Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya
ISSN : 14104830     EISSN : 25021966
Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya (JMB) or Journal of Society and Culture is a peer-reviewed journal that aims to be an authoritative academic source on the study of society and culture. We publish original research papers, review articles, case studies, and book reviews focusing on Indonesian society, cultural phenomena, and other related topics. A manuscript describing society and culture outside Indonesia is expected to be analyzed comparatively with the issues and context in Indonesia. All papers will be reviewed rigorously at least by two referees. JMB is published three times a year, in April, August , and December.
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AGAMA DAN KONFLIK SOSIAL

Hisyam, Muhammad ( Pusat Penelitian Kemasyarakatan dan Kebudayaan (P2KK - LIPI) )

Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya Vol 8, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : P2KK LIPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (47.91 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jmb.v8i2.192

Abstract

This article is aimed to seek answers on whether religion can really be the causing factor of conflict, or whether conflict is actually ignited by cultural and other factors. For that purpose, it is also important in this article to see the relation between religion and culture. Religion has potency as peace keeper factor, so as conflict raiser. Exclusivity and claim for truth of a religion has been accused as the main factors that can raise religious conflict. Liberalism movement was trying to reduce these claims for truth among religious beliefs. Exclusive pluralism which was one form of the movement failed since it did not recognize exclusivities of religions which are embedded within each religion. Better approach to pluralism is that respect of religious rights as basic human rights, should then be followed by basic human duties. Despite theoretical issues, the relation between religion and conflict needs further mapping, a method which is also presented in the last part of the article. Kata kunci: Agama, konflik, pluralisme, pemetaan konflik

THE PRACTICE OF THE RIGHT OF WORKERS TO ORGANIZE IN POST-REFORMATION ERA

Mulyani, Lilis ( Pusat Penelitian Kemasyarakatan dan Kebudayaan (P2KK - LIPI) )

Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya Vol 8, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : P2KK LIPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (96.909 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jmb.v8i2.187

Abstract

Serikat Pekerja di Indonesia seolah menemukan kembali “semangat”nya setelah masa reformasi. Aktifitas Serikat Pekerja yang di rejim sebelumnya sangat terbatas mulai bangkit dan kembali menyuarakan hak-hak pekerja. Namun demikian, kebangkitan Serikat Pekerja ini tidak berarti tanpa kendala, terutama apabila pelaksanaannya disandingkan dengan pedoman yang diberikan dalam hokum internasional khususnya dalam Konvensi-konvensi ILO. Dalam artikel ini dibahas berbagai bentuk kendala yang dihadapi Serikat Pekerja di Indonesia seperti kriminalisasi aktivis Serikat Pekerja dan pengerahan massa dalam menghadapi aksi-aksi Serikat Pekerja. Serikat Pekerja sebagai ujung tombak pemenuhan hak-hak dasar pekerja di Indonesia menjadi penting di tengah menurunnya kondisi ekonomi yang seringkali dijadikan alasan banyak pengusaha untuk tidak memenuhi hak pekerja. Metode yang digunakan adalah studi pustaka dan analisa media. Dari studi ini ditemukan beberapa ‘tren’ sikap diskriminasi anti-serikat pekerja, meski beberapa diantaranya bukan merupakan bentuk yang baru seperti kriminalisasi aktivis serikat pekerja, pembentukan serikat pekerja “bayangan”, penyerangan terhadap aktivis serikat pekerja, intimidasi pada pekerja, mekanisme registrasi yang masih berbelit, dan respon pasif atas laporan-laporan tindakan diskriminatif yang diterima aktivis dan anggota serikat pekerja. Keyword: Worker Union, the Right to Organise, Indonesian Labour.

PEMAHAMAN AWAL ASPEK PERMINTAAN DARI KEGIATAN HUMAN TRAFFICKING

Kusumawardhani, D.T.P ( Pusat Penelitian Kemasyarakatan dan Kebudayaan (P2KK - LIPI) )

Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya Vol 8, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : P2KK LIPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (75.184 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jmb.v8i2.191

Abstract

This brief paper aims to explore trafficking demand using some perspectives from the field of marketing. It may seem invidious to use such terms when referring to human beings, but today there is a large and vibrant market for trafficked persons in a number of economic activities. Traffickers are regularly thinking of how to meet and stimulate the demand for their product. This has been an exploration of demand for trafficked people. It is based on very little hard evidence and only a working knowledge of marketing. The lack of information needed to address this question points to a profound need for better research all along the “product chain” of human trafficking, and especially with consumers of trafficking victims. Kata Kunci: Human Trafficking, Aspek Permintaan, Pemasaran Orang: Konteks Pasar Global dan Moral Ekonomi, Pararelisme dalam Atribut Korban, Penggunaan Kendali

A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF MAPALUS IN THE MINAHASA, NORTH SULAWESI

Parengkuan, Fendy E.W. ( History Department of Faculty of Letters, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, North Sulawesi )

Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya Vol 8, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : P2KK LIPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.262 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jmb.v8i2.186

Abstract

Salah satu suku bangsa sebagai penduduk asli di Propinsi Sulawesi Utara adalah orang Minahasa. Mereka adalah penduduk mayoritas pada beberapa kabupaten dan kota di daerah itu. Mapalus adalah suatu unsur dalam kebudayaan mereka yang pada hakikatnya adalah tolong menolong dalam lingkup kelompok untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu yang mulanya bersumber dari kegiatan pertanian. Menarik untuk disimak tentang telah terjadinya perkembangan besar dalam sejarah mapalus akibat pengaruh politik kolonial, sistem ekonomi uang, diversifikasi sistem sosial yang semakin kompleks, termasuk pengaruh politik nasional dan lokal. Dengan membaginya atas beberapa periode ternyata mapalus memang telah mengalami serangkaian perubahan namun esensinya tetap bertahan karena keluwesannya menyerap pengaruh dari luar, bahkan efektif untuk menggerakkan dan mengarahkan partisipasi warga masyarakat dalam pembangunan nasional dan daerah. Keywords: Minahasa, cooperative system, mutual help.

KEJAHATAN LINGKUNGAN: SUATU TINJAUAN KRIMINOLOGIS

Dermawan, Mohammad Kemal ( Departemen Kriminologi, FISIP-UI )

Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya Vol 8, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : P2KK LIPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (86.452 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jmb.v8i2.190

Abstract

At their best, corporations can be a force for good in society, developing new technologies, promoting education and training and providing quality jobs. However, too often businesses have made their profits at the expense of the poorest people around the world, and at a huge cost to the environment. There must be some increasing attention on corporate social responsibility – the integration of social, environmental and governance concerns into business operations. Kata Kunci: Korporasi, Kejahatan Lingkungan, White Collar Crime, Reaksi Sosial dan Kontrol Sosial

NELAYAN SELAT NASIK DAN ALTERNATIF PEMBERDAYAAN

Imron, Masyuri ( Pusat Penelitian Kemsyarakatan dan Kebudayaan (P2KK - LIPI) )

Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya Vol 8, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : P2KK LIPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (89.924 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jmb.v8i2.189

Abstract

Selat Nasik is a district in Kabupaten Belitung. Most of the people living in this area are fishermen, who live in poverty. Among the causes of their poverty are simplicity of their fishing gear, and no market access. To develop fishing gear, fulfill their daily needs and operational cost for fishing, some of them borrow money from fish trader. However, this has created dependency, and on the consequence, their fishes are bought in a cheaper price. To empower fishermen in this area, many aspects should be attended. Firstly, institutional replaces of the role of fish traders. This institution is expected to help provides capital forfishermen, and in return the payment should be adapted with the fishermen fluctuative income. Secondly, to handle limited access to market, there is a need to build a TPI (place for fishing auction) in the area. The existence of TPI is expected to increase the price of fish, because only traders with highest bargains get fish from fishermen. Last but not least, participation of local people in deciding adequate empowerment programme is a necessity, keeping in mind that fishermen are subjects of empowerment, not as an object. Kata Kunci: Nelayan; kemiskinan; pemberdayaan

THE CHANGING CONSTITUTION IN INDONESIA AND THE UNITED KINGDOM: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

Nurhidayah, Laely ( Pusat Penelitian Kemasyarakatan dan Kebudayaan (P2KK - LIPI) )

Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya Vol 8, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : P2KK LIPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (33.202 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jmb.v8i2.193

Abstract

Title of Book : The Changing Constitution Fourth Edition Edited By : Jeffrey Jowell and Dawn Oliver Year Published : 2000 Number of Pages : 387

MEMAKNAI KEMISKINAN: PERAN KELEMBAGAAN DALAM MENANGGULANGI LINGKARAN SETAN KEMISKINAN

Rajab, Budi ( Jurusan Antropologi, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung )

Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya Vol 8, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : P2KK LIPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (112.609 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jmb.v8i2.188

Abstract

Initially, the cause of poverty has something to do with the lack of control of economic resources. This then brings about the so-called the “culture of poverty” and lack of capabilities, that is indicated, among other, by dependent and fatalistic attitudes, which in the end tend to reinforce and perpetuate the initial condition, i.e., the lack of control of economic resources. Thus, it is not surprising, then, that the causes and effects of poverty seem to be a vicious circle. Poverty alleviation strategies and programs aim at raising people capabilities and changing the culture of poverty, as implemented by the former New Order regime, have resulted in far below the expectation, only a few of poor people have alleviated from their unfortunate condition. Moreover, as the effect of these strategies and programs, it creates the so-called “relative poverty” which refers to the widening gap and inequality in income distribution and control over (economic) resources among the population. Given these complexities, the structural approach proposes to develop a special institutional arrangement—a body that will tackle the poverty alleviation work—whose strategy is to give the poor a direct access and control over the economic resources. This body shall be made available down to the local level, i.e. municipality and district levels. To get the strategies and programs effective in eradicating poverty, effort to change of the culture of poverty and to raise people capabilities are that of important and, consequently, still have to undertake. Kata kunci: kemiskinan, budaya kemiskinan, lingkaran setan kemiskinan, kelemahan strategi penanggulangan kemiskinan, dan pembangunan kelembagaan penanggulangan kemiskinan

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