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Ramadan Fasting, Health, and Autophagy: Is There any Relationship?

Nasihun, Taufiqurrachman

Sains Medika: Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Vol 8, No 2 (2017): July-Desember 2017
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran; Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

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Comparison Between The Efficacy of Fentanyl Continuous Infusion and Intratechal Morphine for Pain After Cesarean Section

Putro, Prabowo Wicaksono Yuwono

Sains Medika: Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Vol 8, No 2 (2017): July-Desember 2017
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran; Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

Background:. Intrathecal morphine proved to be effective caesarean section with possible side effect delayed respiratory depression, nausea vomiting and pruritus. Fentanyl continuous infusion fixed base infusion rate with disposable elastomeric pump is an alternative to intrathecal morphine. However,  the effectiveness has not been proven. Objective: to compare effectiveness between fentanyl continuous infusion fixed base infusion rate using disposable elastomeric pump and intrathecal morphine.Methods: RCT with 56 patients who met the inclusion criteria, divided into two groups: group Morphine (n=28): spinal anesthesia 10 mg Bupivacaine Heavy 0.5% + 100 mcg morphine; group Fentanyl (n=28): spinal anesthesia  10 mg Bupivacaine Heavy 0.5% + fentanyl continuous infusion 0.5 mcg/kg BW/hour using disposable elastomeric pump after delivery of the fetus. Data analysis: Mann-Whitney test level of significance p < 0.05.Results: Analgesic effect of Fentanyl group was as effective as Morphine group. NRS score difference significantly only in measurement taken 6 hours after surgery (p=0.034). Mean NRS score group Morphine (0.68±1.02) and mean NRS score group Fentanyl (1.11±0.832). Both group were effective in preventing increased cortisol level measured 6 hours after surgery, mean value group Morphine (15.053±8.664) and mean value group Fentanyl (12.162±8.623); no statistical significant difference between group (p=0.114). Side effects revealed no significant difference.Conclusion: Fentanyl continuous infusion 0.5 mcg/kg BW/hour using disposable elastomeric pump is as effective as intrathecal morphine 100 mcg.

DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPLE EMULSION CREAM SUPLY FORMULATION W/O/W ON GREEN TEA LEAF RESIDUE AS ANTI ACNE

Widyaningrum, Naniek

Sains Medika: Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Vol 8, No 2 (2017): July-Desember 2017
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran; Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground: Residue of green tea leaves is not well utilized until now, the residue is still considered as a waste. Previous studies found that green tea leaf residue still have a fairly high EGCG content. EGCG has benefits as an antibacterial. Utilization of waste of green tea residue started from formulation until the diversification of multiple emulsion w/o/w products has not been reported yet. The purpose of this study is to obtain the dosage and waste formula of green tea leaves in the preparation of multiple emulsion w/o/w cream effective in Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) causing bacteria. Method: Phase one of this research was green tea leaf waste extraction done by infundation and fractionation method using ethyl acetate. The second stage was ethyl acetate fraction of green tea leaf extract tested its antibacterial activity on P.acnes bacteria with concentration of 1% to 6%, third stage was formulation with multiple emulsion w/o/w tested its physical properties.Result: The results of this research concentration of ethyl acetate fraction of green tea leaf extract of 6% was the optimum concentration in inhibiting the growth of P.acnes bacteria with inhibition zone 32,6 ± 0,57. The formula of preparation of multiple emulsion w/o/w with green tea leaves of 6% active substance has good physical properties which can spread 90.4 cm2 ± 0.03, pH 5.00 ± 0.02 and microscopic analysis showed multiple emulsion w/o/w. The concentration of 6% green tea leaf residue in the formula of multiple emulsion has a good physical and antibacterial activity so that it can be used as reference of formulation. It is necessary to test the stability of multiple emulsion formula. 

Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Seledri Terhadap Kadar 8-OHdG (8-Hydroxy-2’-Deoxy Guanosine) dan Jumlah Foam Cell (Uji pada tikus galur Wistar yang diberi diet tinggi lemak)

Budiarto, Agnes

Sains Medika: Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Vol 8, No 2 (2017): July-Desember 2017
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran; Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

Latar Belakang: Pola makan yang banyak mengandung lemak, disertai frekuensi makan yang tinggi meyebabkan hiperlipidemia. Salah satu pencegahan hiperlipidemia adalah dengan pemberian ekstrak seledri. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak seledri  terhadap  kadar 8-OHdG (8-Hydroxy-2’-Deoxy Guanosine) dan jumlah  foam cell.Metode: Penelitian eksperimental dengan post-test only control group design dilakukan pada 35 ekor tikus wistar yang diberi adrenalin dan diet tinggi lemak untuk induksi hiperlipidemia. Tikus dibagi menjadi 5 kelompok yaitu  kelompok K-N: kontrol negatif, kelompok K-S: kontrol positif diberikan simvastatin, kelompok ES-25: mendapatkan ekstrak selederi dosis 25mg/200grBB,  kelompok ES-50: mendapatkan ekstrak seledri dosis 50mg/200grBB dan kelompok ES-75: mendapatkan ekstrak seledri 75mg/200grBB. Perlakuan selama 30 hari. Kadar 8-OHdG ditentukan dengan ELISA, sedangkan  jumlah foam cell ditentukan dengan preparat histopatologi dengan pengecatan HE. Data dianalisis dengan Kruskal-Wallis dan Mann-Whitney.Hasil : Analisis statistik Mann-Whitney menunjukkan kadar 8-OHdG pada ES-25 (12,13 ± 0,21), ES-50 (7,23 ± 0,25), ES-75 (4,41 ± 0,45)  lebih rendah bermakna dibanding K-N (14,30 ± 0,66) p 0,001. Jumlah foam cell pada ES-25 (7,57 ± 0,53), ES-50 (6,57 ± 0,79), ES-75 (3,43 ± 0,53)  lebih rendah bermakna dibanding K-N (13,57 ± 1,27) p 0,001.Kesimpulan: Ekstrak seledri mampu menurunkan kadar 8-OHdG dan jumlah  foam cell tikus galur Wistar yang diinduksi dengan adrenalin dan diet tinggi lemak.

PENGARUH EKSTRAK DAUN KELOR (Moringa Oleifera.Lam) TERHADAP EKSPRESI BCL2 DAN EKSPRESI BAX PADA SEL TUBULUS GINJAL (Studi eksperimen tikus Wistar yang diinduksi parasetamol)

Jannah, Miftahul

Sains Medika: Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Vol 8, No 2 (2017): July-Desember 2017
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran; Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

Parasetamol dapat menyebabkan apoptosis pada tubulus ginjal. Daun kelor (Moringa oleifera.Lam) mempunyai efek antioksidan karena banyak mengandung flavonoid. Selain itu flavonoid juga dapat membantu pensinyalan sel yang memiliki efek biologis untuk memodulasi jalur sinyal pada sel atau jalur tranduksi sinyal. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak daun kelor (Moringa oleifera.Lam) terhadap peningkatan ekspresi Bcl-2 dan penurunan ekspresi Bax pada sel tubulus ginjal tikus yang diinduksi parasetamol.Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan “Post tes only control group design”, yangmenggunakan 24 ekor tikus dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok. Kelompok I diberi aquades, kelompok II diberi etanol 70%, kelompok III dan IV diberi ekstrak daun kelor masing-masing 1,075 gram dan 2,150 gram. Ekspresi Bcl2 dan ekspresi Bax diukur dengan menggunakan pengecatan immunohistokimia. Jumlah ekspresi Bcl2 dan ekspresi Bax diuji dengan One Way Anova dilanjutkan dengan uji Post Hoc LSD.Ekspresi Bcl2  dikelompok K1 (0,32±0,08), K2 (0,65±0,24), P1 (9,1±0,75) dan P2 (13,68±0,33) terjadi perbedaan bermakna p<0,05. Perbedaan ditunjukan oleh semua kelompok. Ekspresi Bax dikelompok K1 (9,94±0,45), K2 (13,01±0,38), P1 (6,85±0,22), dan P2 (2,63±0,20), berbeda bermakna p<0,05. Perbedaan ditunjukan oleh semua kelompok. Ekstrak daun kelor dengan dosis 2,150 gram menghasilkan peningkatan ekspresi Bcl2 dan penurunan ekspresi Bax yang signifikan nilai p=0,000.Pemberian ekstrak daun kelor meningkatkan ekspresi Bcl-2 dan menurunkan Bax pada sel tubulus ginjal tikus Wistar yang diinduksi parasetamol.

PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK KACANG HIJAU (Phaseolus Radiatus)TERHADAP KADAR FERRITIN DAN MALONDYALDEHIDE (mda) DALAM DARAH TIKUS WISTAR PUTIH (Rattus Nurvegicus) ANEMIA

Wijayanti, Heni

Sains Medika: Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Vol 8, No 2 (2017): July-Desember 2017
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran; Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK KACANG HIJAU (Phaseolus Radiatus)TERHADAP KADAR FERRITIN DAN MALONDYALDEHIDE (mda) DALAM DARAH TIKUS WISTAR PUTIH (Rattus Nurvegicus) ANEMIAHENI WIJAYANTIABSTRAK Anemia defisiensi besi merupakan masalah gizi yang sering terjadi di seluruh dunia. Dampak dari anemia defisiensi besi sangat besar terhadap penderita, diantaranya perdarahan, gangguan proses persalinan, prematuritas, serta BBLR. Kacang hijau mengandung tinggi protein, karbohidrat serta lemak yang dapat mendukung proses sintesis hemoglobin. Kadar zat besi akan berpengaruh terhadap kadar oksidan berupa Reactive Oxigen Species (ROS). Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian ekstrak kacang hijau terhadap kadar ferritin dan kadar MDA pada tikus wistar anemia. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental dengan pendekatan  Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design. Jumlah sampel 25 ekor tikus wistar putih yang terbagi menjadi 5 kelompok perlakuan yaitu kelompok normal, kelompok control serta kelompok yang diberikan dosis ekstrak kacang hijau masing – masing 0,18g, 0,36g dan 0,72g. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya penurunan kadar hemoglobin, setelah dilakukan perlakuan selama 14 hari diet rendah Fe masing – masing 40-55 persen serta terjadi peningkatan kadar ferritin masing – masing 28-38 persen tiap masing – masing kelompok sedangkan kadar MDA mengalami penurunan 18–24 persen pada masing – masing kelompok perlakuan. Hal ini menunjukkan perbandingan kadar ferritin dan kadar MDA memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap pemberian ekstrak kacang hijau yang ditunjukkan dengan nilai p value < 0,05 (p = 0,00).Kata Kunci : Ekstrak Kacang Hijau, Kadar Ferritin dan Kadar MDA

The Effect of Green Tea Leaf Extract on Spatial Memory Function and Superoxyde Dismutase Enzyme Activity in Mice with D-galactose Induced Dimentia

Gumay, Ainun Rahmasari, Bakri, Saekhol, Utomo, Astika Widy

Sains Medika Vol 8, No 1 (2017): January - June 2017
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran; Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

Introduction: Oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in pathogenesis of brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer. Green tea has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotective activity. Objective: to determine the effect of green tea extract on spatial memory function and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity in mice with D-galactose induced dementiaMethods: An experimental study using “post test only control group design”. Twenty male BALB/c Mice aged 6-8 weeks were divided into 4 groups. Negative control group (NG) was induced by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (150 mg/kg BW) once daily for 6 weeks. GT-90, GT-270, GT-540 were induced by D-galactose and orally administered with 90, 270, and 540 mg/kg BW of green tea extract once daily for 6 weeks. The spatial memory functions were assessed using Morris water maze and SOD enzyme activities were evaluated using ELISA. One-way Anova and Kruskal-Wallis were used for statistical analysis.Results: mean percentage of latency time in the GT-90 (35.29 (SD= 2.69)%), GT-270 (35.28 (SD= 2.62)%), and GT-540 (35.62 (SD=5.05)%) were significantly higher compared to that of NG (20.38 (SD = 3.21)%), p <0.05). SOD enzyme activity in the GT-270 (0.78 (SD = 0.07) U/ml) was significantly higher compared to that of NG (0.51 (SD = 0.01) U ml), p= 0.004).Conclusion: Green tea extract may improve spatial memory function and the activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme in mice with D-galactose induced dementia.

Death in Patients with Regular Hemodialysis Due to CKD in RSUD Dr. Soedono Madiun Not Correlated to Various Risk Factors

Lumaksono, Tulus, Rachmawati, Anisa, Marfianti, Erlina

Sains Medika Vol 8, No 1 (2017): January - June 2017
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran; Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) indicated by the inability of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis of the body.1 This causes the patient to undergo renal replacement therapy for life. Patients undergoing regular hemodialysis have a higher risk of death in the last 2 decades. The survival of hemodialysis patients is different because it is influenced by several factors, including age, sex, duration of hemodialysis, duration of hemodialysis and accompanying comorbid patients. Objective: To identify risk factors that affect mortality in patients with CKD undergoing regular hemodialysis.Method: This research is an observational research with case-control design. Research done in dr.Soedono Madiun Hospital in December 2016 with a sample size of 41 cases and 41 control. Data retrieved through the medical records of patients with CKD who undergo regular HD from January to November 2016. Data analysis was performed including analysis of univariate,  bivariate analysis using chi-square test with 95% CI, 5% significance level (α = 0.05) and analysis multivariste using logistic regression.Results: There was no significant relationship between age (p = 0.23; OR = 1.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 4.64), gender (p = 0.623; OR = 1.24; 95% CI 0, 49 to 3.18), long live HD (p = 0.12; OR = 0.50; 95% CI 0.20 to 1.20), duration of HD (p = 0.81, OR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.34 to 2.28), hypertension (p = 0.21; OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.12 to 1.61), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.17; OR = 1 , 83, 95% CI 0.75 to 4.47), hemoglobin level (p = 0.26; OR = 1.66; 95% CI 0.68 to 4.05) and intradialitik complications (p = 0.81 , OR = 1.11; 95% CI 0.44 to 2.80) with mortality in patients with CKD. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between age, gender, length undergoing hemodialysis, duration of HD, hypertension, diabetes, hemoglobin, and complications intradialitik in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis in dr.Soedono Madiun Hospitals.  

Sterility of Gauze Packed in One and Three Layer Layer Parchment Paper

Putri, Saskia Biyakto, Lestari, Endang Sri, Ciptaningtyas, Vincentia Rizke

Sains Medika Vol 8, No 1 (2017): January - June 2017
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran; Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

Intoduction: Sterile gauze is one of the medical devices that are often used to prevent infection. Several things, one of them is materials for packaging, can affect the sterility of gauze. Parchment paper is one of the packaging materials for sterilization. The study was done to analyze the sterility of gauze packed with parchment paper one layer and three layers on the growth of microorganism.Method: This study was an experimental study with a quasi-experimental design. Samples were 60 gauze packed with one layer parchment paper and 60 gauze packed with three layers of parchment paper. The sterility of sterile gauze tested at weeks 0, 2 and 4. Results: There was no significant difference in the sterility of gauze packed with 1 layer of parchment paper on the growth of microorganisms at 0, 2, 4 weeks (p = 0.126). No significant difference in the sterility of sterile gauze packed with 3 layers of parchment paper at 0, 2, 4 weeks (p = 0.675). There was a significant difference in the sterility of sterile gauze packed with parchment paper 1 layer and 3 layers on the growth of microorganisms (p = 0.002).Conclusion There is a significant difference of sterile gauze packed with parchment paper 1 layer and 3 layers against the growth of microorganisms. The sterility of the packaged sterile gauze with a layer of parchment paper is better than the three layers.

The Role of Antioxidant to Prevent Free Radicals in The Body

Zulaikhah, Siti Thomas

Sains Medika Vol 8, No 1 (2017): January - June 2017
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran; Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

AbstractAntioxidants are compounds that can counteract or reduce the negative impact oxidants in the body. Antioxidants work by donating an electron to compounds that are oxidant so that the oxidant compound activity can be inhibited. Antioxidants are classified into two, namely antioxidant enzymes and non-enzyme. Antioxidant enzymes as enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a non-enzyme antioxidant found in many vegetables and fruits, which include reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, E, β- carotene, flavonoids, isoflavones, flavones, antosionin, catechins, and isokatekin, and lipoic acid. Low antioxidant enzymes can be used as a marker of high levels of free radicals in the body. Following review aims to provide an overview of the role of antioxidants in preventing the formation of free radicals in the body.