Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy)
ISSN : 20852916     EISSN : 23373652
urnal Agronomi Indonesia, sebelumnya bernama Buletin Agronomi, terbit sejak 1962, diterbitkan oleh Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor dan Perhimpunan Agronomi Indonesia (PERAGI). Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia merupakan media untuk publikasi tulisan asli yang berkaitan dengan budidaya tanaman secara luas, dalam Bahasa Indonesia maupun Bahasa Inggris. Naskah dapat berupa: hasil-hasil penelitian mutakhir (paling lama 5 tahun yang lalu), ulasan (review)singkat, analisis kebijakan atau catatan penelitian (research note) singkat mengenai teknik percobaan, alat, pengamatan, hasil awal percobaan (preliminary result).
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Pemilihan Karakter Agronomi untuk Seleksi pada Galur-galur Padi Dihaploid Hasil Kultur Antera Akhmadi, Gerland; Purwoko, Bambang Sapta; Dewi, Iswari Saraswati; Wirnas, dan Desta
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 45, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (732.425 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v45i1.13681

Abstract

Anther culture technique is able to accelerate plant breeding activities. The objectives of this research was to determine the agronomic traits that could be used for selection of the dihaploid rice line population through the calculation of heritability, genotypic correlation, path analysis and selecting dihaploid rice lines. The plant material used was 65 dihaploid rice lines DH 1 of F1 anther culture plants and Ciherang and Inpari 13 as check varieties. Agronomic characters that could be used as selection character are generative plant height, number of filled grain per panicle, the total number of grains per panicle, weight of 1,000 grains, and grain per hill. Twenty three dihaploid lines were selected based good agronomic characters with criteria generative plant height between 80-120 cm, number of filled grains per panicle > 100, number of grains per panicle > 120, weight of 1,000 grains > 20 g, and grain per hill > 25 g.Keywords: anther culture, heritability, agronomic characters
Aplikasi Cendawan Pelarut Fosfat Indigenous Tanah Sawah Meningkatkan Ketersediaan dan Serapan P Padi Sawah Hutagaol, Dermawan; Hasrizart, Iwan; Sofian, dan Ahmad
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 45, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (307.833 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v45i1.13648

Abstract

Increasing P availaibility can be done using Phosphate solubilizing microorganism, but available information about indigenous phosphate solubilizing microorganism utilization from paddy soil that intensively fertilized with P is limited. The objectives of this experiment were to isolate, to select and to test the potential  of phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) in  increasing P availability, P uptake and rice production. Five isolates of PSF, referred to A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5 isolates, were belong to the Aspergillus genera. Field experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with one factor and 3 replications. The treatments consisted of 11 combinations of PSF and NPK fertilizer, i.e., without PSF + 100% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A1 + 50% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A1 + 100% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A2 + 50% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A2 + 100% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A3 + 50% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A3 + 100% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A4 + 50% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A4 + 100% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A5 + 50% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A5 + 100% rate of NPK fertilizer. Experiment results showed that application of  PSF isolates increased P availaibility, P uptake, rice growth and rice production significantly. Application of PSF A1 + 50% rate of NPK fertilizer was  the best treatment as indicated by the increased in weight of 1,000 rice grains, P availaibility and P uptake
IIn Vitro Selection of Four Soybean Genotypes using PEG for Drought Tolerance Saepudin, Adam; Khumaida, Nurul; Sopandie, Didy; Ardie, and Sintho Wahyuning
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 45, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (593.318 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v45i1.13749

Abstract

The use of somatic embryo for in vitro selection program is very useful since the selected traits will be inherited in the progeny. This study was aimed to obtain somaclonal variants for drought tolerances of soybean genotypes from in vitro selection using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The experiments were set up in two factors with completely randomize design and each treatment was replicated ten times. Four soybean genotypes (Tanggamus, Anjasmoro, Yellow Biloxi, CG-22-10, and SP-10-4) were used in this study as first factor experiment. In vitro selection was in embryogenic callus level using media containing PEG (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) as second factor experiment was done to all genotypes. The results showed that after 3 months in the selection medium, SP-10-4 and Tanggamus genotypes showed higher percentage of fresh callus (surviving callus) and number of embryogenic callus, compared to Anjasmoro and Yellow biloxi. In contrast, CG-22-10 had the lowest number of fresh callus and number of embryogenic callus compared to other genotypes. PEG in high concentration decreased the percentage of fresh callus and number of embryogenic callus in all genotypes. Tanggamus was the only genotype that survived until cotyledonary-stage embryos after transferring in MS0 regeneration medium. Seven Tanggamus somatic embryos from PEG selection succesfully germinated and regenerated into plantlet as drought-tolerant somaclone candidates.  Keywords: abiotic stress, embryogenic callus, Glycine max, somaclone
Keragaan Agronomi Galur-galur Kedelai Potensial pada Dua Agroekologi Lahan Kering Masam Kuswantoro, Heru; ,, Sutrisno; Supeno, dan Agus
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 45, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (353.742 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v45i1.13685

Abstract

Performance of soybean growth and development is influenced by environmental conditions. On similar soil fertility conditions but different environmental conditions such as rainfall will also lead the changes in the performance of the plant. The research aimed to study the agronomic performance of the potential soybean lines in two different drought acid land agroecologies. The experiment was conducted at the South Lampung Tegineneng experimental station and East Lampung Taman Bogo experimental station from February until May 2013. The South Lampung Tegineneng experimental station has a pH of 5.50 and an average rainfall of 89 mm per month, and The East Lampung Taman Bogo experimental station has a pH of 5.12 and an average rainfall of 213 mm per month. The experiment consisted of 10 soybean lines adapted acid land and two check varieties. The experiment was arranged in randomized completely block design with four replications. The least significant different test (LSD) at α = 0.05 was used to calculate significant differences among all treatments. The results showed that rainfall influenced agronomic performance of soybean more than soil acidity. The yield performance in South Lampung was lower than in the East Lampung. Four genotypes produced higher grain yield than the Tanggamus variety in both locations, i.e. Tgm/Anj-862, Tgm/Anj-784, Tgm/Anj-888 Tgm/Anj-857, and Tgm/Anj-858. Tgm/Anj-862 was the most superior genotypes for having the highest number of branches, number of pods, and 100-seeds weight and seed yield and consistent at both locations. The four genotypes, especially Tgm/Anj-862, were potential to be developed in both locations or other locations with similar environmental conditions.Keywords: grain yield, ultisol, yield components
Peningkatan Populasi, Pertumbuhan dan Serapan Nitrogen Tanaman Kedelai dengan Pemberian Azotobacter Penghasil Eksopolisakarida Hindersah, Reginawanti; Rostini, Neni; Harsono, Arief; Nuryani, dan
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 45, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (346.151 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v45i1.13801

Abstract

Nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter is widely used as biofertilizer in sustainable agriculture. The bacteria produce exopolysaccharide which might have a significant role in enhancing soybean nitrogen uptake and growth. The objective of this research was to obtain growth media of Exopolysaccharide–producing Azotobacter; and increase shoot and root growth as well as nitrogen uptake of soybean var. Anjasmoro at early vegetative phase following inoculation of Azotobacter chroococcum liquid. Research consist of two phase, 1) determination of organic-based media for A. chroococcum liquid inoculant production, and 2) pot experiment for application of liquid inoculant on soybean.  The first experiment was performed  in a series of  batch fermenter consisted of several organic media for 72 hours.  The second experiment was set in completely randomized design consisted of three density of liquid inoculant. The results verified that the best media which induced exopolysachharide production of A. chroococcum was 1% molase enriched with 0.1% NH4Cl. Liquid inoculant clearly enhanced population of Azotobacter in soybean rhizosphere, plant height, roots dry weight and N uptake of 21 day old soybean. This research implied that A. chroococcum might be used as biofertilizer at early growth of soybean. Keywords: Azotobacter chroococcum, biofertilizer, liquid inoculat
Functional Classification of Skinning Injury Responsive Genes in Storage Roots of Sweetpotato Effendy, Jollanda; Efendi, Darda; Khumaida, Nurul; Wattimena, and Gustaaf Adolf
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 45, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (435.549 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v45i1.11667

Abstract

Skinning injury in sweetpotato due to loss of skin or periderm which occurred during harvest is inevitable and account for financial loss due to dehydration, pests, and pathogens. Hence, studies on gene expression changed due to skinning injury can provide important information about this protective tissue and for improving the life of storage roots. New candidate genes involved in skinning injury were isolated with an Annealing Control Primer (ACP). Using 20 ACP primers, a total of 103 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were retrieved. In this study, the functional annotation of these selected 15 up-regulated DEGs (10 contigs and 5 singletons) were characterized. The results showed that these 15 “DEG-unigenes” are mainly associated with defense and stress responses, regulation and signaling, protein synthesis and fate, and metabolism may play an important role in the primary responses to skinning injury in storage roots of sweetpotato. This study showed the importance of defense and stress responses genes to the formation of wound periderm. Furthermore, this results can be used for better understanding of the molecular mechanism of skinning/mechanical injury-related genes in the storage roots of sweetpotato as well as to all stems, fruits, and roots of all plants. Keywords: differentially expressed gene, gene function, Ipomoea batatas, wounding
Peranan Fosfor dalam Meningkatkan Toleransi Tanaman Sorgum terhadap Cekaman Aluminium Lestari, Tri; ,, Trikoesoemaningtyas; Ardie, Sintho Wahyuning; Sopandie, dan Didy
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 45, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (358.43 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v45i1.13814

Abstract

The management of P nutrition can be a good solution for aluminum toxicity and P nutrient deficiency in acid soil. This study aimed to determine the role of phosphorus in improving the tolerance of sorghum to Al stress in nutrient culture. This research was conducted at green house of IPB Bogor, tissue culture laboratory in the Department of AGH IPB and Balai Besar Pasca Panen Cimanggu Bogor, from January to November 2014. A completely randomized factorial design was used in three experiments. The results revealed that addition of P improved the tolerance of two sorghum genotypes to Al stress as indicated by the reduction in root length inhibition by Al, where  P was more effective in tolerant genotype Numbu. Addition of P reduced the accumulation of Al in the root tissues as shown by the lighter intensity of hematoxylin staining, especially in Numbu. Aluminum stress increased the secretion of oxalate acid in both sorghum genotypes, where P lowered oxalate acid secretion in both genotypes. These facts showed that the role of P in improving the tolerance of sorghum to Al stress might be associated with the inhibition of Al absorption into the root tissues, although the mechanism is not yet known.Keywords: Al stress, organic acid secretion, role of P, root staining method, sorghum
Pewarisan Sifat Karakter Kualitatif dan Kuantitatif pada Hipokotil dan Kotiledon Cabai (Capsicum annuum L.) Rtionga, Arya Widura; Syukur, Muhamad; Yunianti, Rahmi; Sobir, dan
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 45, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (435.711 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v45i1.15669

Abstract

Characters on hypocotyl dan cotyledon are very potential used for effective and efficient morphology marker for some crop plants. However, the information about the inheritance of qualitative and quantitative characters on hypocotyl and cotyledon of chili pepper was not available. The aim of this research was to determine the inheritance of qualitative and quantitative characters on hypocotyl and cotyledon of chili pepper. This research used purple chili pepper (P1 (IPB C20)), green chili pepper (P2 (IPB C2)), F1, F1R, BCP1, BCP2, and F2 populations. Analysis for qualitative characters used mendelian genetics analysis, whereas model genetic prediction for quantitative characters used join scaling test analysis. The result showed that hypocotyl and cotyledon color of chili pepper controlled by single gene. The gene controlling purple color was dominant than the gene controlling green color on hypocotyl, whereas  the gene controlling green color was dominant than the gene controlling purple color on cotyledon. The additive-dominant genetic model with influence of additive-additive and additive-dominant interaction was suitable for hypocotyl length. The additive-dominant genetic model with influence of additive-dominant and dominant-dominant interaction was suitable for hypocotyls diameter. The additive-dominant genetic model with influence of additive-additive and dominant-dominant interaction was suitable for cotyledon width and cotyledon length.  Keywords: genetic model, morfology marker, natural cross-pollination
Sensitivitas dan Keragaan Tanaman Coleus sp. terhadap Mutasi Induksi Kimia Menggunakan Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS) Aplikasi Cara Rendam dan Tetes Sari, Dia Novita; Aisyah, Syarifah Iis; Damanik, dan Muhammad Rizal Martua
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 45, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (525.703 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v45i1.13157

Abstract

Variant of Coleus sp. in Indonesia is very low. Induced mutation by Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS) is able to increase variant of Coleus sp.. EMS is a mutagen that is effective and efficient in causing mutations. In mutation breeding, the high variant usually occurs around LC50 (Lethal Concentration). The objective of this study were (1) to obtain the LC50 value and sensivity of coleus plants, and (2) to evaluate the response of plant growth and to obtain new variance of coleus used soak and drops by EMS application. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications in each coleus. The materials used two Coleus sp. shoot cuttings i.e., C. amboinicus Lour. and C. blumei the purple/green color and the red. The concentration of EMS consisted of 0.00, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25% with application soak method (100 minutes) and drops (3 drops pipette). The results showed that the LC50 value of C. amboinicus Lour. 5.86% (soak). The LC50 value of C. blumei the purple/green color was 0.69% (soak), 0.82% (drops) and the red color 0.29% (drops), 0.89% (drops). C. blumei (the purple/green and red) was higher sensitivity rather than C. amboinicus Lour. There was an interaction between treatments on C. amboinicus Lour. whereas C. blumei (purple/green and red) had no interaction among treatments. C. amboinicus Lour. produced one putative mutant and C. blumei purple/green produced four putative mutants based on the morphology.Keywords: Coleus amboinicus Lour., Coleus blumei, LC50, putative mutan
Karakteristik Morfologi Benih sebagai Parameter untuk Penentuan Pohon Induk Sumber Benih Pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) Pramudita, Listya; Widajati, Eny; Suwarno, Faiza Chairani; Surahman, dan Memen
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 45, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (510.862 KB) | DOI: 10.24831/jai.v45i1.13755

Abstract

Nutmeg is an Indonesian native plant, produces essential oill as an export commodity. However, it has low seed uniformity that mengurangi keseragaman tanaman di lapang. The main objective of this research was to obtain morphological characteritics as parameter for nutmeg mother plants selection. This field research was carried out from August-December 2014 at Toisapu, Wakal and Lula nutmeg seed source plantations in Ambon, and Seed Storage and Testing Laboratory, IPB. Characterization was undertaken on ten mother plants from each  Wakal and Lula seed source plantations and eight mother plants from Toisapu seed source plantation. Quantitative and qualitative characters of vegetative, fruit, mace and seed from every mother plants were analyzed with  Gower’s similarity test. Mother plants that produced high uniformity seed was the 7th (0.80), the 8th (0.93) and the 10th (0.80) mother plants in Wakal; the 2nd (0.80) mother plant in Toisapu; the  2nd (0.82), the 5th (0.80), the 6th (0.82), the 8th (0.84), the 9th (0.80) and the 10th (0.93)  mother plants in Lula. Those selected mother plants produced morphological uniform seed morphologically. Lula seed plantation had the highest uniformity level among mother plants (0.77-0.87) compared to Toisapu (0.70-0.87) and Wakal (0.69-0.84) mother plants. The morphological characteristic can be use to select the source seed mother plants which able to produce high morphological uniformity seeds.Keywords: Gower’s similarity, seed production, uniformity

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