Jurnal Natural
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Articles 150 Documents
MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANE ADSORBERS FOR GLYCEROL REMOVAL IN BIODIESEL Saiful, Saiful; Pratiwi, Febrina; Maulana, Ilham; Ramli, Muliadi
Jurnal Natural Volume 12, Number 1, March 2012
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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Abstract

Mixed matrixmembrane (MMM) adsorbers systems function as short and wide chromatographic columns in which the adsorptive packing consists of one or more micro-porous membranes. This study reports the use of membrane adsorbers for glycerol capturing and removing in crude biodiesel. The MMM are prepared by a wet phase inversion method. Magnesol were incorporated as active sites in the membrane. Matrix support of the membrane was prepared from chitosan.The optimum compositions of the adsorptive membranes were 3 % chitosan, 15% DMF and 60% loading adsorbent. The porosity of these membranes was 34 % and swelling degree was 52 %. The membrane clean water flux was 225 Lm-2h-1 at a trans-membrane pressure of 2.5 bar. The adsorptive membrane has been demonstrated to reduce the concentration of total glycerol in crude biodiesel. The amount of glycerol in biodiesel can be reduced 69.93 % in 60 minute which is agreed to value of SNI quality standards. The membrane adsorber can be regenerated and reused for biodiesel purification. The regenerated membrane can be reused with maintaining the high adsorption capacity. The methanol was better than ethanol to regenerate the magnesol membrane. The Magnesol membrane will be a new alternative method for biodiesel purification.Mixed matrixmembrane (MMM) adsorbers systems function as short and wide chromatographic columns in which the adsorptive packing consists of one or more micro-porous membranes. This study reports the use of membrane adsorbers for glycerol capturing and removing in crude biodiesel. The MMM are prepared by a wet phase inversion method. Magnesol were incorporated as active sites in the membrane. Matrix support of the membrane was prepared from chitosan.The optimum compositions of the adsorptive membranes were 3 % chitosan, 15% DMF and 60% loading adsorbent. The porosity of these membranes was 34 % and swelling degree was 52 %. The membrane clean water flux was 225 Lm-2h-1 at a trans-membrane pressure of 2.5 bar. The adsorptive membrane has been demonstrated to reduce the concentration of total glycerol in crude biodiesel. The amount of glycerol in biodiesel can be reduced 69.93 % in 60 minute which is agreed to value of SNI quality standards. The membrane adsorber can be regenerated and reused for biodiesel purification. The regenerated membrane can be reused with maintaining the high adsorption capacity. The methanol was better than ethanol to regenerate the magnesol membrane. The Magnesol membrane will be a new alternative method for biodiesel purification.
ANALYSIS OF MINERAL CONTENTS Ca, Mg, Fe AND Na IN NATURAL BENTONITE CLAY Fathurrahmi, Fathurrahmi
Jurnal Natural Volume 12, Number 1, March 2012
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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Abstract

This research has been conducted to determine content of natural clay from bentonite in East Java area. There are two types of samples taken from the location, white and yellow clays. Samples were prepared to become the small pieces granulated, then were cleaned with aquadest, and were dried, respectively.After that, samples were re-minimized into 200 mesh in nanoparticles, re-cleaned and dried using oven at temperature 100-110 °Celsius. Ca, Fe, Mg and Na are contents in samples of bentonite Clay being determined by using Atom Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Each part of the substance from yellow bentonite clays and white bentonite clays were measured and analysed its content with three times repetition. Natural-bentonite clays of Pacitan from East Java contained the minerals Ca, Mg, Fe and Na with mean values of the gratuity Ca 0.0127 % Mg 0.24655 %, Fe 0.56178 %, and Na 0.14122 % for yellow bentonite clays (A). White bentonite clays (B) consisted of minerals Fe, Mg, Na, and Ca with mean values of gratuity Ca 0.01856 %, Mg 0.30067 %, Fe 0.61235 %, and Na 0.1608%, respectively.
BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS FROM A MIXTURE OF LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LDPE) AND CASSAVA STARCH WITH THE ADDITION OF ACRYLIC ACID Susilawati, Susilawati; Mustafa, Irfan; Maulina, Desy
Jurnal Natural Volume 11, Number 2, September 2011
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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Abstract

A research of preparation biodegradable plastics, from LDPE and cassava starch mixture with the addition of acrylic acid, had been conducted. This research purpose to  studied compatibility properties of the material and percent weight loss during the biodegradation test. Optimum weight loss (59,26% ) was showed after 60 days witches LDPE and starch composition ratio 6 : 4 (w/w)  while tensile strength  equal to 0,38 Kgf/mm2.  SEM characterization showed that biodegradation has occurred by  formation of hole in the biodegradable plastic surface. DTA test gave Tg = 130 °C, Tm = 230 °C and Td = 370-450 °C while FT-IR analysis showed that the biodegradable plastics have a chemistry interaction.
HIV Genotype Analysis from HIV Infected Patients in East Java Area Ismail, Yulia Sari; Soetjipto, Soetjipto; Wasito, Eddy Bagus; Nasronudin, Nasronudin
Jurnal Natural Volume 12, Number 2, September 2012
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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Abstract

Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been known to cause Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) disease and has been alaso divided into several subtypes (A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K) and Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF). Different characteristics of subtype of the virus and its interaction with host can affect the severity of the disease. This study was aimed to analyze HIV-1 genotypes circulating in HIV/AIDS patients from the East Java region descriptively. Information from this research was expected to complement the data of mocular epidemiology of HIV in Indonesia.  This study used blood plasma from patients who had been tested to be HIV positive who were seeking treatment or are reffered to the Intermediate Care Unit of Infectious Disease (UPIPI) Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya from various area representing the East Java regions. Plasma was separated from blood samples by centrifugation for use in the the molecular biology examination including RNA extraction, nested PCR using specific primer for HIV gp120 env gene region, DNA purifying, DNA sequencing, and homology and phylogenetic analysis. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the HIV gp120 env gene, it was found that the most dominant genotypes in East Java belonged to one group of Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF), namely CRF01_AE and CRF3x_01B, which has been also found in Southeast Asia. In the phylogenetic tree, most of HIV samples (30 samples) were in the same branch with CRF01_AE and CRF3x_01B, except one sample (HIV40) was in the same branch with subtype B.
IMPACT OF STAND STRUCTURE TO THE DIVERSITY OF TREE SAPLING IN RUBBER AGROFOREST SYSTEM Rasnovi, Saida
Jurnal Natural Volume 12, Number 1, March 2012
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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Abstract

The study of stand structure of rubber agroforest system and its effect on tree sapling diversity was carried out in Bungo District, Jambi Province from August 2004 to August 2005. Basal area (BA) and tree density were surveyed using variable-area transect method. Tree sapling species was surveyed using standard plots combined with circular elementary subplots laid along 60 m transect line. The result shown that BA and tree density of rubber agroforest system were lower significantly with forest at the diameter class > 30 cm, but at the diameter class < 30 cm there were not differ significantly. PCA analysis shown there was a positive correlation between BA non rubber tree with the species diversity and richness indices of tree sapling in rubber agroforest system and there was no correlation between density of non rubber tree and the indices. However, in the forest, BA and tree density were have a negative correlation with the species diversity and richness indices of tree sapling.
STUDY OF POPULATION AND HOME RANGE OF THOMAS LAGUR (Presbytis thomasi) AT SORAYA RESEARCH STATION, LEUSER ECOSYSTEM Syaukani, Syaukani
Jurnal Natural Volume 12, Number 1, March 2012
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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A primate Presbytis thomasi lives in a group with uni-male systems (only one adult make in agroup) at Soraya Research Station. These primates performer their daily activity in one home-range and also protect their home-range with provides a specific vocal (loud-call). There were six groups of Langur with 6-12 individual of each group. The width of home-range shows a variation in each group. The overlapping of home-range ofte causes probles among males and the looser will have to leave as weel as losing all parts of the groups.
THE EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME ON TOTAL OF FUNGI IN KANJI PEDAH Dewi, Resmila; Nursanty, Risa; Yulvizar, Cut
Jurnal Natural Volume 11, Number 2, September 2011
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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The research was conducted to determine the quality of the kanji pedah by counting total number and percentage of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. It had been done since March from to October 2010 in Microbiology Laboratory of Biology Departement FMIPA Unsyiah. Kanji pedah as the sample was taken from Meunasah Mesjid Syamtalira village, Aron Subs-district of North Aceh. This research used sample from variety storage time groups range 3-7 days; 5-7 months; 9-12 months; and 15-18 months. Data were analyzed in descriptive and compared with the quality standard from Directorate General of National Agency of Drug and Food Control (Dirjen BPOM RI). The result showed the entire sample had fungi with ranged 1.45-63.7x102. The amount of fungi exceeds the quality standard already established by the National Agency of Drug and Food Control No. 05018/KBPOM/2001: 50 colony/g. Also Aspergillus flavus was found with range from 3%-27% meanwhile Aspergillus niger was found with range from 21,1%-40,9%.
CHARACTERISTIC SYMPTOMS OF Phytophthora palmivora ON COCOA LEAVES Sriwati, Rina; Muarif, Rizky
Jurnal Natural Volume 12, Number 2, September 2012
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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The research was aimed to determine the characteristics symptoms of Phytophthora palmivora on cocoa leaves, and was conducted in Plant Diseases Laboratory, the Faculty of Agriculture Syiah Kuala University. Mature cacao leaves with almost the same size in the quotation were used at Lab. Plant disease. Suspensions of P. palmivora were inoculated on leaves by spraying techniques with several concentrations of treatment, 1x102, 1x104, 1x106. The results showed that cocoa leaves’ symptoms were getting yellow colour around the veins and the whole leaves eventually showed lesion on the third day after spraying. The higher spores’ population of P. palmivora could impact higher invasive infections. Characteristic symptoms will be very helpful in the process of observation of early disease in the nursery.
THE SUBSURFACE RESISTIVITY STUDIES IN GAMPONG JAWA WASTE DISPOSAL BANDA ACEH Syamsuddin, Fadhli; Bakar, Marwan Abu; Mala, Nur
Jurnal Natural Volume 12, Number 1, March 2012
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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Abstract

The research has been carried out about determining the subsurface resistivity values by using the VLF method in waste disposal (TPA) Gampong Jawa Banda Aceh. Measurement target is for investigate allegations of contaminant substances are disposed by the public at these locations based on the response of the magnetic and electric fields. The tools used are the T-VLF device with two electrodes and using three stations, namely the transmitter JJF4 Japan, NWC Australia and UMS Moscow. Broad expanse of measurements on L1 and L2 is 200 m, L3 and L4 is 150 m. There are 74 measuring points with spacing of 10 m. The result of this experiment showed that the four layers can be divided into two layers with different resistivity values. The first layer at a depth of 0-15 m with apparent resistivity of 2-25 Ωm, allegedly at this layer contained the contaminant substances. The second layer at a depth of 15 m with apparent resistivity of 25-101 Ωm, in this layer are water-resistant coating that can withstand water into and out of the landfill.
ANALYSIS OF MACRONUTRIENCONTENT, GLYCEMIC INDEX AND CALCIUM OXALATE ELIMINATION IN Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Lukitaningsih, Endang; Rumiyati, Rumiyati; Puspitasari, Ika; Christiana, Meti
Jurnal Natural Volume 12, Number 2, September 2012
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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Abstract

Recently, the research to find alternative sources of carbohydrates as a replacement for rice has been developed. Walur is one of the carbohydrate sources that can be explored because it can be grown in any area with out special treatment. However, walur has limitation for direct consumption, because it contains calcium oxalate. The purposes of this study were to determine the chemical character (macronutrient content), calculate glycemic index and get the proper washing techniques to elimin ate calcium oxalate of walur. Macro nutrients content studied in this research include carbohydrates, fats, protein, star chand crude fiber. Analysis of macronutrients has been chemically done, while the glycemic index was measured by in vivo using glucose as a standard. Elimination of calcium oxalate was conducted by washing the fresh walur tubers using a solution of0.01NHCl-NaOH, 5% NaCl, and solution of lemon-lime. The content of oxalate before and after washing was analyzed by permanganometry method. The results showed that walur containing 4.34 ±0.07% of reducingsugar,3.24 ± 0.06 % of not-reducing sugar, 11.27±0.40 % of crude fiber,0.03±1.05 % of starchand0.57±0.01 % of protein. Qualitative analysis of fatty acids showed that hexade canoicacid, octade cadienoicacid, and the acide icosatetranoic were detected in high concentrations. The glycemic index valueof walur was relative lylow, about of 16.9. In addition, washing technique using a solution of lemon-lime was the most excellent technique and can reduce the oxalate content up to61.82%.Fromthis research, it can be concluded that walur can be used as food substitute esrice after washing treatment using lemon-lime solution to remove the calcium oxalate content.

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