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Atom Indonesia Journal
Exist for publishing the results of research and development in nuclear science and technology Starting for 2010 Atom Indonesia published three times a year in April, August, and December The scope of this journal covers experimental and analytical research in all areas of nuclear science and technology. including nuclear physics, reactor physics, radioactive waste treatment, fuel element development, radioisotopes and radio pharmaceutical engineering, nuclear and radiation safety, neutron scattering, material science and technology, as well as utilization of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, industry, health and environment.
Articles
303
Articles
Atmospheric Dispersion Analysis for Expected Radiation Dose due to Normal Operation of RSG-GAS and RDE Reactors

Udiyani, U.M. ( Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15310, Indonesia ) , Kuntjoro, S. ( Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15310, Indonesia ) , Sunaryo, G.R. ( Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15310, Indonesia ) , Susiati, H. ( Center for Nuclear Energy System Assessment, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Kuningan Barat, Mampang Prapatan, Jakarta 12710, Indonesia )

Atom Indonesia ARTICLE IN PRESS
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Abstract

BATAN is planning to build an experimental power reactor, the RDE, to complement the RSG-GAS reactor that is already operating in the Serpong Nuclear Zone (KNS). The experimental power reactor is an HTGR (high-temperature gas-cooled reactor) with 10 MWt power, while the RSG-GAS is a pool-type water-cooled reactor with 30 MWt power. According to standard regulatory practices, under normal operating conditions of the plant, radiological assessment of atmospheric releases to the environment and assessment of public exposures are considered essential. The purpose of this study is to estimate the dose acceptance in Serpong Nuclear Zone (KNS) after operate the RDE operates in KNS-2. To assess the doses, the PC-CREAM 08 computer code was used. It uses a standard Gaussian plume dispersion model and composes a suite of models and data for estimation of the radiological impact assessments of routine and continual discharges from a nuclear reactor. The input data include sourceterm from the RDE and the RSG-GAS, a stack the height of 60 m annual radionuclides release, meteorological data from the Serpong local meteorological station, and agricultural products data from Serpong site. Results show that the highest individual dose in the area around KNS for adults is 6.16×10-3 mSv/y in the S (South) direction and 300 m distance from the stack of RSG. The highest collective dose around KNS within 3 km radius is 6.37×10-3 man-Sv/yr. The results show that the radiological impact of the KNS on the critical groups of public and the individual effective doses satisfy the limits given by the Nuclear Regulatory Agency of Indonesia (BAPETEN). The operation of RDE in KNS-2 does not add significantly to acceptance radiation dose in the environment in KNS. It can also be concluded that the estimated effective doses are lower than the dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/y associated with this plant.

An Experimental Analysis on Nusselt Number of Natural Circulation Flow in Transient Condition Based on the Height Differences between Heater and Cooler

Juarsa, M. ( Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15130, Indonesia ) , Witoko, J.P. ( Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15130, Indonesia ) , Giarno, G ( Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15130, Indonesia ) , Haryanto, D. ( Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15130, Indonesia ) , Purba, J.H. ( Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15130, Indonesia )

Atom Indonesia ARTICLE IN PRESS
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Abstract

A better understanding on the phenomenon of natural circulation flow for cooling systems is necessary prior to improving the safety of nuclear power plant, not only in normal operation but also in accident conditions. One way to understand this phenomenon is by analyzing the Nusselt number in various geometrical dimensions through experimentation. The purpose of this study is to understand natural circulation phenomenon in transient condition by varying height differences between heater and cooler. To achieve this purpose, an experiment apparatus called NC-Queen was developed and arranged to enable three variations of height differences between heater and cooler, i.e., 1.4 m, 1.0 m, and 0.3 m. It is made of a stainless steel tube with a diameter of 1 inch, arranged in rectangular shape 6.4 m in length, and uses water as coolant. The initial temperature of the heater was set at 90 °C. The Nusselt number was obtained by calculating the flow rate as a function of transient temperature. The results confirm that height differences affect thermal properties and flow region based kinetics characteristics of water. In initial condition, decreasing height difference from 1.4 m to 1.0 m resulted in flow rate reduction of 16.7 %, while decreasing height difference from 1.4 m to 0.3 m resulted in a 39.1 % flow rate reduction. In final condition, the flow rate reductions were 75 % and 82.6 %, respectively. Meanwhile, in initial condition, the Nusselt number for height difference reduction from 1.4 m to 1.0 m and from 1.4 m to 0.3 m decreased by 30.5 % and 74.6 %, respectively, while for final condition, the Nusselt number decreased by 11.9 % and 67.4 %, respectively. The new constants in relationship between Nusselt number and the height difference are a = 20.06 and   b = 0.56. The dominance of turbulent flow provides a good safety margin with indications of the large amount of heat released.

Dynamic Analysis on the Safety Criteria of the Conceptual Core Design in MTR-type Research Reactor

Surbakti, T. ( Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15130, Indonesia ) , Pinem, S. ( Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15130, Indonesia ) , Suparlina, L. ( Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15130, Indonesia )

Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 2 (2018): August 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Abstract

One of thehigh-priority research activities in BATAN is designing a new MTR-type research reactor with a new fuel. The core follows a compact core model that consists of 16 fuels and 4 control rods. The increasing heat flux at the fuel will cause the temperature of the fuel and cladding to increase so that the coolant flow rate needs tobe increased. However, the coolant flow rate in the fuel element is limited by the thermal-hydraulic stability in the core. Therefore, dynamic analysis is important in evaluating the design and operation of nuclear reactor safety. The objective of this research work is to carry out a dynamic analysis for a conceptual MTR research reactor core fuelled with the low-enrichment U9Mo-Al dispersion. The calculations were performed using WIMSD-5B, Batan-2DIFF, Batan-3DIFF, POKDYN, and MTRDYN codes. Steady-state thermal-hydraulic parameters and dynamic analysis were determined using the MTRDYN code. The calculation results show that the maximum temperatures of the coolant, cladding, and fuel meat with the uranium density of 3.96 g cm-3 are 76.01 °C, 192.02 °C, and 196.24 °C, respectively. The maximum value of fuel meat temperature for safety limit is 210 °C, which means that the maximum temperatures fulfill the design limit, and therefore the reactor operates safely at the nominal power. The dynamic analysis shows that inherent safety can protect the reactor operation when insertion of reactivity occurs in the core.

Amino Acids Metabolism in the Muscle of Sheep fed with Mitchell Grass Hay Supplemented with Gliricidia sepium

Widiawati, Y. ( Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP), Jl. Veteran III, Ciawi, Bogor 16002, Indonesia ) , Winugroho, M. ( Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP), Jl. Veteran III, Ciawi, Bogor 16002, Indonesia ) , Teleni, E. ( Veterinary Science Department, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia )

Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 2 (2018): August 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Abstract

Leaf of Gliricidia sepiumcontains high amino acid that required for protein synthesis in the muscle. Supplementation of the legume leaves to low quality basal diet would improves amino acids amount to obtain an optimum growth of animal. The aim of experiment was to investigate the effect of Gliricidia sepium leaves supplementation to low quality basal diet on protein synthesis in muscle of animal. Eighteen sheeps were divided into three groups based on live weight (27.6 ± 1.72, 27.1 ± 2.26 and 27.5 ± 1.56 kg) of feed treatment, namely Mitchell grass hay (MG), Gliricidia (GS),and haycombined with Gliricidia (MGGS). All the dietwas offered with the amount was determined to meet the maintenance metabolizable energy (ME) requirement of the animals. Feed utilization and amino acid metabolism in muscle of sheep was measured with radioactively labeled leucine, water and sodium bicarbonate. Results indicated that sheepin MG group had a negative energy balance, whereas sheep in MGGS group had the highest amount of ME available for growth. The rate of protein synthesis was higher in the MGGS group and tended to take up these amino acids in their hind-limb muscles, while animalsin MG and GS groups tended to have net outputs of amino acids from their hind-limb muscles. Animals in the MGGS group synthesised more protein in their muscle than those in the GS and MG groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of Gliricidia at a ratio of 40:60improved feed utilization of low quality basal diet. The improvement would be manifested in better digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) with subsequent better utilization of amino acids.

The Effect of Calcium Carbonate and Cholecalciferol on Pharmacokinetic Interaction of 99mTc-CTMP Radiopharmaceuticals for Bone Scanning in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

Mahendra, I. ( CENTER FOR APPLIED NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY ) , Daruwati, I. ( CENTER FOR APPLIED NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY ) , Ambarwibawa, T. H. ( CENTER FOR APPLIED NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY ) , Nuraeni, W. ( CENTER FOR APPLIED NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY )

Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 2 (2018): August 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Abstract

Hypocalcemia is one of manifestation of bone metastases which could be treated  using calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol. Tc-99m radiolabeled 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclo tetradecyl-1,4,8,11-tetramethylene phosponic acid(against 99mTc-CTMP)on the other hand is a radioactive complex compound which has an affinity toward bone. Therefore, it could be used as bone tracer (radiopharmaceutical) in bone imaging.However, there has been a concern regarding the use 99mTc-CTMPon patients who have been treated with calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol. In this circumstance 99mTc-CTMPcould interact withcalcium carbonate and cholecalciferol and it might then interefere with the imaging results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic behavior of 99mTc-CTMP in rats (Rattus norvegicus)that had been previously treated with calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol. The pharmacokineticstudies were performed using four groups of animal modeland each groups consists of three rats. The groups were classified as control (I), rats treated with calcium carbonate (II), rats treated with cholecalciferol (III), and rats treated with both calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol (IV). After the rats were treated for 3 days,99mTc-CTMP radiopharmaceutical was injected through a tail vein of each rat. At specific time intervals after 99mTc-CTMP administration, blood wasthen extracted from the tail, weighedand counted using a single channel analyzer. The percentage of radioactivity in blood at a certain interval wasthen calculated to determine the distribution half-time and the elimination half-time. Thedistribution half-time of group I, II, II, and IV were 0.43+0.13, 0.25+0.18, 0.32+0.10, and 0.47+0.07 hours, respectively, while the elimination half-time were 2.56+0.18, 4.48+0.56, 4.47+1.13, 6.19+1.97 respectively. The results of T-test showed that there was no significant difference of distribution half-time between the three treated groups and the control group. However, there was significant difference of elimination half-time between the three treatment groups and control. This research showed that giving calcium carbonate or, cholecalciferol, and both for 3 days prior administration of 99mTc-CTMP would mantain elimination half-time which resulted in longer excretion/ elimination time.

A Novel Method for 57Ni and 57Co Production using Cyclotron-Generated Secondary Neutrons

Suryanto, H. ( Center for Radioisotope and Radiopharmaceutical Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314, Indonesia ) , Kambali, I. ( Center for Radioisotope and Radiopharmaceutical Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314, Indonesia )

Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 2 (2018): August 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Abstract

57Ni and 57Co radioisotpes are used in the synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals, for research purposes, as well as radiotherapy in nuclear medicine due to its decay characteristics. In this research, 57Ni and 57Co were produced using secondary neutrons. The secondary neutrons employed in this investigationwere generated by bombarding 11 MeV protons intoa target system consisting of HavarÒ foil as a vacuum window, aluminum foil as an energy degrader, aluminum tube as a target holder and nickel foil as a target via (p,n), (n,n) and (n,2n) nuclear reactions. The TALYS-calculated data were used to understand the origin of the secondary neutrons.  In this experiment, variable Ni target thicknesses of 75, 150 and 225 mm were irradiated with a fixed proton beam dose of 0.67 mAhr in order to study the dependence of the radioisotope yields on the target thickness. For the first time, 57Ni and 57Co radioisotopes wereproduced and observed experimentally following 58Ni(n,2n)57Ni → 57Co nuclear reaction. Experimental results indicated that for 225-mm thick Ni target, the 57Ni yield of 10.85 ± 3.29 mCi/mAhr and 57Co yield of 6.04 ± 2.45mCi/mAhr were recorded after an hour cooling period. The resulted yieldsdid not strongly depend on the target thickness. This proposed novel method is a promising method to obtain higher radioactivity yield in the production of 57Ni and 57Co radioisotopes.

Polymorphism of XRCC1 Gene Exon 6 (Arg194Trp) in Relation to Micronucleus Frequencies in Hospital Radiation Workers

Surniyantoro, H. N.E. ( Center for Technology of Safety and Radiation Metrology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia ) , Lusiyanti, Y. ( Center for Technology of Safety and Radiation Metrology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia ) , Rahardjo, T. ( Center for Technology of Safety and Radiation Metrology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia ) , Tetriana, D. ( Center for Technology of Safety and Radiation Metrology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia ) , Nurhayati, S. ( Center for Technology of Safety and Radiation Metrology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia ) , Date, H. ( Faculty of Sciences, Hokkaido University, Japan )

Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 2 (2018): August 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Abstract

The genetic polymorphism of DNA repair gene plays some important role in regulating individual sensitivity to ionizing radiation, maintaining DNA integrity, and preventing cancer and DNA damage.XRCC1 as one of the members ofbase excision repair (BER) is involved in the repairement of oxidized bases and single-strand breaks DNA after exposure by ROS, including ionizing radiation. This study was aimed to examine the correlation between XRCC1 exon 6 gene polymorphism and MN frequency in radiation workers and their relation to age, gender, smoking status and years of exposure. This study involved 81 hospital radiation workers and 20 controls from several hospitals in Indonesia. Genotyping of XRCC1exon 6 gene polymorphism and MN assay were performed using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus assay (CBMN assay), respectively.  The results indicated that MN frequency was significantly higherin the exposed workers than in the controls (15.38±7.72 versus 9±5.49; p = 0.001).Radiation workers with heterozygous alleles for XRCC1 polymorphisms showed a significantly higher MN frequency than controls with the same genotypes (17.5±8.36 versus 7.44±5.05; p = 0.002). The confounding factors, like gender and age, were significantly associated with increased MN frequency both in radiation workers and controls. Smoking status was significantly associated with MN frequency in the controls only, while years of exposure did not affect MN frequency either in radiation workers or controls. These results suggest that the genetic polymorphism of XRCC1 gene exon 6 with a mutant heterozygous/ CT variant demonstrated an association with the extent of DNA damage in the hospital radiation workers in this study. In the subsequent studies, it is necessary to examine the DNA repair genes polymorphism in populations with controlled non-genetic factors, such as lifestyles, environments, and exercises that affect the MN frequency as a biomarker of DNA damage.

Fungal Population and Aflatoxin Contamination on Stored Gamma-Irradiated Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) Kernels

Nurtjahja, K. ( 1. Department of Biology, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Agatis, Darmaga Bogor 16680, Indonesia 2. Department of Biology, University of Sumatera Utara, Jl. Bioteknologi No. 1, Medan 20155, Indonesia ) , Dharmaputra, O.S. ( 1. Department of Biology, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Agatis, Darmaga Bogor 16680, Indonesia 2. SEAMEO BIOTROP, Jl. Raya Tajur km 6, Bogor 16134, Indonesia ) , Rahayu, W.P. ( 1. Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Darmaga, PO Box 220 Bogor 16680, Indonesia 2. SEAFAST Center, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Ulin No. 1, Darmaga Bogor 16680, Indonesia ) , Syarief, R. ( 1. Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Darmaga, PO Box 220 Bogor 16680, Indonesia 2. SEAFAST Center, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Ulin No. 1, Darmaga Bogor 16680, Indonesia )

Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 2 (2018): August 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Abstract

A study on the effectivenessof gamma irradiation at doses of 5 and 10 kGy on fungal population, Aspergillus flavus strains, and aflatoxin B1 contamination on stored nutmeg kernels was conducted. The kernels were collected from seeds in a period of one week from the ground at North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia.Dried shelled kernels with ±10 %moisture content, packed in polyethylene bags at 2.1 kg/bag, were irradiated at 5 and 10 kGy and stored at ambient temperature (28°C) for 2 and 4 months. Kernel moisture content, fungal population, and aflatoxin B1 were determined before and after irradiation, and after 2 and 4 months of storage. Results showed that fungal population was reduced with the increasing irradiation dose. Five species of fungi were isolated, i.e., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Eurotium chevalieri, and Penicillium citrinum. A total of twelve A. flavus strains were isolated, five strains from unirradiated kernels and five and two strains from irradiated kernels at doses 5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Among these strains, 58 % were capable of producing L sclerotia and 25 % were identified as toxigenic. Kernel moisture during storage was 7.3 % and no aflatoxin B1 was detected before and after irradiation, and after2 and 4 months of storage duration.

Determination of the Dosimetric Characteristics of BATAN’s 125I Source for Brachytherapy: An Experimental Study

Sandy, K.Y.P. ( Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia Center for Technology of Radiation Safety and Metrology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Lebak Bulus Raya No. 49, Jakarta 12440, I ) , Pawiro, S.A. ( Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia ) , Soejoko, D.S. ( Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia )

Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 2 (2018): August 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Abstract

125I brachytherapysources withlowphotonenergies have beenwidelyusedin treatingtumors.Accordingto American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 (AAPMTG-43)recommendations,dosimetric characteristic ofthe newbrachytherapysources shouldbe determined before clinical use.Inthis study, dosimetric characteristic of 125Imanufacturedby BATAN have been determined through measurement by using Thermoluminescent Dosemeter (TLD) andgafchromic XR- QA2film.The radial dosefunctionmeasurements were performedat distances rangingfrom0.5to10cmfromthe source center.The anisotropyfunctions were measuredat distances of2,3,and5cmfromthe source center forangles ranging from0to 90degree inallquadrants.The results indicated that a doserate constants measured with TLD and film are 1.05± 8 % cGy.h-1.U-1and1.01±8 % cGy.h-1.U-1, respectively.The radial dosefunctiondecreasesalongwith the increasingdistance from source andmeetsthe 5thorderpolynomial equation. The anisotropyfunction resultshows thattheanisotropyindosedistributionincreasesalongthe source axis.Thismeasurement data areinagreementwith the previousstudy on EGSnrc Monte Carloresult andhave a similar patternwithIsoAidandGMS BT-125 commercial125Isource.

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Atom Indonesia Vol 44, No 2 (2018): August 2018
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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Abstract