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INDONESIA
Jurnal Metalurgi dan Material Indonesia
ISSN : 26544962     EISSN : -     DOI : -
Jurnal Metalurgi dan Material Indonesia (JMMI) merupakan terbitan berkala makalah ilmiah mencakup keilmuan teknik metalurgi (metallurgy) dan teknik material (materials science and engineering). JMMI diterbitkan oleh Badan Kerja Sama Pendidikan Metalurgi dan Material Indonesia (BKPMM) per catur wulan yaitu pada bulan akhir April, Agustus, dan Desember.
Articles 28 Documents
Pengaruh Penambahan Partikel Penguat Zirkonia (ZrO2) terhadap Karakteristik Komposit Bermatriks Al-13.20Zn- 6.38Mg-6.67Si-1.38Cu setelah Pengerasan Penuaan untuk Aplikasi Balistik Arandana, Nuzulian Akbar; Nayoka, Socania Titi; Sofyan, Bondan Tiara
Jurnal Metalurgi dan Material Indonesia Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Agustus
Publisher : Badan Kerja Sama Pendidikan Metalurgi dan Material (BKPMM)

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Abstract

One of the main requirement for a tactical vehicle is the ability to withstand the penetration of bullet so as to ensure the safety of troops inside. Steel is commonly used for the body of a tactical vehicle due to its high strength and toughness. However, steel is heavy so that reduces the mobility of the vehicle. Therefore, new materials, which are light and tough, are developed to substitute steel. One alternative is aluminium composites, which are strengthened with ZrO2 particulates that have high fracture toughness. The composites may be heat treated to further improve their mechanical properties.In this research, Al-13.20Zn-6.38Mg-6.67Si-1.38Cu (wt.%) composites with addition of 5, 7.5, and 10 vol. % ZrO2 particulates were fabricated by squeeze casting. To improve their toughness, the composites were solution treated at 450 oC for 1 hour, and then aged at 200 oC. Material characterizations consisted of Rockwell B hardness testing to construct age hardening curves, impact testing, microstructure observation by using optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX). The ballistic testing was conducted on a stack of three plates of composites with 7.5 vol. % ZrO2, in accordance to NIJ 0108.01 standard with 7.62 mm bullet from the distance of 15 m. The results showed that the peak hardness was achieved after 2 hours of ageing. The highest peak hardness was achieved by samples with 7.5 vol. % ZrO2, with the value of 71.48 HRB. The impact values showed opposite trend when compared to hardness values. The microstructures in the overaged condition consisted of Mg2Si and MgZn2 second phases, together with ZrO2 particulates which were clustered and initiated porosity. Three layers of composite were not able to withstand 7.62 mm bullet penetration, however, the composites showed considerable plastic deformation indicating potential to absorb high velocity impact energy from the bullet.
Pengaruh Penambahan Silica Fume, Rasio Air-Semen, dan Rasio Semen-Agregat Terhadap Kekuatan Tekan Beton Ramelan, Aditianto; Sutandi, F.N.; Indriati, T.; Nugroho, A.S.; Rozaq, A.; Rachmantyo, R.
Jurnal Metalurgi dan Material Indonesia Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Agustus
Publisher : Badan Kerja Sama Pendidikan Metalurgi dan Material (BKPMM)

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Abstract

Concrete is a popular building structures because it is relatively cheap, has a good strength, durable, and has easy raw materials. Therefore, various researches have been done to improve the quality of concrete, such as using mineral admixtures like silica fume and variations of aggregate. This research is done by making concrete sample for compressive strength test. The variations are the addition of silica fume (SF) with the composition of 10, 15, and 20% of mass of concrete, the ratio of water-cement (w/c), and the cement-aggregate ratio (c/a) with the composition of 0.6; 0.8; and 0.9 for 28 day test age. The aggregate used is silica sand. From the test results, the maximum compressive strength is 33.73 MPa from the sample with the composition of w/c = 0.4; SF = 15%, and c/ a = 0.9 which is higher than cement sample that has 20.85 MPa. Its compounds, which are identified with the XRD characterization, are Calcite, Quartz, Calcium Silicate Hydrate (CSH), Calcium Silicate, and Portlandite. There is also cement sample with silica fume (w/c = 0.4; SF = 10%) that has a compressive strength of 24.26 MPa. The compounds identified are Calcite, CSH, Calcium Silicate, Ettringite, and Portlandite. Addition of silica fume on cement can increase its compressive strength due to the occurrence of pozzolanic reaction. This is evidenced by the increase of CSH compounds and reduction of Portlandite compounds on the results of XRD characterization. The use of silica sand in the mix will increase concrete’s compressive strength because silica sand itself has greater compressive strength than the others.
Pengaruh Media Quenching Terhadap Sifat Keras dan Struktur Mikro Baja Laterit AISI 3120H Herbirowo, Satrio; Saefudin, Saefudin; Romijarso, Toni Bambang
Jurnal Metalurgi dan Material Indonesia Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Agustus
Publisher : Badan Kerja Sama Pendidikan Metalurgi dan Material (BKPMM)

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Abstract

Has conducted research about heat treatment process at the temperature of 975°C and holding time for 1 hour. Raw material was lateritic steel using material standard AISI 3120 H, which has a content of chemical composition as follows, C = 0.17350%, Si = 0.26981%, S = 0.0283%, P = 0.0232%, Mn = 0.47644%, Ni = 1.19345%, Cr = 0.66948%, Mo = 0.00237%, V = 0.00750%, Cu = 0.03318%, W = 0.00151%, Ti = 0.00771%, Sn = 0.01150%, Al = 0.04419%, Pb = 0.00480, Nb = 0.00743%, Zr = 0.00395%, Zn = 0.00574%, Fe = 97.0309%. whereas this material has a ferrite and pearlite phase and also surface hardness value until 18,54 HRC. The material after heating process using water, oil and air (normalizing) quench media to obtained variety of hardness results. The results of hardness characterization are 47.32 HRC (water quench), quench with oil obtained 33.94 HRC and results of normalizing cooling treatment hardness obtained 14.58 HB. The highest hardness properties are obtained using water quench and the second is using oil quenching, for the microstructure properties there is martensite phase growth all of surface material using all media quench except air quench (normalizing) has a pearlite phase dominant and size smaller than martensite.
Pengaruh Rasio Magnesia-Kalsia terhadap Morfologi dan Kekuatan Tekan Aluminium Foam, Al-1000 dengan Foaming Agent Kalsium Karbonat Sutarno, Sutarno; Rizkiana, Mahardika; Kusharjanto, Kusharjanto
Jurnal Metalurgi dan Material Indonesia Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Agustus
Publisher : Badan Kerja Sama Pendidikan Metalurgi dan Material (BKPMM)

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Abstract

The vehicle weight have correlation with fuel oil consumption, increasing gas emission CO2, and global warming has encouraged the development of light materials and eco-friendly environment likes aluminium foam and magnesium alloys. This aims research is to study the fabrication of aluminium foam Al-1000 with calcium carbonate as a foaming agent and the effect of magnesia-calcia ratio as stabilizer to morphology and compressive strength. In the fabrication of aluminium foam, magnesia-calcia is established to 2% weight and varying the ratio of calcia-magnesia of 0:16 ; 2:14 ; 4:12 ; 6:10 and 8:8, and calcium carbonate is required to 3% weight fraction and operation temperature is 770oC. The results show that the higher porosity is 83.23% with relative density 0.17; pore diameter is 3.97mm, pore wall thickness is 17.39 micron, rounded is 0.84 and lowest compressive strength is 3,14 MPa occurred at magnesia-calcia ration is 0:16, while the lowest porosity is 79.38% with relative density 0.21; pore diameter is 3.71; wall thickness is 101 µm and rounded is 0.84 and compressive strength is 6.611 MPa at magnesia-calcia ratio 4:12.
Pengaruh Temperatur dan Jenis Reduktor Terhadap Persen Metalisasi dan Persen Fe Hasil Reduksi Bijih Besi Kalimantan Oediyani, Soesaptri; Handayani, Murti; Milandia, Anistasia
Jurnal Metalurgi dan Material Indonesia Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Agustus
Publisher : Badan Kerja Sama Pendidikan Metalurgi dan Material (BKPMM)

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Abstract

One of the natural resources that can be used as an alternative source of reductor is charcoal made from wood and coconut shell. In addition, plastic / polyethylene (PE) can also be used as an additional reducing agent, since PE has hydrogen and carbon chains that can decompose at high temperatures into hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases. Furthermore, in iron making process, temperature also plays an important role. Based on Chaudron diagram, iron ore will be reduced to sponge iron at temperatures above 750°C. Therefore, in this research, the variations of temperature were 800, 900 and 1000°C with 2 hours of reduction time. The raw material consists of briquettes made from a mixture of iron ore and reducing agents. The result of the research shows that the highest metallization is about 97,08% obtained at 1000°C by using coconut shell charcoal and additional of 7.4% PE. In this condition, Fe content in sponge iron is about 62.90%.
Evaluasi Pegaruh Perlakuan Nitridasi Gas Temperatur Tinggi Terhadap Pertumbuhan Butir Baja Tahan Karat 316L dan 316LVM Suprihanto, Agus
Jurnal Metalurgi dan Material Indonesia Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Agustus
Publisher : Badan Kerja Sama Pendidikan Metalurgi dan Material (BKPMM)

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Abstract

High temperature gas nitriding is a thermochemical treatment method that promises many advantages of improved mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of stainless steels. However, this treatment causes excessive grain growth. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the effect of such treatment on grain growth phenomenon on stainless steel. High temperature gas nitriding for 316L and 316LVM austenitic stainless steels has been successfully performed. The applied heating temperature is 1050, 1100 and 1200 0C with nitrogen gas pressure of 0.3 atm. The heating duration is set at 15 and 30 minutes. Observation of microstructure using metallographic microscope and grain measurement using particle analysis from ImageJ software. The test results showed that the grain growth constant (n) of 1.66, the growth rate of the grains (K) of 99 μm / s and the activation energy (Q) of 55.209 kJ / mol.
Aplikasi Komposit Polimer Berpenguat Serat Untuk Perbaikan Pipa Kondisi Resiko Rendah Melalui Pengembangan Perangkat Lunak Judawisastra, Hermawan; Irawan, Sella Aprilia
Jurnal Metalurgi dan Material Indonesia Vol 1 No 1 (2018): Agustus
Publisher : Badan Kerja Sama Pendidikan Metalurgi dan Material (BKPMM)

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Abstract

Failure and leakage might occurs on pressurized component such as piping or pipeline. The combination of probability of piping failure with consequence may result in low risk condition. The condition still need to be repaired. Steel patching is common to be used for pipe repair with some limitation. The use of fiber-reinforced plastic composites offers some advantages i.e. for inaccessible and unsafe pressurized pipe conditions, easily repaired, and highly corrosion resistance compared to metal. The huge variety of composite characteristics requires high number of data collection and evaluation for determination of patching composite data. This research aims to develop a software to facilitate repair process using composites. The development of the software is based on ASME PCC 2, build using Microsoft Visual Studio and C# programming language. Validation of flowchart and case studies are performed to test the algorithm. The results of software calculation are compared with excel calculation. The software has been successfully created, validated and can be used to repair pipe in low risk condition using composite fiber reinforced polymer. Pipe repair in low risk condition using composite is affected by operating temperature, operating pressure, type of fluid, and composite strength. The thickness of composite patching is affected by pipe diameter, depth of external corrosion defect, location of corrosion defect, and risk category.
Addition of Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate as Surfactant in Water-based Nanofluid with Al2O3 particles for Quench Medium Application Syauqi, Fatih Abdul; Trinanda, Achmad Fauzi; Bangun, M. Asykar; Ramahdita, Ghiska; Harjanto, Sri; Putra, Wahyuaji
Jurnal Metalurgi dan Material Indonesia Vol 1 No 2 (2018): Desember
Publisher : Badan Kerja Sama Pendidikan Metalurgi dan Material (BKPMM)

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Abstract

Rapid cooling is an important step in the metal heat treatment industry to increase the materials hardness. To obtain this high cooling rate, good quality quench medium is a must. However, low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in fluid used for this purpose. Nowadays, a higher thermal conductivity fluid are widely developed by using nanofluids. Nanofluids are created by suspending particles with average sizes below 100 nm in fluid base such as water, oil, diesel, ethylene glycol, etc. Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) can be used as mentioned particle because of its high thermal conductivity characteristic. In addition, the thermal conductivity of Al2O3 will increase with the decreasing of the particle size because the surface area of the particle increased.However, Most of the nanofluids with Al2O3 particle are prepared by using an ultrasonic stirring which is not stable for a longer time. Therefore, surfactant is needed to stabilize the nanofluid.In this research, 1 – 5% of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonates (SDBS) was added as surfactant into 100 ml water-based nanofluid with 0.5% volume Al2O3. Commercial grade Al2O3 powder was used in the experiment and milled for 10 hours at 500 rpm. As for surfactant, a commercially available household bodycare product which contain SDBS was used. Initial result by Scanning Electron Microscope showed that the particle size after milling were more than 100 nm. This nanofluid was then used as quenching medium for S45C medium carbon steel which heated at 1000°C for 1 hour. Hardness and microstructure observation were conducted for the steel samples. From the hardness result, SDBS addition lower the hardness of quenched S45C sample to 568 HV, compared with 636 HV for nanofluid without SDBS. This mean that SDBS reduce the cooling rate of nanofluid quenchant.
Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate Addition as Surfactant in Carbon Nanofluid for Quench Medium Application Naufalino, Maulana; Daradjat, Mohammad Ilham; Parawansa, Ravanya Nabilla Ramadhani; Ma'dika, Benediktus; Ramahdita, Ghiska; Harjanto, Sri; Putra, Wahyuaji Narottama
Jurnal Metalurgi dan Material Indonesia Vol 1 No 2 (2018): Desember
Publisher : Badan Kerja Sama Pendidikan Metalurgi dan Material (BKPMM)

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Abstract

Nanofluids, which are fluids containing suspensions of nanoparticles, have been reported to have higher thermal conductivity than conventional fluid, e.g. water, oil, etc. Because of this characteristic, nanofluids are very attractive in heat transfer applications, such as quenching medium for heat treatment process. This unique characteristic is caused by the nanoparticles inside the fluid that have higher thermal conductivity, thus perform better on heat absorption and heat transfer. By varying the nanoparticles content in the fluid base, the cooling rate can be controlled in accordance with the desired characteristics of the material. Carbon is used as a nanoparticle because of the low cost and environmental friendly characteristics, but still have relatively high thermal conductivity. Unfortunately, carbon nanoparticle is highly hydrophobic. Therefore, surface modification is needed by using surfactant in the nanofluids. In this paper, Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate (SDBS) was used as surfactant from 1, 3, and 5% in 100 ml water-based nanofluid with 0.5% volume carbon. The carbon powder used in this research was commercial grade, and ball-milled for 10 hours at 500 rpm to reduce the particle size. Commercially available household bodycare product which contain SDBS was used for surfactant source. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed that the particle size after milling were roughly 10 µm. Medium carbon steel, S45C, was heated at 1000°C for 1 hour, and then quenched using this nanofluid. Microstructure observation showed martensite phase formation after quenching. Hardness test confirmed this phase, showing hardness up to 949 HV after quenching using surfactant added nanofluid.
Analisa Kegagalan Prematur pada Aeration Lance Catalyst Cooler di Industri Penyulingan Minyak Dimastiar, Moch Ardi; Taufik, Ahmad; Syahrial, Anne Zulfia
Jurnal Metalurgi dan Material Indonesia Vol 2 No 1 (2019): April
Publisher : Badan Kerja Sama Pendidikan Metalurgi dan Material (BKPMM)

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Abstract

Aeration lance pada catalyst cooler merupakan bagian dari kilang RFCC yang berfungsi untuk mencegah terjadinya endapan katalis, mekanisme kerjanya adalah dengan mengalirkan udara kering bertekanan ke bagian bawah chamber. Kegagalan pada aeration lance akan berdampak terhadap reliability, availability, serta safety dari peralatan secara keseluruhan, yang berujung pada kerugian finansial. Oleh sebab itu, investigasi perlu dilakukan guna mengetahui akar penyebab kegagalan aeration lance, agar kegagalan serupa tidak terulang dikemudian hari. Investigasi yang dilakukan meliputi observasi lapangan, pengukuran dimensi, pengamatan visual, pengujian metalografi dengan OM dan SEM, serta analisa komposisi kimia. Hasil proses investigasi menyimpulkan bahwa akar penyebab kegagalan pada aeration lance adalah akibat hadirnya cacat lasan berupa incomplete penetration. Selain itu, tegangan tarik juga diduga hadir pada saat konstruksi komponen tersebut sehingga menyebabkan terjadinya kegagalan prematur.

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