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Majalah Kesehatan Pharmamedika
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Articles 5 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 1, No 2 (2009)" : 5 Documents clear
Peran Kromosom Seks Terhadap Perkembangan Otak Mustofa, Samsul
Majalah Kesehatan Pharmamedika Vol 1, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Majalah Kesehatan Pharmamedika

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Abstract

Otak adalah organ yang paling penting dalam tubuh manusia. Organ inilah yang mengontrol seluruh kerja tubuh. Awal pembentukan susunan saraf pusat atau otak dimulai setelah kehamilan 3 - 4 minggu kehamilan. Diferensiasi dan perkembangan otak pada tahap awal dipengaruhi oleh kromosom seks (kromosom X dan Y). Perbedaan perkembangan pada jenis kelamin laki-laki dan perempuan dipengaruh oleh faktor hormonal yang mengakibatkan perbedaan secara fisik maupun psikis. Abnormalitas kromosom seks, berupa kelainan jumlah maupun struktur kromosom dan dapat menyebabkan terjadinya kelainan genetik atau kelainan kongenital. Tulisan ini bertujuan mengetahui peranan gen yang terdapat kromosom seks (X dan Y) terhadap perkembangan otak pada jenis kelamin laki-laki dan wanita. Penulisan ini berdasarkan data yang diambil dari jurnal maupun literatur yang ada kaitannya. Kesimpulan. Abnormalitas pada struktur kromosom Y mengakibatkan terjadinya gangguan hormonal pada individu yang dapat menyebabkan ketidak jelasan jenis kelamin. Abnormalitas kromosom X baik jumlah maupun struktur berpengaruh terhadap perkembangan amygdala yang terdapat di dalam forebrain, dan dapat menyebabkan gangguan kecerdasan  Kata kunci: diferensiasi otak, X-linked, kromosom seks, penyakit genetik, gangguan kecerdasan
Dinamika Mitokondria Pada Penyakit Neurodegenerasi (Alzheimer, Huntington dan Parkinson) Susmiarsih, Tri Panji
Majalah Kesehatan Pharmamedika Vol 1, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Majalah Kesehatan Pharmamedika

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Mitokondria merupakan organel sel yang berperan penting terhadap fungsi neuronal. Organel sel ini berfungsi menghasilkan energi dalam bentuk ATP, menciptakan homeostatis dan sinyal Ca2+, yang sangat diperlukan dalam proses transmisi sinapsis, plastisitas dan ketahanan sel. Dinamika fungsi mitokondria tersebut, sangat tergantung pada keseimbangan proses fusi dan fisi yang melibatkan faktor-faktor lingkungan dan pengontrolan genetik dari gen inti dan mitokondria. Dasar molekular yang melandasi penurunan dinamika mitokondria masih sedikit dimengerti, namun hasil studi yang dilakukan akhir-akhir ini mengindikasikan bahwa disregulasi mitokondria memainkan peranan penting dalam patogenesis beberapa penyakit neurodegenerasi seperti penyakit Alzeimer, huntington dan Parkinson. Hasil studi tersebut didasari bahwa pada sel yang sehat, keseimbangan dinamika proses fusi dan fisi sangat diperlukan pada fungsi normal mitokondria dan seluler. Artikel ini akan membahas dinamika mitokondria pada beberapa penyakit neurodegenerasi. Diharapkan pengetahuan dasar ini dapat menjadi suatu paradigma dalam intervensi terapeutik penyakit neurodegenerasi.Kata kunci :   mitokondria, fusi, fisi, penyakit neurodegenerasi
Antibiotic Resistence of Pathogenic Bacteria Triyana, Shofyatul Yumna
Majalah Kesehatan Pharmamedika Vol 1, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Majalah Kesehatan Pharmamedika

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Antibiotic resistance can cause a big problem related to higher morbidity and mortality, extrahospitalization and higher medical cost. The emergence of resistance is facilitated bynumerous factors either coming from bacteria or human. Resistance to antibiotics is aparticular aspect of general evolution of bacteria which cannot be halted by human, forexample, mutation and transformation which is one of determinants of resistance. In addition,imprudent use of antibiotic in human and non human niches can also facilitate thedevelopment of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, the rational use of antibiotic is encouragedeither in animals, plants or humans. Such effort can decrease the spread of gene resistant ofpathogenic bacteria.Keywords: antibiotic, resistance, mutation, transformation, rational.
The Variability of Human mtDNA ATPase6 Gene Segment (nt 8553-8903) for Augmenting Forensic Identification Syukriani, Yoni Fuadah
Majalah Kesehatan Pharmamedika Vol 1, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Majalah Kesehatan Pharmamedika

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Analysis of mtDNA HVSI/II region for forensic identification had been widely validatedalthough there is chance to find identical HVSI/II between individuals in random. Examinationof SNPs in the entire mitochondrial genome also had been proposed to increase thespecificity of examination. Here we show, a simple way to increase the resolution ofidentification, by discriminating individuals sharing identical HVSI/II using one additionalnucleotide analysis only, that is the ATPase6 gene segment (nt 8553-8903). We examined542 mtDNA complete genome data from three main population groups obtained from publicsites. Additionally, nucleotide sequences of the most diverse segment were obtained from 30Indonesian individuals as primary data. The discriminating power was determined by countingthe number of individuals that could be discriminated by nucleotide analysis. The ATPase6gene segment consistently demonstrates higher value of haplotype diversity compared to theother segments excluding HVSI/II, up to 0.955, 0.954, 0.855 in the African (n=40), Asian(n=95) and Caucasian (n=407) population groups respectively. In the Indonesian populationgroup the diversity reached 0.855. The examination of ATPase6 gene segment increased thenumber of haplotypes compared to the use of HVSI/II analysis only, from 51 to 87. In theCaucasian population group only 182 individuals were discriminated by HVSI/II analysis only,and the SNPs clustered in the ATPase6 gene segment increased the number of individualsup to 218. ATPase6 gene segment can be suggested as additional sequencing target ofanalysis to discriminate individuals or biological samples sharing identical HVSI/II, particularlywhen overall conclusion is in doubt.Keywords : mtDNA, ATPase6, forensic identification, mitochondrial genome
Effects of White-Skinned Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) on Pancreatic Beta Cells and Insulin Expression in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. Royhan, Aan; Susilowati, Rina; -, Sunarti
Majalah Kesehatan Pharmamedika Vol 1, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Majalah Kesehatan Pharmamedika

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Abstract

White-skinned sweet potato hasbeen used as a folk medicine for the treatment of diabetesand other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of white-skinnedsweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) on reducing blood glucose level in streptozotocin induceddiabetic rats as a preliminary study. Twenty two male Rattus norvegicus rats were divided into6 groups (4 treatment groups and 2 control groups). Streptozotocin was injectedintraperitoneally at a single dose of 60 mg/kg BW for induction of diabetes in treatment groupsand diabetic control group. White-skinned sweet potato’s flour suspension (100, 200, 400 and800 mg/kg BW/day) were administered orally to treatment groups for 4 weeks. Blood sampleswere collected from retro-orbital puncture before treatment, 2 weeks and 4 weeks aftertreatment and were analyzed for blood glucose by GOD-PAP method. At day 29 aftertreatment rats were killed by decapitation and pancreas were removed forimmunohistochemical staining using anti-insulin antibody. White-skinned sweet potato had asignificant blood glucose lowering effect and increased the number of pancreatic beta cellsand insulin expression in a dose dependant manner in diabetic condition. These resultssuggest that white-skinned sweet potato produced hypoglycemic activity by inducingpancreatic beta cells regeneration and increasing insulin expression.Keywords : white-skinned sweet potato, hypoglycemic activity, beta cell, insulin expression.

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