Babarsari, P.O. Box 6101 ykbb Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia ) , Syarip, S ( Center for Accellerator Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Babarsari, P.O. Box 6101 ykbb Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia )

Atom Indonesia ARTICLE IN PRESS
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Two steps of preliminary study had been conducted in conjunction with the design of a PGNAA experimental facility at Kartini reactor, i.e. beam characterization of the existing beam ports to select one going to be used and the collimator design at the selected beam port. This paper presents the results of the following study concerning with the radiation shielding design at the outer area, in front of the beam port exit, where the experiments will be conducted. MCNPX was used for the purpose of simulations, which included the design of neutron beam catcher and the outer shield. Based on the assumed source terms, the materials being used, and the geometrical arrangements, it is concluded that by using paraffin of 60 cm thickness for the beam catcher and 50 cm for the concrete of the outer shield would be sufficient to reduce the radiation dose below the maximum recommended limit.

Atmospheric Dispersion Analysis for Expected Radiation Dose due to Normal Operation of RSG-GAS and RDE Reactors

Udiyani, P.M. ( Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15310, Indonesia ) , Kuntjoro, S. ( Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15310, Indonesia ) , Sunaryo, G.R. ( Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15310, Indonesia ) , Susiati, H. ( Center for Nuclear Energy System Assessment, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Kuningan Barat, Mampang Prapatan, Jakarta 12710, Indonesia )

Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 3 (2018): December 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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BATAN is planning to build an experimental power reactor, the RDE, to complement the RSG-GAS reactor that is already operating in the Serpong Nuclear Zone (KNS). The experimental power reactor is an HTGR (high-temperature gas-cooled reactor) with 10 MWt power, while the RSG-GAS is a pool-type water-cooled reactor with 30 MWt power. According to standard regulatory practices, under normal operating conditions of the plant, radiological assessment of atmospheric releases to the environment and assessment of public exposures are considered essential. The purpose of this study is to estimate the dose acceptance in Serpong Nuclear Zone (KNS) after operate the RDE operates in KNS-2. To assess the doses, the PC-CREAM 08 computer code was used. It uses a standard Gaussian plume dispersion model and composes a suite of models and data for estimation of the radiological impact assessments of routine and continual discharges from a nuclear reactor. The input data include sourceterm from the RDE and the RSG-GAS, a stack the height of 60 m annual radionuclides release, meteorological data from the Serpong local meteorological station, and agricultural products data from Serpong site. Results show that the highest individual dose in the area around KNS for adults is 6.16×10-3 mSv/y in the S (South) direction and 300 m distance from the stack of RSG. The highest collective dose around KNS within 3 km radius is 6.37×10-3 man-Sv/yr. The results show that the radiological impact of the KNS on the critical groups of public and the individual effective doses satisfy the limits given by the Nuclear Regulatory Agency of Indonesia (BAPETEN). The operation of RDE in KNS-2 does not add significantly to acceptance radiation dose in the environment in KNS. It can also be concluded that the estimated effective doses are lower than the dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/y associated with this plant.