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Jurnal Ilmu Tanah & Lingkungan
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Articles 219 Documents
The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as a System of Agricultural Innovation Uphoff, Norman
Jurnal Ilmu Tanah & Lingkungan Vol 10, No 1 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan
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Abstract

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI). developed in Madagascar some 25 years ago. is gaining increasing credenceand momentum as probably 500.000 farmers in more than 20 countries are now using its methods to raise their rice.production -- while also reducing their use of external inputs and production costs. Rather than focus on the innovation itself, this paper will introduce SRI only briefly, focusing instead on the transnational system for innovation that has emerged inresponse to this agronomic opportunity that can be particularly beneficial for resource-limited households. Within SRI´sconceptual and practical framework. farmers have devised many innovations. These are the focus of a parallel paper written for this workshop. That paper considers how farmers have made the original SRI methodology less labor-intensive (even labor-saving). and how they have extended methods devised for irrigated rice production both to unirrigated (rainfed) areas for growing rice and to other crops beyond rice. This paper is concerned with what can be considered as a de facto ´system of innovation´ that surrounds and has accelerated the spread of SRI worldwide. SRI has differed from most other agricultural innovations in the extent to which farmers have voluntarily invested their own time and resources in taking SRI to peers as an impressive example of farmer-to-farmer extension. Also. innovative alliances have formed among diverse persons and organizations to disseminate and adjust the methodology. thereby supporting the spread of this innovation even despite resistance from some established institutions.
Ability of Bacteria Isolated from Black Water Ecosystem of Central Kalimantan in Degrading of Crude Oil and Diesel Oil Anas, Iswandi; Hadi, Noegroho; Santosa, Dwi Andreas
Jurnal Ilmu Tanah & Lingkungan Vol 2, No 2 (1999): Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan
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Abstract

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the abili!y of bacteria strains isolated from black water ecosystem of Central Kalimantan in degrading crude oil and diesel oil. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Soil Biology, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty ~f Agriculture, BogorAgricultural University (IPB). The crude oil degrading ability of bacteria was tested on a minimum liquid medium (Gurujeyalakshmi dan Orial, 1989) and soil. Six crude oil and diesel oil degrading bacteria were isolated. The bacteria were identified as Bacillus panthotenticus (2 strains), B. circulars (1 strain), Pssudomonas diminuta (1 strain), P. stufzeri (1strain) and Klebsiella edwardsii (1 strain). These bacteria were able to degrade crude oil or diesel oil whether in a liquid minimum medium or in soil.On a minimum liquid medium, after 10 days incubation, bacteria were able to degrade 20.49% of the crude oil, while in the Entisol soil, after 7 days of incubation, as high as 40.29% of crude oil was degraded and after 28 days incubation, 64.95 of crude oil had been degraded by selected bacteria.
Significance of Pelleting The Seed with Phosphate and Lime on The Cultivation of Soybean in Acid Soils in Sitiung, West Sumatera Waluyo, Setiyo Hadi
Jurnal Ilmu Tanah & Lingkungan Vol 7, No 2 (2005): Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan
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Abstract

Several experiments containing 2 field, 2 pot and I rhizotron were conducted to develop a low input agricultural practice(pelleting seed) for production of soybean plant (cv. Tidar) on heavily acid soils of Sitiung, West Sumatra. The field and polexperiments were conducted in Sitiung and in the greenhouse at the Agriculture Division, Center for the Application ofIsotopes and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jakarta, respectively, in 1990 - 1992. The rhizotronexperiment was conducted in 1994 at the Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences.Wageningen University. Wageningen, The Netherlands. Lime-pel/eting seeds with the equivalent of 50 kg lime ha·1 increased nodulation, growth and yield both in unlimed and limed soils. Considerable increases in nodulatio, growth and yield were obtained when a small amount of P fertiliser (J 0 kg TSP ha·l ) was incorporated in the lime-pellet. The beneficial effects of both lime-pelleting and [lime+TSPj-pelleting were more pronounced on nodulation than on growth and yield. and greater in umimed soils than in limed soils. Large effects were obtained in nodulation, growth and yield of soybean in field experi1ltl!nts by pelleting seeds with lime or with lime + TSP. However, the pel/eted soybean plants grown in unlimed soils remained small and yields were negligible. To sustain growth and production of soybean in these acid soils, adequate quantities of lime and of P fertiliser would be necessary. In the present study, a combination of broadcast lime at 2.0 t ha-I with [lime+TSPj-pelleting of inoculated seeds was found superior to the application of 7.0 t ha-I of lime with inoculated seeds only. A I toxicity and P deficiency were the main problems in these acid soils. For the low-input production of soybeans considerations shOllld be directed to the correction of these factors.
Soil Moisture Characteristics on Several Soil Types Baskoro, Dwi Putro Tejo; Tarigan, Suria Darma
Jurnal Ilmu Tanah & Lingkungan Vol 9, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan
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Abstract

Soil water availability is one of the important factors injluencing plant growth. Soil that can store more water in alonger time can support a better plant growth. This study was aimed to evaluate the dynamics of soil water of four differentsoils with different characteristics. Four soils classes are clayey textured soils-Red Yellowish Podsolik Jasinga, Clayeytextured soils-Latosol Darmaga, . Sandy Textured soil-Regosol Sindang Barang, and highly organic mater content soi/sAndosolSukamantri. The result showed that at every-suction analyzed, Andosol Sukamantri had consistently highest watercontent while Regosol Sindang Barang was consistently lowest. Similar tendency wasfoundfor available water capacity. Theresult also showed that moisture content at Regosol decrease more rapidly than those of the other three soils. The time need to reach likely constant moisture content is variable with soil type; lowest at Regosol Sindangbarang (45 hours after completely saturated and drained) followed by Podsolik Jasinga (73 hours), Latosol darmaga (74 hours) and Andosol Sulcamatri (76 hours).
Penurunan Aktivitas Fosfatase Asam di Daerah Perakaran Beberapa Jenis Tanaman Akibat Perlakuan Kapur dan Limbah Industri Bertimah Hitam Salam, Abdul Kadir; Arisanti, Vivin; Yusnaini, Sri
Jurnal Ilmu Tanah & Lingkungan Vol 2, No 1 (1999): Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan
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Abstract

Heavy metals are potentially toxic to soil microorganims and are suggested to decrease soil enzymatic activities. Changes in activity of acid phosphatase in root-zones of some tropical plants treated with a lead-containing industrial waste was studied in a glasshouse experiment. Tropical soil sample (from Gedongmeneng and Banjaragung, Lampung) thoroughly treated with an electronics industrial waste at 0 to 40 ton ha-´ and lime at 0 or 5 ton CaC03 ha-´ were cultured with corn (Zeamays L.), amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L), and green kyllinga (Cyperus kyllinga). Changes in acid phosphatase activity, soil Pb concentration, and soil pH were measured after a 4 week growing period. Soil anatysis showed that the activity of acid phosphatase was higher in Banjaragung soil than that inGedongmeneng soil except in those cultured with green kyllinga. The activity of acid phosphatase was in general higher in the root-zone of corn than those in the root-zone of amaranth and green kyllinga.The actiivity of acid phosphatase in both soils decreased with waste addition regardless of plant grown. This was in a good correlation with the increase in soil available Pb as waste was added. However, the decrease in activity of acid phosphate as the soil pH increased by lime or waste addition suggested that the decrease in the phosphatase activity with waste addition was driven by the increase in soil pH rather than by the increase in soil available Pb with waste addition.
Effective Technique of Run Off Control on Sloping Upland Farming Noeralam, A; Arsyad, S; Iswandi, A
Jurnal Ilmu Tanah & Lingkungan Vol 5, No 1 (2003): Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan
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Abstract

The aims of this study were to find out the effects of run off control techniques and cropping patterns on run off rateof sloping upland farming. A series of factorial experiments was conducted on a Lithic Dystrudepts located at three differentsloping uplands in Malang, East Java. The area belong to the C type of Did em an climatic zone.The three run off control techniques were soil pit with vertical mulch (TI), soil pit with ridge and vertical mulch (T JJ, and soil pit with ridge (T3)´ The two sequential cropping patterns were maize (Zea mays L.) - soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) - maize (PI), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) - maize - soybean (PlY. . The result indicates that run off control techniques decreqse rate of run off by 88%, for soil pit with ridge technique, 86% for soil pit with ridge and vertical mulch technique, and 84% for soil pit with vertical mulch technique. The relationship ofrainfallJx) with run off(y) can be expressed by y = 0.05x; r = 0.92 in cropped plot andy = 0.30x; r = 0.90 in bare plot.
The Effects of Organic Matter and N, P, K Fertilizer on Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Corn in Inceptisol Ternate Rachman, Idris Abd; Djuniwati, Sri; Idris, Komarudin
Jurnal Ilmu Tanah & Lingkungan Vol 10, No 1 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan
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Abstract

The objective oj the research was to study the effects oj organic matter and N, P, K Jertilizer on nutrients uptake andyield oj corn in Inceptisol Ternate. The design oj the research was Jactorial completely randomized block design with twoJactors. The first Jactor was the rate oj organic matter (0, 20, 40 tlha) or (B(), B, and B z) and the second Jactor was the rate oj N, P, KJertilizer (0.5; I and /.5 recommended rate) or (Flo F] and F JJ. The results oj research showed that combination oj B ,F] gave the highest amount oj the corn leave at 42 days afterplanting, the weight oj corn with husk cover, the weight corn grains, and K-availability oj soil. Whereas, the rate oj 20 tlhaorganic matter (B,) significantly increased and gave the highest weight oj corn without husk cover, NPK corn plant contentand P uptake. The average NPK plant uptake oJcorn was 31.41-39.39 kg Nlha, 6.03-/2.54 kg Plha, 37.5-41.70 kg Klha. The average production oj corn was 5. /6-7.83 tlha.
Application of Fuzzy Sets Function for Land Attributes Mapping Baskoro, Dwi Putro Tejo
Jurnal Ilmu Tanah & Lingkungan Vol 10, No 1 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan
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Abstract

A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of Geographical Information System (GIS) for mapping thebiophysical resources of watershed PC-based GIS soft-wares were used in the analysis, processing and mapping of spatialdata. The conventional mapping technique that presents land attribute in form of polygon with abrupt change across classboundaries was improved using Fuzzy technique. This technique involves the generation of membership maps for each soiltype based on the relationship between the soil type and it´s forming factors like geology, elevation, slope gradient, slopeaspect, slope curvature, and land cover. The fuzzy technique was found to be more appropriate than the conventionaltechnique of mapping in expressing continuous and gradually changing soil or land attributes. Validation with observed soilor land attributes values indicated that root mean square error (RMSE) obtained for Fuzzy method was lower than that fromthe conventional method
The Effect of Calcium Silicate on The Phosphorus Sorption Characteristics of Andisols Lembang West Java Hartono, Arief
Jurnal Ilmu Tanah & Lingkungan Vol 10, No 1 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan
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Abstract

The effect of calcium silicate CaSiOJ the phosphorus (P) sorption characteristics were studied in Andisols Lembang.The amount of 0, 2.5 and 5% CaSiOJ (calcium silicate) or 0, 7.5 and 15 g calcium silicate per pot was added to the 300 g(oven-dry weight) soil and incubated for one month. A completely randomized design in double replication was set up. After one month incubation, P sorption and P sorption kinetic experiments were conducted The results of P sorption experiment showed that P sorption data were satisfactorily described by the Langmuir equation. which was used to determine P sorption maxima, bonding energies and P sorbed at 0.2 mg P £"´ (standard P requirement). The application of calcium silicate did not affect significantly P sorption maxima but decreased significantly the P bonding energies. Calcium silicate also decreased significantly the standard P requirements. As for P sorption kinetic experiment. the results showed that application of 5% calcium silicate decreased significantly the rate constant of P sorption and P sorbed maximum at given amount of added P. The results suggested that the application of calcium silicate to the Andisols made added P was more available for plant.
Relationship Between Exchangeable Alumunium and Phosphorus Sorption Parameters of Indonesian Acid Soils Hartono, A
Jurnal Ilmu Tanah & Lingkungan Vol 6, No 2 (2004): Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan
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Abstract

In acid soils, phosphorus (P) sorption is generally attributed to hydrous oxides of Fe and Aluminum (AI) particularly intropical soils with low pH. However, reports concerning the role of exchangeable AI in P sorption mechanism are very liltle.Phosphorus (P) sorption isotherms were studied in fifteen acid upland soils containing different amount of exchangeable AI. Psorption characteristics were satisfactorily described by the Langmuir equation. which was used to determine P sorptionmaxima and bonding energies, with r values ranging from 0.97 to 0.99. The soils varied widely in their capacities to sorb P.P sorption maxima rangedfrom 303 to 1429 mg kg-I (mean 627 mg kg-I) and bonding energies from 0.65 to 8.00 L mtl (mean 2.39 L mg-I). Exchangeable AI was found not correlated with P sorption maxima (r = -0.11) but significantly correlated with P bonding energies (r = 0.68**). This was clearly shown by clayey soils from Java and Sumatra but not in sandy soils fromKalimantan. The results suggested that in general. reaction of exchangeable AI with P increased P bonding energy butexchangeable AI was not the main component in P sorption maximum

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