Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
ISSN : 08534217     EISSN : 24433462
Artikel yang dimuat meliputi hasil-hasil penelitian, analisis kebijakan, dan opini-opini yang berhubungan dengan pertanian dalam arti luas, seperti agronomi, ilmu tanah, hama dan penyakit tanamam, ilmu kehewanan, kedokteran veteriner, keteknikan pertanian, teknologi industri, teknologi pangan, ilmu gizi, keluarga dan konsumen, biometri, biologi, klimatologi, peternakan perikanan, kelautan, kehutanan, dan sosial-ekonomi pertanian yang telah dipertimbangkan dan disetujui oleh Dewan Editor. Keterangan mengenai peralatan, pengamatan, dan teknik percobaan akan diterima sebagai artikel CATATAN. Pedoman Penulisan dicantumkan pada setiap terbitan tercetak. Indeks Penulisan dan subjek serta daftar penelaan (mitra bestari) dicantumkan di tiap nomor terakhir pada setiap volume.
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Bakteri Probiotik Dalam Budidaya Udang: Seleksi, Mekanisme Aksi, Karakterisasi, dan Aplikasinya Sebagai Agen Biokontrol Widanarni, Widanarni; Sukenda, Sukenda; Setiawati, Mia
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Bacterial disease attack occurs at the hatchery stage, which is considered to be the most serious threat, and often results in mass mortality of shrimp larvae by vibrosis which is that caused by a luminous bacterium identified as Vibrio harveyi. This research was carried out to obtain local isolates of probiotic bacteria that were able to inhibit the growth of V. harveyi and effectively apply it as a biocontrol of vibriosis in shrimp cultures. The research was carried out as follows: (1) In vitro and in vivo selection of probiotic bacteria candidates, (2) Study of the action mechanism and characterization of the selected pro biotic bacteria, (3) Study on application of the selected probiotic bacteria as a biocontrol agent in shrimp cultures. Results of in vitro and in vivo selection provided the best three isolates, which were 1Ub, SKT-b and Ua. The survival rate of shrimp larvae which were not only inoculated by V. harveyi but also with 1Ub, SKT-b and Ua probiotic bacteria were 88.33, 83.33, and 81.67% respectively; where as the positive control treatment (merely inoculated with V. harveyi) gave a 41.67% survival rate and the negative control (without bacterial addition) was 68.33%. Studies using a rifampicin resistant marker (RfR) demonstrated that the number of V. harveyi MR5339 RfR cells in treatments without probiotic addition were higher than the treatment with the probiotic bacteria, in dead larvae, living larvae, as well as in the culture media. Partial sequencing of the I6S-rRNA gene showed that the I Ub isolate was similar to Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, whereas the SKT -b and Ua isolates were similar to Vibrio alginolyticus. Selected probiotic bacteria could be applied directly to shrimp larva culture media, or orally through enrichment of both natural and artificial food. Keywords: Penaeus monodon larvae, probiotic bacteria, vibriosis 
Perilaku Disolusi Ketoprofen dan Indometasin Farnesil Tersalut Gel Kitosan-GG Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Sjahriza, Achmad; Srijanto, Bambang; Arifin, Budi
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Chitosan, a modification of shrimp-shell waste, has been utilized as microcapsule. However, its fragile gel property needs to be strengthened by adding glutaraldehyde (glu) and natural hydrocolloid guar gum (gg). This researchs purposes were to determine rheological properties of chitosan-guar gum gel, to study diffusion and dissolution behaviour of ketoprofen and infar through optimum chitosan-guar gum gel membrane and microcapsule, respectively, and to test the coating stability of both medicines by the gel microcapsules, which are new drugs preparation, to determine their shelf lives and to predict the degradation mechanisms. This research was designed in six (6) steps: (1) chitin isolation and chitosan synthesis; (2) synthesis and optimization of chitosan-guar gum gel membrane; (3) in vitro study of ketoprofen and infar diffusion behaviour through the optimum membrane; (4) synthesis and optimization of chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule to coat ketoprofen and infar; (5) in vitro study of ketoprofen and infar dissolution behaviour from the optimum microcapsule; and (6) physical and chemical microcapsule stability test using relative humidity (RH) and temperature controlled climatic chamber method. Studies on ketoprofen diffusion through chitosan-guar gum membrane showed that the formation of membrane small pores were appeared to be caused by membrane swelling, which was supported by the forcing force resulted from the difference of ketoprofen concentrations in the diffusion cells and from the temperature increase. This unique pore opening process is excellent for drug delivery process as a microcapsule. Spray drying process had successfully coated ketoprofen and infar in chitosan-guar gum microcapsule. Optimization by using Minitab Release 14 software showed that among the microcapsule compositions studied, [gg] and [glu] of 0.35% (w/v) and 3.75% (v/v), respectively were optimum to coat ketoprofen, whereas [gg] and [glu] of 0.05% (w/v) and 4.00% (v/v), respectively were optimum to coat infar, at constant chitosan concentration (1.75% [w/v]). In vitro dissolution profile showed that chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule was more resistant in intestinal pH condition (rather basic) compared with that in gastric pH (very acidic). From stability test, formulation of ketoprofen preparation composed of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan, 0.35% (w/v) gg, and 3.50% (v/v) glu, was relatively the best, ·with ketoprofen percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of of 80.33%, 0.0351 % week-1 and 18.92 months, respectively. The degradation of ketoprofen was seem to follow autocatalytic reaction mechanism controlled by the formation and growth of reaction core. In the other hand, the formulation with composition of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan, 0.19% (w/v) gg, and 5.00% (v/v) glu, was relatively the best microcapsule, with infar percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of 77.67%, 0.0008 %-2 week-1 , and 4.28 week or about 30 days, respectively. The degradation of infar was presumably caused by hydrolysis.   Keywords: Chitosan-guar gum, diffusion, dissolution, stability
Pengembangan metode penanda genetika molekuler untuk lacak balak (studi kasus pada jati) Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Siregar, Ulfah J.; Karlinasari, Lina; Yunanto, Tedi
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Tracking timber on teak and teak wood products can be conducted using different methods, such as DNA finger printing, chemical composition of the wood, Near Infra Red spectra (NIR) and stable isotopes. Samples were collected from wood material and leaves in Java (9 Forest Management Units district) of Perhutani to determine: i) pattern of genetic variation within and among populations, ii) to determine the protocol for DNA extraction from wood, and iii) to study the feasibility of DNA marker for timber tracking in the field. Results show that: i) genetic variation of cpDNA (PCR-RFLP) is low, while RAPD variation is moderate, ii) there are differences in chemical composition of wood among the Forest Management Units (FMUs) of Perhutani, iii) variation of isotopic carbon and oxygen in Central and East Java were higher than from of West Java, iv) absorbtion intensity of NIR in West Java was higher than for Central and East Java, and iv) testing of DNA marker showed that genetic structure in the forest site is not significantly different from that in log yards, indicating that the timber flow is still according to the procedure. RAPD marker also is able to determine the origin of illegal timber and wood in industry without clear identity. Keywords: genetik marker, teak, timber tracking
Hidrolisis Pati Garut Secara Enzimatis untuk Pembentukan Siklodekstrin Noor, Erliza
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Modified starch has important role in chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Cyclodextrin was prepared based on garut starch using starch hidroying enzime namely 0-amylase, 0-amylase, pullulanase and glukoamylase. Cyclication to form cyclodextrin was obtained using CGTase. The highest concentration of cyclodextrin was obtained by glucoamylase and CGTase concentration of 150 unit/g substrate which was 81.11g.l-1  in 90 minutes. Keywords: 0-amylase, 0-amylase, cyclodextrin, CGT-ase, gantt starch, glukoamylase, pullulanase 
Produksi kolostrum antivirus avian influenza dalam rangka pengendalian infeksi virus flu burung Esfandari, A.; Wibawan, I. WT.; Murtini, S.; Widhyari, SD.; Febram, B.
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted to study the prospect of bovine colostrum utilization to produce specific antibody as passive immunotherapy against avian influenza. Pregnant Frisian Holstein cows were injected with commercial killed Avian Influenza (AI) vaccine given double doses subcutaneously three times every two weeks. Prior to vaccination, the cows were given immunomodulator 0.1 mg.kg-1 BW administered orally for three days. The animals then were injected by inactive H5N1 antigent without adjuvant intravenously to meet the dose of 104 HAU. Blood samples were collected to detect anti AI antibody using Enzyme Linked Jmmunosorbent Assay technique. Colostral samples were analysed to detect antibody against AI using Haemagglutination Inhibition technique. IgG stabilities were tested against enzyme, pH, and spray dried prosessing with inlet dan outlet temperature of 1400C and 520C.repectively. The colostral lgG efficacy on neutralizing H5N1 virus activity was determined in vitro (by using Serum Neutralization Test and protective titer measurement) and in ovo (challenge test by using Embryonic Chicken Egg). The result indicated that serum antibody against H5N1 was detected one week after the second vaccination. Titer of colostral antibody against H5N1 was high (28 ). Biological activity of colostral IgG remain stable at pH 5-7 and after spraying-drying prosessing, but decreased after treatment by trypsin and pepsin enzymes. The neutralization test showed that the fresh and spray dried colostral IgG against H5N1 were able to neutralize 107 EID50 AI virus H5N1 with neutralization index of 1.1 and 1.0, respectively. In conclusion, pregnant Frisian Holstein cows injected with commercial killed Avian Influenza (AI) vaccine were able to produce colostral lgG against AI H5Nl. Keywords: avian influenza, bovine colostrum, lgG, passive immunotherapy
Distribusi Kelas Diameter Pohon pada Berbagai Tipe Veget Asi di Gunung Salak, Bogor, Jawa Barat Wiharto, Muhammad; Kusmana, Cecep; Prasetyo, Lilik Budi; Partomihardjo, Tukirin
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

The research objective was to study tree vegetation structure based on diameter class distribution at some vegetation types on Salak Mountain. Sample was taken at north, south, east, and west facing slope of Salai Mountain using line transect. Systematic sampling with random start was used to lay the transetcs. Measuring stem diameter at breast height was done in order to study the tree diameter class distribution. Non-parametric U Man Whitney statistic was used to know whether there was a different in number of individual at all diameter class in each vegetation type. At mix forest and plantation forest, the tree diameter class distribution forming J curve shape. At bamboo forest, the individual number increase at the highest class diameter. The number of individual trees ware highest at mix forest and lowest at bamboo forest.Keywords: diameter class, J reserve curve, mount salak, vegetation type
Kunci Identifikasi Ordo Thysanoptera pada Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura Sartiami, Dewi
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Thysanoptera is a minute insect. It acts as pest, plant virus vector and predator. In this research, the thrips on crop and horticulture have been collected at Bogor and its surrounding. The result of this research was found 16 specieses which is consist of two suborders, that are Tubulifera and Terebrantia. On this two subordos, there are three families, Phalaeothripide, Aeolothripidae and Thripidae. This research also present an identification key of Thysanoptera which is built from these 16 specieses. The images of thrips characters were captured with digital camera to complete the explanation of identification key.Keywords: horticulture, identification, plant crop, thysanoptera
Protein Antimikrob Dari Tanaman Trichosanthes D, Sukma; Artika, IM; Tondok, ET
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

The research was aimed to study morphology, growth, development, pest and disease of 3 Trichosanthes species,  initiate shoots, callus and hairy root culture in vitro, analyze chitinase and peroxidase activities and the effect of salicylic acid (SA) and etefon (ETF) on the chitinase and peroxidase activities of crude protein extract from Trichosanthes, and evaluate in vitro antifungal activity of crude protein extract of Trichosanthes. The results of the research showed the differences of morphological characters, growth habit of T. cucumerina var. anguina, T.tricuspidata and the differences of pest and diseases problem of T. quinquangulata. T. cucumerina var. anguina and T. quinquangulata. T. tricuspidata had the highest chitinase activity in crude protein extract of in vitro shoots, calli and plant roots and peroxidase activity in plant roots grown in field. T. cucumerina var. anguina showed the highest chitinase and peroxidase activities in crude protein extract of plant roots grown in field and calli. Chitinase and peroxidase activities of calli crude protein extract of T. tricuspidata could be increased by SA and ETF. Adversely, ETF decreased the peroxidase activity of calli crude protein exract ofT. tricuspidata. In T. cucumerina var. anguina, SA could not increase the chitinase activity but increase the peroxidase activity. The crude protein from in vitro shoots of T. tricuspidata could inhibited the spore germination of Fusarium sp. from T. cucumerina var. anguina, Fusarium oxysporum from shallot, Puccinia arachidis from peanut and Pseudoperonospora cubensis from cucumber. The protein could not inhibit spore germination of Curvularia eragrostidis from Dendrobium orchids.   Keywords: antifungal, chitinase, etephon, peroxidase, salicylic acid, Triclwsanthes
Produksi kolostrum antivirus avian influenza dalam rangka pengendalian infeksi virus flu burung Esfandari, A.; Wibawan, I. WT.; Murtini, S.; Widhyari, SD.; Febram, B.
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (341.357 KB)

Abstract

This experiment was conducted to study the prospect of bovine colostrum utilization to produce specific antibody as passive immunotherapy against avian influenza. Pregnant Frisian Holstein cows were injected with commercial killed Avian Influenza (AI) vaccine given double doses subcutaneously three times every two weeks. Prior to vaccination, the cows were given immunomodulator 0.1 mg.kg-1 BW administered orally for three days. The animals then were injected by inactive H5N1 antigent without adjuvant intravenously to meet the dose of 104 HAU. Blood samples were collected to detect anti AI antibody using Enzyme Linked Jmmunosorbent Assay technique. Colostral samples were analysed to detect antibody against AI using Haemagglutination Inhibition technique. IgG stabilities were tested against enzyme, pH, and spray dried prosessing with inlet dan outlet temperature of 1400C and 520C.repectively. The colostral lgG efficacy on neutralizing H5N1 virus activity was determined in vitro (by using Serum Neutralization Test and protective titer measurement) and in ovo (challenge test by using Embryonic Chicken Egg). The result indicated that serum antibody against H5N1 was detected one week after the second vaccination. Titer of colostral antibody against H5N1 was high (28 ). Biological activity of colostral IgG remain stable at pH 5-7 and after spraying-drying prosessing, but decreased after treatment by trypsin and pepsin enzymes. The neutralization test showed that the fresh and spray dried colostral IgG against H5N1 were able to neutralize 107 EID50 AI virus H5N1 with neutralization index of 1.1 and 1.0, respectively. In conclusion, pregnant Frisian Holstein cows injected with commercial killed Avian Influenza (AI) vaccine were able to produce colostral lgG against AI H5Nl. Keywords: avian influenza, bovine colostrum, lgG, passive immunotherapy
Hidrolisis Pati Garut Secara Enzimatis untuk Pembentukan Siklodekstrin Noor, Erliza
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (158.397 KB)

Abstract

Modified starch has important role in chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Cyclodextrin was prepared based on garut starch using starch hidroying enzime namely 0-amylase, 0-amylase, pullulanase and glukoamylase. Cyclication to form cyclodextrin was obtained using CGTase. The highest concentration of cyclodextrin was obtained by glucoamylase and CGTase concentration of 150 unit/g substrate which was 81.11g.l-1  in 90 minutes. Keywords: 0-amylase, 0-amylase, cyclodextrin, CGT-ase, gantt starch, glukoamylase, pullulanase 

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