Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
ISSN : 08534217     EISSN : 24433462
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Peran PEG 400 dalam pembuatan lembaran bioplastik polohidroksialkanoat yang dihasilkan oleh Ralstonia eutropha dari Substrat Hidrolisat Pati Sagu Syamsu, Khaswar; Hartoto, Liesbetini; Fauzi, Anas Miftah; Suryani, Ani; Rais, Dede
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of PEG 400 addition on the characteristics of bioplastic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). PHA was obtained by cultivating Ralstonia eutropha on hydrolysed sago starch substrate using fed batch method for approximately 96 hours. The biomass concentration obtained was 4 g/L with PHA yield 20-30% of dry cell weight. The bioplastic was formed with solution casting method in which chloroform was used as solvent and PEG 400 was used as plasticizer. The concentrations of PEG 400added were 10, 20, and 30% (w/w), respectively. Bioplastic properties which were tested were tensile strength, elongation to break, density, thermal properties, cristalinity, and functional group. The addition of plastisizer tend to increase tensile strength and elongation to break, but decrease density, cristalinity and melting point. Bioplastic with 30% PEG 400 addition gave the best results. Bioplastic with 30% PEG 400 gave a value of tensile strength of 0.083 MPa; elongation to break of 0.881%; density of 0.7881 g/cm3;  melting point of 158.95 ac; and cristalinity of 44.58%. With these properties, the resulted bioi plastic may be used for surgical strings. Keywords: Bioplastic, Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), Ralstonia eutropha, hidrolysed sago starch, PEG 400
Deteksi Dini Penyakit Tumor Sel Darah Myelosit Leukosis melalui Pemeriksaan Ulas Darah Agungpriyono, Dewi Ratih; Huminto, Hernomoadi; Estuningsih, Sri; Satyaningtijas, Aryani Sismin
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Myelocytes blood cell tumor in chicken is a disease caused by retrovirus, avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J). The virus has the same group as human retrovirus (HIV) which caused AIDS, but the avian type possesses oncogenic properties, that could induce cell transformation and tumor formation. ALV-J stimulates the bone marrows myelocytes and transforms them into tumor cell myelocytoma. The tumor cells then metastasis through the circulatory system causing myeloid leukosis and tumor cells accumulation in various internal organs or myelocytomatosis. This study was done on the base of the leukosis behavior of the tumor. The finding of the metastasis tumor cell in the blood smear examination is thought could be use as the diagnostic clue of the disease. Blood smear from sick chickens are collected and stained with some chemical staining substance such as may grunwald-giemsa, hematoxyllin eosin, periodic acid Schiff, congo red, toluidine blue, and sudan black B. Cytochemistry character of the blood cells was observed using light microscope. The result showed that myelocytes granules were best observed using hematoxyllin eosin, periodic acid Schiff, congo red and toluidine blue while may grunwald-giemsa, and sudan black B could not differentiate the granules. By this method, the field veterinarian will able to screen the suspected chicken flock for myeloid leukosis earlier than the occurrence of tumor formation.
Dampak Perambahan Hutan Taman Nasional Lore Lindu Terhadap Fungsi Hidrologi Dan Beban Erosi (Studi Kasus Daerah Aliran Sungai Nopu Hulu, Sulawesi Tengah) Hidayat, Yayat; Sinukaban, Naik; Pawitan, Hidayat; Tarigan, Suria Darma
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

The research was proposed to identify rainforest conversion impact on hydrologic function and soil erosion, and its simulation using ANSWERS model. Surface runoff and soil erosion were measured in soil erosion plots and outlet of Nopu Upper Catchment. Rainforest conversion to agricultural lands were significantly increased soil erosions and surface runoffs. Soil erosion from maize and peanut rotation was higher 2061.8% than natural forest. It higher value also in intercroping young age cocoa, maize and cassava and maize were 2023.8% and 2012.3% respectively. While surface runoffs increased up to 761.7°/o on bare plot, 567.5% on medium age cocoa, 446.8°/o on young age cocoa, 415.1°/o on intercroping young age cacao, maize and cassavas, 405.9°/o on old cocoa, and 329.5% on intercroping young age cacao and cassavas. Crop and management factor (C factor) value is significantly corelated with outputs of ANSWERS model. Using daily daily C factors, the ANSWERS model performs well in predicting soil erosion which is showed by determination coefficent (Jr = 0.89), model efficiency (0.86), and average of percentage model deviations (24.1%). Whereas using USlE C factor, model accuracy lower which represented by model coefficient (0.40) and average of percentage model deviations (63.6%). Using daily C factors, ANSWERS model simulation indicates rainforest conversion into agricultural lands on Nopu Upper Catchment has caused soil and water loss 3190.5 ton/year and 115441.0 m3/year, respectively. Agroforestry system practices in agricultural lands which in line with reforestation in stream line and steep agricultural areas (slope> 40°/o) was effective to reduce soil erosions up to 77.6°/o.
Evaluasi Ciri Mekanis Dan Fisis Bioplastik Dari Campuran Poli (Asam Laktat) Dengan Polisakarida Paramawati, Raffi; Wijaya, Christofora Hanny; Achmadi, Suminar Setiati; Suliantari, Suliantari
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

The study was aimed to evaluate physical and mechanical characteristics of blend of polylactic acid (PLA)and four types of polysaccharides, namely carrageenan, agar, tapioca, and garut starch. Agar and carrageenanshowed their ability to blend well with the PLA at a temperature of approximately 60ac, which was easilyobserved. Film sheets that were casted manually with better properties needed additives of triethanolamine oroleic acid, in terms of tensile strength, elastic modulus, and percent elongation at break which were categorizedas medium compared to other biodegradable plastics. Microstructure of the selected film revealed irregularformation of surface or amorphous, indicating that these films cannot be stored for a long period of time.
Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Nilai Tunggakan Kredit pada Program Pemberdayaan Ekonomi Masyarakat Pesisir di Kabupaten Indramayu Asmara, Alia
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

The objectives of this study were to analyze the income level of household, and to analyze the factors which influential non performance loan. This was a case study with purposive sampling method. The analysis comprised of income analysis, and econometric model. The results showed that the beneficiaries were in productive age, the educational level was relatively low, the average number of family member was 4 persons. The occupation of the user group community household mostly was fisherman with about 20 years experience. The major constraint of fisherman was the limited funding source. The income level of household was vary and the highest on marketing was about Rp 1,556,250/month. The factors that caused non-performing of loan return were the amount of loan and the level of education.Keywords: user group community household; income level; and non performance loan
Penggandaan Skala Produksi Bioinsektisida Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis untuk Membasmi Jentik Nyamuk Aedes aegypti Rahayuningsih, Mulyorini; Syamsu, Khaswar; Darwis, Abdul Aziz; Purnawati, Rini
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

The objective of this research is to study the scaling up of bionsecticide production from Bacillus thuringiensisvar. israelensisusing onggok (a cassava by-product) as a carbon source. The insecticide produced was used to eradicate Aedes aegypti larvae. The product was a crystal protein produced during bacterial sporulation. Scaling up from laboratory to pilot plant scale was done using two methods, i.e. constant agitation power per unit volume (Pg/V) and constant oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa). The results showed that yield of product per substrate (Yp/s) of Pg/V based product with the value of 3.52 ± 0.02 spora per gram substrates was higher than Yp/s of  kLa based product with the value of 2.96 spora per gram substrate.  Logarithmic value of viable spore count (log of VSC) was also higher, i.e. 7.23 ± 0.30 for Pg/V based product as compared to 7.17 ± 0.20 for kLa based product. Substrate efficiency was also higher in Pg/V based (92.47%) than kLa based (64.87%). LC50 of Pg/V based product was lower (0.49 μg/ml) meaning that it was more toxic than kLa based product (0.62 μg/ml). Amino acid content of Pg/V based product was also higher than kLa based product. Constant Pg/V method was suggested as a based on the scaling up of bioinsecticide production of B. thuringiensis israe/ensison industrial scale. Keywords: bioinsecticide, Bacillus thuringiensisvar. israelensis, kLa, Pg/V, LC50, viable spore count
Pasta Pati Jagung Putih Waxy dan Non-Waxy yang Dimodifikasi Secara Oksidasi dan Asetilasi-Oksidasi Aini, Nur; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Modification of corn starch will give different effects depending on the corn variety. Gel forming capacity increased with increase in concentration of the samples and least gel concentration was maximal in higher amylose starch. Initial pasting temperature of native starch reduced from following oxidation and acetylation. Among the samples, the highest pasting temperature was recorded in native and values for peak viscosity during heating. The modified starch has better stability than native starch and lower tendency for syneresis and improve the freeze thaw stability.Keywords: white corn starch, oxidation, acetylation-oxidation, corn variety
Koleksi Sel Telur dengan Teknik Laparoskopi untuk Produksi Embrio dan Transfer Embrio pada Domba Setiadi, Mohamad Agus; Supriatna, Iman; Boediono, Arief
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

An experiment was carried out to analyze the application of laparoscopic technique for oocyte collection, in vitro embryo production and embryo transfer in sheep. The first experiment was conducted to observe effect of gonadotropin stimulation on follicle development and laparoscopic technique for oocytes aspiration. In the second experiment, effect of culture system on the embryo development in vitro was assessed and in the third experiment, the application of laparoscopic for embryo transfer has been conducted. The result showed that single dose of gonadotrophin was sufficient to support follicle development significantly and it could help follicle visualization. It also showed that laparoscopic ovum-pick up could be conducted weekly without any restriction The second series experiment showed CR1aa culture system was better than TCM 199 (29.90°/o vs 8.00%) and the changing of media was required to ensure better metabolism process for embryos. The third experiment revealed that embryo transfer could be conducted with an aid from laparoscope. In conclusion, single dose PMSG stimulation is sufficient to support follicle development for /aparoscopic ovum-pick up, the culture media changing affects the successful rate of in vitro embryo production (8% vs 25.66%) and the laparoscopy technique can be used safely for embryo transfer on sheep.Keyword: laparoscopic, oocyte, embryo transfer, sheep
Penjernihan Nira Tebu Menggunakan Membran Ul Trafil Trasi Dengan Sistem Ali Ran Silang Suprihatin, Suprihatin
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Membrane ultrafiltration is one alternative technology to produce a high quality cane sugar with reasonable cost, because its ability to produce a brighter color and lower impurities as well as sulphur free of product. This technology can reduce process steps, chemical and energy demand, so that the production cost is potentially reduced significantly. This research work was aimed to study the performance of various membrane filtrations in the application for clarifying sugar cane juice, covering the achievable flux, membrane rejection againstimpurities, and quality of the filtered juice. The experiments were conducted according to the principle of cross flow using three different transmembrane pressures of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.1 bar and cross flow rate of 0.42 m/s. Various membranes were studied in this experiments both commercial ultrafiltration membrane and ultrafiltration membrane prepared in our laboratory. Sugar cane juice before and after clarification were characterized by measuring the parameters of brix, sucrose concentration, solution color, clarity, and pH. Thepolisulfone membrane, which was prepared in our laboratory, produced fluxes in the range of 25-30 L/m2.h at the transmembrane pressures of 0.7-2.1 bar. The membranes increased clarity of the juice from app. 10 to 60% of transmition and reduced color up to 80-90%, comparable with the results of the commercial ultrafiltration membrane.Keywords: cane sugar industry, sugar cane juice clarification, membrane ultrafiltration
Peran PEG 400 dalam pembuatan lembaran bioplastik polohidroksialkanoat yang dihasilkan oleh Ralstonia eutropha dari Substrat Hidrolisat Pati Sagu Syamsu, Khaswar; Hartoto, Liesbetini; Fauzi, Anas Miftah; Suryani, Ani; Rais, Dede
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (164.904 KB)

Abstract

The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of PEG 400 addition on the characteristics of bioplastic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). PHA was obtained by cultivating Ralstonia eutropha on hydrolysed sago starch substrate using fed batch method for approximately 96 hours. The biomass concentration obtained was 4 g/L with PHA yield 20-30% of dry cell weight. The bioplastic was formed with solution casting method in which chloroform was used as solvent and PEG 400 was used as plasticizer. The concentrations of PEG 400added were 10, 20, and 30% (w/w), respectively. Bioplastic properties which were tested were tensile strength, elongation to break, density, thermal properties, cristalinity, and functional group. The addition of plastisizer tend to increase tensile strength and elongation to break, but decrease density, cristalinity and melting point. Bioplastic with 30% PEG 400 addition gave the best results. Bioplastic with 30% PEG 400 gave a value of tensile strength of 0.083 MPa; elongation to break of 0.881%; density of 0.7881 g/cm3;  melting point of 158.95 ac; and cristalinity of 44.58%. With these properties, the resulted bioi plastic may be used for surgical strings. Keywords: Bioplastic, Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), Ralstonia eutropha, hidrolysed sago starch, PEG 400

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