Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy)
ISSN : 20852916     EISSN : 23373652
urnal Agronomi Indonesia, sebelumnya bernama Buletin Agronomi, terbit sejak 1962, diterbitkan oleh Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor dan Perhimpunan Agronomi Indonesia (PERAGI). Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia merupakan media untuk publikasi tulisan asli yang berkaitan dengan budidaya tanaman secara luas, dalam Bahasa Indonesia maupun Bahasa Inggris. Naskah dapat berupa: hasil-hasil penelitian mutakhir (paling lama 5 tahun yang lalu), ulasan (review)singkat, analisis kebijakan atau catatan penelitian (research note) singkat mengenai teknik percobaan, alat, pengamatan, hasil awal percobaan (preliminary result).
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Search results for , issue " Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia" : 24 Documents clear
Pengaruh Perlakuan Benih Secara Hayati pada Benih Padi Terinfeksi Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae terhadap Mutu Benih dan Pertumbuhan Bibit Agustiansyah, ,; Ilyas, Satriyas; Sudarsono, ,; Machmud, Muhammad
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Bacterial leaf blight, the disease caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a seedborne pathogen, has been known to reduce rice yield by 50%. In this study, two consecutive experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of various biological seed treatments applied on rice seeds artificially infected by Xoo on seed quality and seedling growth. Laboratory experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design while greenhouse experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design. In both experiments, 12 seed treatments were applied: un-infected seeds (negative control) without seed treatment, Xoo infected seeds (positive control) without seed treatment, infected seeds soaked in bactericide Agrept  0.2%, infected seeds soaked in biological agent suspension isolate A6, infected seeds soaked in A54 isolate, infected seeds soaked in 5/B isolate, infected seeds soaked in 11/C isolate, infected seeds matriconditioned + A6 isolate, infected seeds matriconditioned + A54 isolate, infected seeds matriconditioned + 5/B isolate, and infected seeds matriconditioned + 11/C isolate. Soaking seeds either in Agrept  0.2% or in biological agent suspension was conducted for 30 h. Matriconditioning was conducted using ratio of seeds to carrier (burned rice hull 32 mesh) to biological agent suspension or bactericide solution of 1.0 (g) :0.8 (g): 1.2 (ml) for 30 h in air-conditioned room ca. 25 oC. Results of experiments showed that all biological seed treatments could suppress Xoo in rice seeds. Matriconditioning plus biological agent (isolate A6), biopriming with isolate A6 or isolate A54 were the best seed treatments to improve seed viability and vigor. In greenhouse experiment, matriconditioning plus isolate A54 was the best seed treatment to increase seedling growth.   Keywords: biopriming, matriconditioning, rhizobacteria, seed health, viability, vigor
Yield Stability and Adaptability of Aromatic New Plant Type (NPT) Rice Lines Lestari, Angelita Puji; Abdullah, Buang; Junaedi, Ahmad; Aswidinnoor, Hajrial
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Aromatic new plant type (NPT) rice lines were selected to obtain high yielding and aromatic lines. The objectives of the research were to study the yield stability and adaptability of 35 NPT rice lines across different environment, with Ciherang and Sintanur as check varieties. The lines planted at two locations, Bogor and Pusakanagara in two seasons (2009 dry and wet seasons, DS-WS). The experiment used  randomized complete block design (RCBD), with three replications. The 21-day-old seedlings were planted with spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm, with a plot size of 2 m x 5 m. Yield stability and adaptability were estimated by using coefficient regression (bi) and general mean of yield by Finlay-Wilkinson method. Combined analysis of variance showed that lines (G), environment (E), and the G x E interaction were significantly different. Lines showed different stability and adaptability. Several lines yielded higher than Ciherang variety. Nine lines were classified as stable and widely adapted at the marginal environment, i.e IPB 116-F-3-1, IPB 117-F-4-1, IPB-117-F-14-2, IPB-117-F-15-2, IPB-117-F-17-5, IPB 140-F-1-1, 140-F-IPB, 2-1, IPB 140-F-3, and IPB 149-F-2. Lines IPB 113-F-2, IPB 140-F-4, IPB 140-F-6, IPB 140-F-7, and B11738-MR-Si-1-2-1-2 were not stable and adapted only in optimum environmental condition (bi > 1) while IPB 116-F-46-1, IPB-117-F 17-4, IPB-117-F 18-3 and B11955-MR-84-1-4 has the value of bi < 1 or adaptable to marginal environments.   Keywords:  NPT rice, aromatic rice, yield stability
Characterization of Doubled Haploid Derived from Anther Culture for New Type Upland Rice Herawati, Reny; Purwoko, Bambang S.; Dewi, Iswari S.
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Anther culture is one of tissue culture methods which can be applied to plant breeding programs in order to accelerate the process of obtaining pure lines. The successful development of rice varieties is highly dependent on genetic diversity and desirable traits. To obtain the genetic variability of doubled haploid lines through anther culture techniques, anther F1 or F2 were used as explants sources. The objectives of the study were to select and characterize doubled haploid lines of upland rice having the characters of new plant type, and to study the genetic variability and agronomic characters of tested doubled haploid lines. A total of 58 doubled haploid lines, and four parents i.e. Fatmawati, SGJT-28, SGJT-36, and Way Rarem were used in this study. The experiment used completely randomized design with three replications. Results showed that the characters of the doubled haploid lines vary considerably. Selection of the character i.e. number of productive tillers, number of filled grain per panicle, and percentage of empty grain was more effective to be selected because they were well correlated to weight of grain per hill, possessed high heritability values, and have wide genetic variability. Based on productive tillers number, number of filled grains per panicle, fertility, weight of 1,000 grains, and weight of grains per hill, the lines of P3-26, P3-27, P3-28, P4-45, P5-50, P6-103, P6-105,  P3-120, P3-134, P3-135, P3-150, P3-158, P3-248, P3-249, P6-271, P6-272, P6-274, P6-276, and  P6-295 were potential for further selection for new type of upland rice.   Keywords:  variability, characters, doubled haploid, new plant type, upland rice
Penapisan Varietas Padi Gogo Toleran Cekaman Aluminium Utama, M. Zulman Harja
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The screening of aluminum (Al) tolerant upland rice variety was studied with the objectives were: (1) to determine the most suitable method for selection of aluminum-tolerant upland rice variety and 2) to investigate the agronomic characteristics and the physiological adaptation mechanisms of aluminum-tolerant upland rice variety.  The experiment was undertaken in two steps: 1) Screening of upland rice varieties which tolerant to Al stress using completely randomized design, and 2) screening of aluminum-tolerant varieties through factorial experiment with complete randomized design. The experiment showed that 1) screening of upland rice variety that tolerant and sensitive to aluminum stress can be administered by comparing root dry weights in aluminum stressed condition and in unstressed condition, 2) in term of agronomical aspect, aluminum stress-tolerant upland rice shows good growth, and the higher level of aluminum tolerance seems to have emanated from efficient NO3-, NH4+, and Ca2+ metabolism. Upland rice varieties recommended for cultivation in upland mineral acid area include Pandak Putih, Mulut Harimau, Kuning, Rantau Mudiak Kelabu, Towuti, and Sedane Tinggi.   Keywords: aluminum, Ca2+, NH4+, NO3-, uptake
Keragaan Varietas dan Galur Padi Tipe Baru Indonesia dalam Sistem Ratun Susilawati, ,; Purwoko, Bambang S.; l Aswidinnoor, Hajria; Santosa, Edi
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Eighteen Indonesian new plant type (NPT) of rice varieties and lines were evaluated in a ratoon system. The results showed that ratooning ability was related to the vegetative growth prior to harvest, which gave high ability ratoon growth.  New plant type varieties and several lines of rice had better vegetative growth and produced higher ratoon than other genotypes.  Ratoons started to develop 2-7 days after harvest, with  an average number of leaf 2-4 per tiller.  Number of productive tillers of ratoon ranged from 6.0 to 30.0 per hill, with  number of grain per panicle ranged from 38.0 to 228.2, and grain weight per hill of ratoon 10.4 to 31.2 g, dependent on genotypes. Maturity of ratoon was also dependent on genotypes.  On average, maturity was 68 days after harvest of the main crop.  Grouping of ratooning ability based on hierarchical cluster analysis resulted in three groups, namely nine genotypes had high potential, five genotypes had medium potential, and four genotypes had low potential.  This study indicated that ratoon is potential to increase rice planting index in Indonesia.   The genotypes with high ratoon ability need to be evaluated for agronomic performance in the field.   Keywords:  new plant type, rice, ratooning  ability
Inokulasi Fungi Mikoriza Arbuskula (FMA) dan Pemupukan P dalam Meningkatkan Hasil dan Mutu Benih Cabai (Capsicum annuum L.) Agustin, Widi; Ilyas, Satriyas; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Anas, Iswandi; Suwarno, Faiza C.
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The research was carried out to investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and phosphorus fertilizer on yield and  seed quality of two genotypes of hot chilli pepper. The experiment was arranged in split-split  plot with randomized block design, each with 3 replicates. The main plot was two pepper genotipes of Laris and Tegar, the sub plot was two AMF i.e without AMF and inoculation Mycofer AMF, the sub-sub  plot was four dosages of phosphorus fertilizer, they are 0, 100, 125, and 150 kg P2O5ha-1.  Results showed that (1)  genotype and  AMF significantly affected plant height; (2) genotypes interacted with AMF in affecting fruit and seed production; (3) interaction among genotip, AMF and  phosporus fertilizer affected N, P, K content of seed, and N, P, K absorption of seed.  For Laris, N absorpstion increased by 57,70%, P absorpstion increased by 155%, K absorpstion increased by 44.27%, whereas of Tegar  genotype  the N absorpstion increased by 61.50%, P absorpstion increased by 69.30%, K absorpstion increased by 60.61%. The germination rate  and seedling growth rate  of the two genotype are only affected by the application of P fertilizer. The index vigor of Laris and Tegar  was only affected by  both AMF and  P fertilizer application.   Keywords: AMF, fertilizer, seed quality, Mycofer
Evaluation of Fruit Characters, Xanthones Content and Antioxidant Properties of Various Qualities of Mangosteens (Garcinia mangostana L.) Kurniawati, Ani; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Sobir, ,; Effendi, Darda; Cahyana, Herry
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Xanthone in mangosteen fruit hull has antioxidant activities. The objective of this experiment was to determine xanthones content, physical and chemical characters, and antioxidant potentials of several groups of mangosteens qualities. The experiment was carried out in January until August 2008. The research used a randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments were four physical fruit conditions: large size mangosteens (≥ 100 g), small size mangosteens (min. 50 g), yellow sap dotted fruits, and scabbed fruit. The parameters being observed were physical and chemical characteristics, xanthone content, and radical scavenging activity of mangosteen fruit hull extract. The results demonstrated that the physical condition of fruit significantly affected physical fruit hull characters and chemical fruit characters. Characters of fruit hull, thickness, fresh weight, and dry weight, differed among fruit qualities. The physical condition of fruit hull also significantly influenced total soluble solid and vitamin C content, but did not affect total titrable acid and degree of acidity of the fruits. Fruit hulls of all groups of mangosteen qualities had similar antioxidant properties with the IC50 value of 5.57-6.11 ppm.   Keywords: benzophenone, vitamin C, yellow sap, scab
Fertilizer Recommendation: Correlation and Calibration Study of Soil P Test for Yard Long Bean (Vigna unguilata L.) on Ultisols in Nanggung-Bogor Susila, Anas Dinurrohman; Kartika, Juang Gema; Prasetyo, Tisna; Palada, Manuel Celiz
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Yard long bean (Vigna unguilata L.) 777 was grown in Ultisols, which typically have low pH and high P-fixation, to determine the best correlation of soil extraction methods for soil P with yields, and to develop soil P response categories.  The research was conducted at SANREM base camp in Hambaro Village, Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia from April-August 2008. Treatments were arranged in a Split Plot Design with three replications. The main plots were treatments with soil P status of 0X, ¼X, ½X, ¾X and X, where is X = 1,590.5 kg SP-36 ha-1 (36% P2O5) applied once  a month before planting.  The subplots were P application rate of   0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg P2O5 ha-1. Yard long beans were planted in double rows per bed, 60 cm between rows and 25 cm within rows, 2 seeds per hole, with plot size of  1.5 m x 5 m. Coefficient correlation (r) of  extraction reagents Olsen, Bray-1, HCl 25%, and Mechlich-1 were 0.772, 0.765, 0.755, and 0.732, respectively.  Based on Olsen soil testing methods, soil response categories of very low, low, medium, and high were (ppm P2O5) ≤ 18.40, 18.40 < P < 117.27, 117.27 < P < 267.04, and ≥ 267.04 extracted-P, respectively. Based on Bray-1 soil testing methods, soil response categories for low, medium, and high were ≤ 87.81, 87.81
Effects of Pot Sizes and the Number of Plants per Pot on the Growth of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume Mine, Yoko; Santosa, Edi; Amaki, Wakanori; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

 To determine the effects of pot sizes and the number of plants per pot on the growth of Amorphophallus muelleri, seed corms weighing 100-125 g were planted in polyethylene pots.  In the first experiment, a corm was planted in pots containing various amounts of growth media: i.e., 0.25, 0.40, 0.50, 1.00, 1.33, 2.00 and 4.00 kg.  In the second experiment, different numbers of plants, i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, were grown in pots containing 4.00 kg of growth media.  When plants were grown in pots containing a small amount of media (1.33 kg pot–1 or less), they produced small daughter corms and entered dormancy earlier than usual.  The number of plants per pot had little effect on corm weight if the amount of growth media per plant was 0.80 kg or greater.  As a result, corm yield increased with an increase in the number of plants per pot.  The period from corm planting to harvest was slightly longer when only 1 plant was grown in a pot than when 2–5 plants were grown in the same-sized pot.  This study suggested that the low productivity of A. muelleri in shallow soil was associated not only with a small amount of soil per plant but also with limited rooting volume.   Keywords: available water, competition, dormancy, plant density, soil depth
Pengaruh Perlakuan Ethyl Methane Sulfonate pada Tanaman Cabai (Capsicum annuum L.) dan Ketahanannya Terhadap Chilli Veinal Mottle Virus (ChiVMV) Manzila, Ifa; Hidayat, Sri Hendrastuti; Mariska, Ika; Sujiprihati, Sriani
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS) may induce mutation leading to somaclonal variation if it is used at the appropriate combination of EMS concentration and exposure time. Variation in somaclonal might be valuable as a source of resistance to plant pathogens including  plant viruses. This study was aimed 1) to determine the optimum EMS concentration and incubation time that may induce somaclonal variation in chilli pepper; and 2) to evaluate the resistance of the somaclone to ChiVMV  infection. Shoot-tip explants of five chilli pepper genotypes (Jatilaba, ICPN 12 no. 4, PBC495, Helem, and Gelora) were treated with EMS at combination of different concentrations (0.25%, 0.5%  1.0% and control),  and incubation time (15, 30, 60 min). Subsequently, each explant was grown  in multiplication media (MS media + 5 mg L-1 BAP + 0.5 mg L-1 TDZ), rooting media (MS  media +  1 mg L-1 NAA), and acclimatization media (mixture of soil : sand : compost  2:1:1 w/w). Our results showed that the higher EMS concentration and the longer incubation period the smaller the number of survive explants. The highest survival rate  20.4 %  was achieved with 0.5% EMS in combination with 60 min  incubation period. This treatment combination also showed induction of phenotypic variation. Two somaclonal plants derived from Gelora genotype, designated as somaclones K1 and K2,  survived until fruit development and maturation. A total of 245 progenies of K1 and 243 progenies of K2, respectively were evaluated for their resistance to ChiVMV infection through mechanical inoculation using ChiVMV-Cikabayan isolate. Following the detection of ChiVMV using DAS-ELISA, it was confirmed that  4.09% of the somaclonal progenies were  resistance to ChiVMV.   Keywords:  Capsicum annuum, ChiVMV, ethyl methane sulfonate, induce mutation, resistance

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