Padjadjaran Journal of International Law
ISSN : 25492152     EISSN : 25491296
Padjadjaran Journal of International Law (PJIL) is a peer-reviewed international law journal published by the Department International Law, Faculty of Law Universitas Padjadjaran. PJIL publishes its articles annually every January. The articles published by PJIL are scientific articles that explain a research result and analytical review in the field of international law.
Articles 7 Documents
Tindak Pidana Kejahatan Penyelundupan Manusia (People Smuggling) di Indonesia: Tanggug Jawab Indonesia dan Australia

Kristin, Debby, Trie Isana Dewi, Chloryne

Padjadjaran Journal of International Law Vol 1, No 1 (2017): PJIL Volume 1, Number 1, January 2017
Publisher : Padjadjaran Journal of International Law

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Abstract

AbstrakPenyelundupan manusia merupakan salah satu kejahatan transnasional terorganisir yang semakin meningkat di Indonesia, khususnya pulau-pulau perbatasan yang letaknya dekat dengan Australia. Lemahnya pengawasan di wilayah perbatasan dan kurangnya pengetahuan masyarakat setempat tentang kejahatan penyelundupan manusia memudahkan pihak-pihak tertentu untuk menyelundupkan para imigran ilegal ke Ashmore Reef (Australia). Sebagai Negara pihak United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) dan Palermo Protocol, Indonesia dan Australia mempunyai kewajiban dalam rangka pencegahan dan pemberantasan tindak pidana penyelundupan manusia. Makalah ini adalah untuk menganalisis apakah Indonesia dan Australia telah memenuhi kewajibannya sebagai Negara Peserta UNTOC dan Palermo Protocol, serta memberikan rekomendasi kepada kedua negara dalam melaksanakan kewajibannya terkait kejahatan penyelundupan manusia sebagai bentuk tanggung jawab Negara. Kata kunci: kejahatan transnasional terorganisir, penyelundupan manusia, tanggung jawab negara.AbstractPeople smuggling is one of transnational organized crimes that has been increasing in Indonesia, especially in the outermost Indonesian’s islands which are close to Australia. Lack of surveillance in the border region and lack of knowledge on the local people in regards to the crimes of people smuggling makes it easy to smuggle illegal immigrants to Ashmore Reef (Australia). Hence, it leads to the increasing number of people smuggling in Indonesia. As  state parties to the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) as well as its Protocol, Indonesia and Australia bound by the  obligation to prevent and combat people smuggling. The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether Indonesia and Australia have fulfil their obligation as State Parties of the UNTOC and the Palermo Protocol, also to propose actions that can be taken by both Governments to fulfill their obligation as state party in regards to the state responsibility. Keywords: people smuggling, state responsibility, transnational organized crime.

Pemberian Sertipikat Terhadap Pulau-Pulau Terluar Indonesia Dalam Menjaga Kedaulatan Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia

Zamil, Yusuf Saepul ( Fakultas Hukum Universitas Padjadjaran )

Padjadjaran Journal of International Law Vol 1, No 1 (2017): PJIL Volume 1, Number 1, January 2017
Publisher : Padjadjaran Journal of International Law

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Abstract

AbstrakKementerian Agraria dan Tata Ruang/Badan Pertanahan Nasional berencana mensertipikatkan pulau-pulau terluar di seluruh Indonesia. Dari pulau-pulau terluar tersebut sebagian merupakan pulau yang berpenghuni dan sebagian lainnya tidak berpenghuni. Tujuan pengsertipikatan pulau-pulau terluar tersebut  adalah menjaga kedaulatan negara dan agar status hukum di mata negara tetangga dan dunia Internasional menjadi jelas. Terhadap pulau-pulau yang tidak berpenghuni sebaiknya didaftar atas nama Republik Indonesia, sedangkan untuk pulau-pulau yang sudah berpenghuni sertipikat hak atas tanah akan diberikan kepada waga masyarakat yang tinggal di pulau tersebut sesuai dengan luasan tanah yang dimiliki masyarakat. Kebijakan pengelolaan pulau-pulau terluar Indonesia yang harus dilakukan adalah penyelenggaraan kegiatan aktivitas yang dilakukan oleh warga negara Indonesia di pulau-pulau tersebut termasuk membangun pangkalan-pangkalan militer sebagai alat untuk menjaga kedaulatan wilayah Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia. Kata Kunci: pendaftaran, pulau terluar, kedaulatan negara, berpenghuni, tidak berpenghuni.AbstractThe Ministry of Agricultural and Spatial Planning/National Land Agency plan to legalize outermost islands of Indonesia. These islands are partly inhabited islands and some are uninhabited. Certificating the outer-most islands is to maintain state sovereignty and legal status in the eyes of its neighbors country and the International community is clear. Against the islands are uninhabited should be registered in the name of the Republic of Indonesia, while the islands have been inhabited land rights certificates will be awarded to people live on the island in accordance with the area of land owned by the Indonesian citizen. Policy management of the outer islands of Indonesia with the activities carried out by Indonesian citizens islands including building military bases as a tool for maintaining the territorial sovereignty of the unitary Republic of Indonesia.Keywords: registration, the outermost islands, state sovereignty, inhabitate, unhabitated. 

Marine Renewable Energy, the Law of the Sea and the Marine Environment: An Indonesian Perspective

Siswandi, Achmad Gusman ( Universitas Padjadjaran - Kementerian Ristekdikti )

Padjadjaran Journal of International Law Vol 1, No 1 (2017): PJIL Volume 1, Number 1, January 2017
Publisher : Padjadjaran Journal of International Law

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Abstract

AbstractAccording to the report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, there are at least three benefits of marine renewable energy. From an environmental perspective, the utilization of marine renewable energy could reduce dependency upon conventional energy sources, especially the non-renewable ones. From an economic perspective, the renewable energy projects have developed significantly both in developed and developing countries. It was estimated that global investments in the renewable energy sector increased by 32% in 2010, reaching the total figure of $2.11 billion. Although there have not been any statistics available for marine renewable energy, this figure could provide an indication for the prospects of marine renewable energy in the future. This article aims to identify and to analyze legal aspects related to the utilization of marine renewable energy in Indonesia, particularly in the contexts of the law of the sea and the marine environment. Since marine renewable energy in Indonesia is still developing, it is necessary to ensure that all activities pertaining to the utilization of marine renewable energy resources are conducted in accordance with prevailing laws and regulations. In this regard, the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is one of the main legal instruments that need to be considered by coastal States in utilizing marine renewable energy. This study finds that the current laws and policy in Indonesia are still inadequate to regulate the development of marine renewable energy. The National Energy Policy only provides a broad and general policy on renewable energy sources and does not cover a particular strategy on marine renewable energy. Thus, the Indonesian Government needs to establish a specific policy on marine renewable energy as well as specific laws and regulations to address the environmental impacts that may result from marine renewable energy activities.Keywords: marine renewable energy, law of the sea, marine energy, indonesian perspective.AbstrakBerdasarkan laporan dari Sekjen PBB, sekurang-kurangnya terdapat tiga keuntungan dari energi laut terbarukan. Dari perspektif lingkungan, pemanfaatan energi laut terbarukan dapat mengurangi ketergantungan terhadap energi konvensional, khususnya yang tidak terbarukan. Dari perspektif ekonomi, proyek energi terbarukan telah berkembang cukup signifikan, baik di negara berkembang maupun negara maju. Secara global, diperkirakan telah terdapat kenaikan investasi sebesar 32% di tahun 2010, hingga mencapai 2.11 miliar US Dolar. Meskipun belum ada statistik yang pasti, akan tetapiangka tersebut sudah menggambarkan prospek perkembangan energi terbarukan di masa yang akan datang. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menganailisa aspek hukum yang berkaitan dengan pemanfaatan energi laut terbarukan di Indonesia, khususnya dalam konteks hukum laut dan lingkungan laut. Sejak energi laut terbarukan berkembang di Indonesia berkembang, sangatlah diperlukan agar pengeturan kegiatan tersebut sesuai dengan peraturan perundang-undangan. Berkenaan dengan ini, Konvensi Hukum Laut 1982 adalah salah satu dari intrumen hukum yang harus diperhatikan oleh negara pantai dalam menjalankan kegiatan pemanfaatan energi laut terbarukan. Kebijakan Energi Nasional hanya menyediakan kebijakan nasional yang sifatnya umum dalam pemanfaatan energi laut terbarukan. Dengan demikian Indonesia perlu membentuk kebijakan yang lebih spesifik berkenaan dengan pemanfaatan energi laut terbarukan, khususnya dampak lingkungan terhadap pemanfaatan energi laut terbarukan.Kata kunci: energi laut terbarukan, hukum laut, energi laut, sudut pandang indonesia.

How International law Work A Rational Choice Theory

Maulana, Mursal

Padjadjaran Journal of International Law Vol 1, No 1 (2017): PJIL Volume 1, Number 1, January 2017
Publisher : Padjadjaran Journal of International Law

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Abstract

BOOK RIVIEWTitle                    : How International law Work                             A Rational Choice TheoryAuthor                 : Andrew T GuzmanPublisher             : Oxford University Press Does international law affect state behavior?. Why would states pay any attention to international law in the absence of coercive enforcement mechanism?. What do we mean when we say international law is “binding”, given that states can almost always to violate it?. These intriguing and philosophical questions raised by the author to make sure that we had grasped at least one answer. If not, we were failed to understand the nature of international law. These question also remains us about traditional debate between proponent and opponent of international law such as Hobbes, Spinoza and Austin. But, in the 21st Century we are not debating or neglecting the existence of international law anymore.

The Implementation of Article 47 Geneva Convention I to the Military (An Overview of Challenges within the Indonesian Armed Forces)

Agus, Fadilah

Padjadjaran Journal of International Law Vol 1, No 1 (2017): PJIL Volume 1, Number 1, January 2017
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AbstractThe preferable implementation of article 47 of the First Geneva Convention 1949 is conducting activities in the format of military training and exercises rather than seminars. The contents, methodology as well as the instructor should be in accordance with military operations that will be encountered by the soldiers. “do what you have trained and train what you will do”. The implementation of article 47 GC I is related to article 82 and 87 AP I. Furthermore, within Tentara Nasional Indonesia (TNI) it is related with the formation of “the professional soldier” as enshrined in Article 2 section (4) of the Law No. 34 of 2004 of TNI. In addition to the increased awareness, some additional achievements related to operational and training aspects were also achieved in the period of 1998 – 2015. These include the issuance of Technical Guidance on the Implementation of international humanitarian law and human rights into the Training, the three standing ROEs and the TNI Commander decree on Prohibition of Torture. These all doctrinal impact are resulting from the dissemination program that may have influence on the betterment of the TNI operations in the future. However, some further improvements are required, among others, to improve the skills of the concerned officers to draft appropriate ROEs and to complement the legal unit with an operational law / international humanitarian law section. Moreover, the challenge for Indonesia in the future is to improve its enforcement mechanisms i.e. to enhance the military justice system to be more reliable and independent in line with the spirit of article 49 GC I.   Keywords: international humanitarian law, armed conflict, military academy, dissemination program, laws of war.AbstrakPelaksanaan Pasal 47 dalam Konvensi Genewa Pertama 1949 adalah melaksanakan aktivitas dalam format aktivitas pelatihan dan militer dibandingkan dengan melakukan seminar. Isi dari pelatihan, metodologi dan instruktur harus sesuai dengan operasi militer yang dihadapi oleh seorang prajurit, “lakukanlah apa yang telah dilatihkan kepadamu dan latihlahlah apa yang akan kamu lakukan”. Pelaksanaan pasal 47 Konvensi Genewa Pertama 1949 berkaitan dengan Pasal 82 dan 87 dari Konvensi yang sama. Lebih lanjut lagi, dalam Tentara Nasional Indonesia (TNI), berkaitan dengan pembentukan “prajurit profesional”  seperti yang disampaikan dalam Pasal 2 ayat (4) Undang-undang No. 34 tahun 2004 mengenai TNI. Dalam rangka untuk meningkatkan kewaspadaan, beberapa capaian tambahan berkenaan dengan aspek operasional dan pelatihan juga dicapai dalam periode 1998-2015. Hal ini termasuk mengeluarkan Panduan Teknis mengenai Implementasi Hukum Humaniter Internasional dan HAM dalam pelatihan, dan tiga pilar ROEs dan keputusan Panglima TNI tentang Larangan Penyiksaan. Semua doktrin ini lahir dari dampak diseminasi dalam program pelatihan untuk melahirkan prajurit TNI yang lebih baik dimasa yang akan datang. Meskipun demikian, sejumlah peningkatan terhadap pengetahuan mengenai hukum humaniter telah tumbuh dikalangan prajutit TNI. Tantangan selanjutnya adalah mendorong peningkatan mekanisme pentaatan, misalnya mendorong sistem pengadilan militer untuk lebih indeoenden dan dapat diandalkan sejalan dengan semangat Pasal 49 Konvensi Genewa Pertama 1949.Kata kunci: hukum humaniter, konflik bersenjata, akademi militer, program diseminasi, hukum perang.

Arrest and Detention of ‘Boat People’ in Indonesia Territory Water

Oktivana, Davina ( Fakultas Hukum, Universitas Padjadjaran )

Padjadjaran Journal of International Law Vol 1, No 1 (2017): PJIL Volume 1, Number 1, January 2017
Publisher : Padjadjaran Journal of International Law

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Abstract

AbstractAs a Coastal State, Indonesia has full sovereignty to implement its national regulations to prevent illegal fishing in their territorial waters. One example of prevention effort can be pointed out by the arrest and detention of hundreds of ‘boat people’ while they were conducting illegal fishing in Derawan Islands territory waters, East Kalimantan. They did transshipment and their fishing methods were prohibited regarding to Indonesian regulations. The issue of illegal fishing will be analyzed in regard to international law and as a part of the enforcement of Coastal State sovereignty. ‘Boat people’ refer to a group of people who spend most of their life and do all their activities in a boat, within the territorial waters of Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines. The ‘boat people’ issues would be determined from two conceptions. The first one would be nationality issue. Most of the ‘boat people’ were proven to be stateless while few of them have been identified as citizen of Philippines. Indonesia and Malaysia authorities denied and did not recognize them as part of their nationality. It was contrary from what ‘boat people’ were claiming that they were originally from Semporna, Malaysia. Indonesia itself considered ‘boat people’ as a foreign fishers. There will be diverse approaches in dealing with those who hold a nationality and those who do not. The second conception would be concerning to the terminology of ‘traditional fishers’ and ‘traditional fishing rights’ based on international law and national regulation, and how state practices implement it. Furthermore, there would be comparison of international practices related to traditional fishing rights based on international law. Keywords: ‘boat people’, illegal fishing, nationality, stateless person, traditional fishing rights.Abstrak Sebagai negara pantai, Indonesia mempunyai kedaulatan penuh untuk mengimplementasikan kebijakan nasionalnya untuk mencegah penangkapan ikan ilegal di wilayah perairan teritorialnya. Salah satu contoh dari tindakan pencegahan adalah penangkapan dan penahanan ratusan ‘manusia perahu’ pada saat mereka melakukan penangkapan ikan secara ilegal di perairan kepulauan Derawan, Kalimantan Timur. Mereka melakukan transit dan penangkapan ikan dengan metode yang dilarang oleh hukum Indonesia. Isu penangkapan ikan ilegal akan dianalisa dengan hukum internasional dan sebagai bagian dari penegakan kedaualatan negara pantai. ‘Manusia perahu’ mengacu pada sejumlah orang yang menghabiskan sebagian besar aktivitas hidupnya dalam kapal, dalam peraairan teritorial Indonesia, Malaysia dan Filiphina. ‘Manusia perahu’ berkenaan dengan dua konsep. Pertama adalah isu nasionalitas. Kebanyakan ‘manusia perahu’ terbukti tidak mempunyai kewarganegaraan, sedangkan sebagian dari mereka sudah diidentifikasi sebagai warga negara Filiphina. Otoritas Indonesia dan Malaysia tidak mengakui mereka sebagai bagian dari warga negara kedua negara ini. Hal ini sangat berlawanan dengan ‘manusia perahu’ yang melakukan klaim bahwa mereka berasal dari Semporna, Malaysia. Indonesia sendiri menganggap ‘manusia perahu’ sebagai penangkap ikan asing. Ada beberapa cara dalam menangani mereka yang telah mempunyai kewarganegaraan dan mana yang belum. Konsepsi kedua adalah berkenaan dengan terminilogi ‘penangkap ikan tradisional’ dan ‘hak menangkap ikan secara tradisional’ berdasarkan hukum internasional dan peraturan nasional, dan bagaimana praktik negara diimplementasikan. Lebih lanjut lagi, akan ada perbandingan mengenai praktik internasional berkenaan dengan hak memancing tradisional berdasarkan hukum internasional. Kata Kunci: ‘manusia perahu’, illegal fishing, kebangsaan, tak berkewarganegaraan, hak nelayan tradisional.

Responsibility to Protect: A New Form of Humanitarian Intervention?

Handayani, Irawati

Padjadjaran Journal of International Law Vol 1, No 1 (2017): PJIL Volume 1, Number 1, January 2017
Publisher : Padjadjaran Journal of International Law

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Abstract

AbstractHuman rights issues have become a common topic that continuously being discussed around the world. The major concern of international community on the protection of basic human rights leads to a challenge for the nation state to fulfill its commitment to protect the basic rights of their people from the possibility of harm that comes from internally or externally. Meanwhile, the principle of mutual understanding and respect among states and non-interference to domestic affairs of particular state has been generally recognized as the main principle in international law. Sometimes, a conflict that occurred inside a state, which is theoretically becomes a domestic issue, could be escalated and become a mutual concern of international society. When a human right violation occurred inside a state, ideally international community can not only ‘sit and watch’. Especially when the violations are classified as grave breaches of human rights. The world community has a moral obligation to offer an assistance and search a solution to end that violations. It is cleary noted that Article 2 (4) and Article 2 (7) United Nations (UN) Charter should not be regarded as an absolute prohibition of interference. Those articles are the limitation so that the intervention should not endangered territorial integrity, political independence and not contrary to the purposes of UN. However, the territorial integrity would be broken if the state lose their territory permanently, and in the context of humanitarian intervention there is no taking over a territory, since the main purpose is only to restore the condition as a result of human rights violation that occurred. Based on this assumption so intervention not contrary to UN Charter. One thing should be emphasized is that the requirements for intervention have to be very clear.Following an unsettled debate on criterion of humanitarian intervention, a few years ago there were a new concept which is believed as an improvement or a ‘new face’ from humanitarian intervention. It called the doctrine of Responsibility to Protect. Generally, both of these concepts have similarity, especially with the main purpose on guarantee basic human rights and provide such protection when the authorized government is unable and unwilling to do so. However, the RtoP doctrine can not also avoid its controversy. The main discussion on this doctrine particularly questioning the legal status of this doctrine in international law and whether RtoP is only a new form of humanitarian intervention.Keywords: humanitarian internvention, responsibility to Protect (R2P), duty to protect, non intervention, customary international law.AbstrakIsu mengenai HAM telah menjadi topik umum yang terus menerus didiskusikan diseluruh dunia. Perhatian utama dari komunitas internasional dalam hal perlindungan mendasar HAM selanjutnya menantang negara-negara untuk melakukan pemenuhan komitmen mereka agar melakukan perlindungan hak-hak mendasar dan tindakan yang dapat mengancam baik secara internal maupun secara eksternal. Sementara itu prinsip salaing pengertian dan penghargaan antar negara, prinsip non-intervensi dalam hubungan domestik telah diakui sebagai prinsip utama dalam hukum internasional. Kadang, konflik yang lahir di dalam negeri, yang secara teori adalah konflik domestik, dapat menjadi perhatian bersama masyarakat internasional. Pada saat terjadi pelanggaran HAM didalam suatu negara, seharusnya komunitas internasional tidak hanya ‘duduk dan melihat’. Khususnya pada saat terjadi pelanggaran yang dikategorikan sebagai pelanggaran berat terhadap HAM. Komunitas negara mempunyai kewajiban moral untuk menawarkan bantuan dan mencari solusi untuk mengakhiri pelanggaran tersebut.Seperti yang dijelaskan dalam Pasal 2 (4) dan Pasal 2 (7) Piagam PBB, pasal-pasal ini tidak dapat diangap sebagai larangan absolut intervensi. Pasal-pasal tersebut adalah pembatasan sehingga intervensi tidak membahayakan integritas wilayah, indpendensi politik dan tidak bertentangan dengan tuujuan PBB. Meskipun demikian, integritas wilayah dapat hilang apabila negara kehilangan wilayahnya secara permanen, dan dalam konteks intervensi kemanusiaan tidak ada pengambilalihan wilayah, karena tujuan utamanya hanya untuk mengembalikan kedaaan pada saat terjadinya pelanggaran HAM. Berdasarkan asumsi tersebut, maka intervensi tidak bertentangan dengan Piagam PBB. Hal lain yang harus diperjelas bahwa alasan intervensi haruslah jelas.Mengikuti perdebatan yang tidak kunjung sellesai tentang kriteria intervensi kemanusiaan, beberapa tahun yang lalu dibuatlah suatu konsep yang dianggap sebagai wajah baru dari intervensi kemanusiaan. Secara umum, kedua konsep ini mempunyai kesamaan, terutama dengan tujuan utama dalam menjamin HAM dan menyediakan sejumlah perlindungan pada saat pemerintah yang berwenang tidak mampu dan tidak dapat memberikan jaminan HAM. Meskipun demikian, doktin RtoP tidak dapat terhindar dari kontroversi. Diskusi utama dari doktrin ini adalah pertanyaan tentang status hukum dari doktrin hukum internasional dan apakah RtoP merupakan bentuk lain dari intervensi kemanusiaaan.Kata kunci: intervensi kemanusiaan, tanggung jawab untuk melindungi (R2P), kewajiban perlindungan, non intervensi¸ hukum kebiasaan internasional.

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