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E-Journal Menara Perkebunan
Published by Kementerian Pertanian
ISSN : 01259318     EISSN : 18583768     DOI : -
Core Subject : Agriculture,
Menara Perkebunan as a communication medium for research in estate crops published articles covering original research result on the pre- and post-harvest biotechnology of estate crops. The contents of the articles should be directed for solving the problems of production and/or processing of estate crops of smallholder, private plantations and state-owned estates, based on the three dedications of plantation. Analyses of innovative research methods and techniques in biotechnology, which are important for advancing agricultural research. Critical scientific reviews of research result in agricultural and estate biotechnology.
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Articles 207 Documents
Identifikasi dan isolasi promoter gen pembungaan kakao TcLFY Identification and isolation for promoter of TcLFY cacao flowering gene SANTOSO, Djoko; HANDAYAN, Agustina A.; MOELJOPAWIRO, Sukarti
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 75, No 1: Juni 2007
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (556.257 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v75i1.150

Abstract

SummaryPromoter is a regulator of geneexpression for a phenotype or trait carried bythe gene. In the structure, a promoter locatedbeyond the 5’ end of the open reading frame ofthe gene on which its expression is regulated.This research aimed to isolate the DNAfragment flanking TcLFY at the 5’ end and toanalyze whether the fragment has charac-teristics of the promoter, primarily the coremotifs of promoter. Using Genome Walkingtechnique, DNA fragments flanking the TcLFYgene at its 5’ end was isolated. Analysis of theDNA sequence was done using onlinecomputer software accessible through web sitewww.softberry.com and an entry sequence ofthe flanking DNA fragment along with the 2.5kb TcLFY sequence. The result indicated thatthe flanking fragment has core motifs for apromoter at proper positions, which are TATAbox at position –80, CAT boxes (CCAAT) at -387 and –626, and GC boxes that are known asUAS were found at the -323 and –537positions. To obtain a conclusive result, thispromoter sequence needs to be furtherexamined to confirm its function.RingkasanPromoter merupakan pengendali ekspresigen untuk memunculkan fenotipe atau karakteryang dibawa oleh gen tersebut. Di dalamstrukturnya, promoter umumnya terletak didaerah ujung 5’ gen yang dikendalikanekspresinya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalahmendapatkan fragmen DNA yang mengapitgen pengendali pembungaan kakao (TcLFY)dan menganalisisnya apakah memilikikarakteristik promoter, yaitu mengandungmotif-motif inti (core motifs) dari promoter.Dengan teknik Genome Walking, fragmenDNA pengapit gen TcLFY di ujung 5’ dapatdiisolasi. Analisis sekuen menggunakanperangkat lunak komputer online (www.softberry.com) dengan input data fragmentersebut ditambah gen TcLFY 2,5 kb dibawahnya, mengindikasikan adanya beberapamotif inti promoter pada posisi yang sesuai,yaitu kotak TATA pada lokasi –80, kotak CAT(CCAAT) di posisi -387 dan –626, dan kotakGC yang merupakan UAS dijumpai padalokasi -323 dan –537. Untuk memperoleh hasilyang bersifat konklusif, sekuen promoter inimasih perlu diuji fungsinya.
Optimasi produksi diasilgliserol dari crude palm oil menggunakan lipase spesifik 1,3-gliserida dari Rhizopus oryzae TP-2 Optimation of diacylglycerol production from crude palm oil using specific lipase of 1,3-glyceride from Rhizopus oryzae TP-2 SUHARYANTO, .; TRI-PANJI, .; PERWITASARI, Urip
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 79, No 1: Juni 2011
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (268.219 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v79i1.69

Abstract

AbstractModern lifestyle caused the increasing prevalence ofobesity that precedes degenerative disease such as coronarycardiovascular disease, hypercholesterolemia, stroke, anddiabetes mellitus. Use of healthy oil in the daily food diet couldreduce the risk of the disease. One of healthy oils that proved tobe useful for human health is diacylglycerol (DAG).Unfortunately, production of DAG in Indonesia is hampered bythe relatively high price of the lipase enzyme. To overcome theprovision of costly imported lipase in producing DAG, aresearch was conducted by employing crude extract of lipaseenzyme from an indigenous mold namely Rhizopus oryzaeTP-2. Crude extract of lipase enzyme from mycelium culturefiltrate was freeze dryed and used for crude palm oil (CPO)bioconversion through glycerolysis at various processcondition. The objective of this research was to determineoptimum variable of temperature, incubation time, amount ofsubstrate and pH in producing DAG from CPO using lipase ofR. oryzae TP-2. The reseach result showed that lipase fromR. oryzae TP-2 was proved to be specific at position of 1,3-glyceride as indicated by glycerolysis products i.e DAG/TAGratio 0.48 higher than that of FFA/TAG ratio 0.06. Optimumconditions for glycerolysis were at temperature 37 o C, pH 7,3 g of CPO substrate, and 18 hours of incubation time. DAGyield by this optimum condition reach as much as 20.76 % w/w.The lipase derived from this experiment produced DAG betterthan that of using imported commercially lipase enzyme ofRhizomucor meihei.AbstrakGaya hidup modern telah menyebabkan meningkatnyakasus kegemukan yang berdampak timbulnya berbagaipenyakit degeneratif seperti jantung koroner, hiper-kolesterolemia, stroke dan diabetes mellitus. Penggunaanminyak sehat (healthy oil) sebagai menu diet sehari-hari dapatmengurangi faktor risiko penyakit tersebut. Salah satu jenisminyak sehat yang terbukti berdampak positif pada kesehatanmanusia adalah diasilgliserol (DAG). Sayangnya, produksiDAG di Indonesia terkendala oleh mahalnya enzim lipasespesifik 1,3-gliserida yang masih harus diimpor. Untukmengatasi mahalnya enzim lipase impor dalam produksi DAGdari CPO, penelitian penggunaan ekstrak kasar lipase darikapang lokal Rhizopus oryzae TP-2 telah dilakukan. Ekstrakkasar lipase dari filtrat kultur miselium R. oryzae TP-2dikeringbekukan dan digunakan untuk biokonversi CPOmelalui proses gliserolisis pada berbagai kondisi reaksi.Penelitian bertujuan menetapkan peubah suhu, waktu, jumlahsubstrat dan pH optimum dalam produksi DAG menggunakanlipase dari R. oryzae TP-2. Hasil penelitian menunjukkanbahwa enzim lipase R. oryzae TP-2 bersifat spesifik1,3-gliserida yang ditunjukkan oleh nisbah DAG/TAG, yaitu0,48 lebih besar dari nisbah ALB/TAG yaitu sebesar 0,06.Kondisi optimum untuk gliserolisis CPO adalah waktu inkubasiselama 18 jam, suhu reaksi 37°C, jumlah substrat CPO 3 g, danpH reaksi 7. Hasil DAG pada kondisi optimum gliserolisisadalah 20,76 %. (b/b). Lipase R. oryzae TP-2 yang digunakandalam penelitian ini menghasilkan DAG lebih tinggi dari padalipase impor asal Rhizomucor meihei.
Respons bibit kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) terhadap pemberian fungi mikoriza arbuskular dan cekaman air [Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seedling response to application of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and water stress] RINI, Maria Viva; EFRIYANI, Usnaqul
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 84, No 2 (2016): Desember 2016
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (455.988 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v84i2.225

Abstract

 The objective of this study was to determine the response of oil palm seedling to the application of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) subjected to water stress.  The treatment design used was a factorial design 2 x 5 arranged in completely randomized design.  The first factor was application of AMF i.e. without AMF (control) and inoculation with AMF (mixture of Glomus sp., Entropospora sp., and Gigaspora sp.).  The second factor was water stress i.e. no watering for 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days at the end of experiment.  Data obtained were subjected to Bartlett test to examine the treatment variance, and Tukey tests to examine additiveness of the data, and continued by analysis of variance. The results showed that application of AMF increased oil palm seedling growth through the increase in seedling height, number of leave, shoot fresh and dry weight, and percent of root infection.  Duration of water stress significantly affected oil palm seedling growth by decreasing plant height, number of leave, shot and root fresh weight, root dry weight. However, at any level of water stress, the AMF inoculated seedling had better growth compared to those control palms.[Key words: oil palm seedling, arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF), water stress] AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian fungi mikoriza arbuskular (FMA) terhadap respons pertumbuhan bibit kelapa sawit yang mengalami cekaman air. Perlakuan disusun secara faktorial 2x5 dalam rancangan kelompok teracak sempurna (RKTS) dengan lima ulangan.  Faktor pertama adalah aplikasi FMA, yaitu kontrol (tanpa FMA) dan diberi FMA (campuran Glomus sp., Entropospora sp., dan Gigaspora sp.).  Faktor kedua adalah lamanya cekaman air, yaitu 0, 7, 14, 21, dan 28 hari tanpa disiram sebelum penelitian dihentikan.  Data yang diperoleh diuji kesamaan ragam antar perlakuannya dengan Uji Bartlett dan kemenambahan modelnya dengan Uji Tukey.  Jika asumsi terpenuhi, ragam homogen dan data bersifat menambah, maka data dianalisis ragam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi FMA meningkatkan pertumbuhan bibit kelapa sawit melalui peningkatan tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, bobot basah tajuk, bobot kering tajuk, dan persen infeksi akar. Lamanya cekaman air menurunkan pertumbuhan bibit kelapa sawit melalui penurunan tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, jumlah akar primer, bobot basah tajuk, bobot basah akar, bobot kering tajuk, dan bobot kering akar, akan tetapi pada setiap  taraf cekaman air, pertumbuhan bibit yang ber-FMA lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan tanpa FMA.[Kata kunci: bibit kelapa sawit, fungi mikoriza arbuskular (FMA), cekaman air]
Sintesis reagen imunokimia untuk deteksi okratoksin dengan metode imunokromatografik nanopartikel emas Synthesis of immunochemical reagent for ochratoxin detection using gold nanoparticle immunochromatographic method KRESNAWATY, Irma; MARYAM, Romsyah; SUHARYANTO, .; HUDIYONO, Sumi
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 83, No 1: Juni 2015
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (291.284 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v83i1.8

Abstract

Abstract    The quality of Indonesiam coffee andcocoa products has been declined due to the contamination of fungi producing ochratoxin, a serious human mycotoxin. Therefore, develop-ment of fast, accurate and simple method for early detection of ochratoxin contamination is required. As a part of research attempted to develop early detection technique of ochratoxin in severall commodities, especially agricultural products, the objective of this study was to produce immunochemical reagent for ochratoxin detectionusing immunoglobulin Y (IgY) based on immunochromatographic method. Results showed that OTA-OVA could be synthesized using active ester method with addition of N-hydroxy-succiimide and dicyclocarboimide. The inter-mediate compound produced showed C=O stretching vibrational band at 1600 cm-1 and C-O stretching vibrational band at 1300-1000 cm-1. Antibody-gold nanoparticle conjugate was optimally produced at pH 9 and with antibody dilution of 1:7.5 (v/v). There was 50 nm absorb-tion shift in visible absorbtion after the antibody was conjugated with gold nanoparticle. Even though the test strip did not show  clear visual-ization, the cut off of ochratoxin concentrationis obviously determined at 10 ppb. This results suggest thatthe technique could be used to detect ochratoxin contamination. Abstrak Komoditas kopi dan kakao Indonesia ter-kendala masalah mutu produk yang rendah akibat kontaminasi jamur yang menghasilkan okra-toksin. Okratoksin merupakan mikotoksin yang membahayakan kesehatan manusia. Oleh karena itu, cara deteksi dini kontaminasi okratoksin yang cepat, akurat dan mudah perlu dikembangkan. Sebagai bagian dari usaha untuk mengembangkan teknik deteksi dini okratoksin pada pada berbagai komoditas, khususnya produk pertanian, pene-litian ini bertujuan menghasilkan reagen imuno-kimia yang menggunakan antibodi immune-globulin Y (IgY) berdasarkan metode imunokro-matografik untuk deteksi okratoksin. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa OTA-OVA dapat disintesis dengan metode ester aktif dengan menambahkan N-hidroksisuksiimida dan disiklo-karboimida. Senyawa antara yang dihasilkan memiliki absorpsi pada frekuensi 1600 cm-1 yang menunjukkan adanya vibrasi ulur ikatan C=O dan adanya banyak absorpsi pada 1300-1000 cm-1 yang mengindikasikan adanya serapan ulur yang kuat ikatan C-O. Konjugat antibodi-nanopartikel emas dihasilkan optimum pada pH 9 dan dengan pengenceran antibodi 1:7,5 (v/v). Hasil pengujian spektrofotometer visible menunjukkan adanya pergeseran serapan sebesar 50 nm setelah anti-bodi dikonjugasikan pada nanopartikel emas. Meskipun secara visual tidak begitu jelas, tetapi hasil pengujian pada teststrip menunjukkan bahwa nilai cut off konsentrasi okratoksin yang terdeteksi adalah10 ppb. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa teknik yang dikembangkan dapat diguna-kan untuk deteksi kontaminasi okratoksin.
Pengaruh batang bawah terhadap pola pita isoenzim dan protein batang atas pada okulasi tanaman karet (Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg.) The effect of root stocks on isozymes and protein partterns of scion the budgrafting of rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg.) TORUAN-MATHIUS, N; LIZAWATI, .; ASWIDINNOOR, H; BOERHENDY, I
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 70, No 1: Juni 2002
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (348.52 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v70i1.132

Abstract

RingkasanHeterogenitas batang bawah pada sistem okulasi Hevea brasiliensis dapat menyebabkan interaksi batang bawah dengan batang atas dapat menimbulkan berbagai tingkat keragaman respons antar individu batang atas dari klon yang sama. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai jenis batang bawah terhadap respons batang atas dari klon karet yang sama pada okulasi, berdasarkan perubahan pola pita protein, dan isoenzim esterase (EST), asam fospatase (AP), malat dehidrogenase (MDH), fosfogluko oksaloasetat (PGD), fosfo glukosa isomerase (PGI), peroksidase (PER), sikimik dehidrogenase (SKD), glutamat oksaloasetat (GOT) dan leusin aminopeptidase (LAP) dari daun atau lateks batang atas. Kombinasi diuji adalah klon (a) batang atas klon PB260 yang dikombinasikan dengan PR255, BPM1, LCB1320, PR300, AVROS2037, RRIM712 dan GT1, sebagai kontrol GT1/GT1. (b) sebagai batang atas adalah BPM1, BPM24, RRIC100 dan RRIC102 yang dikombinasikan dengan batang bawah BPM1, BPM24, RRIC100, RRIC101, RRIC102 dan RRIC110. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan adanya perubahan pola pita protein lateks PB260 yang diokulasikan pada PR255, BPM1, LCB1320, PR300, AVROS2037, RRIM712 sebagai batang bawah. BPM1, BPM24, RRIC100, RRIC102 sebagai batang atas dengan BPM1, BPM24, RRIC100, RRIC101, RRIC102 dan RRIC110 menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan pola pita protein lateks dari klon yang sama. Terjadi induksi pembentukan protein baru dengan BM 24 kDa pada kombinasi okulasi PB260/ PR255, BPM1/RRIC100, BPM24/ RRIC100, BPM24/RRIC102 dan BPM24/ RRIC110. Hasil analisis isoenzim pada lateks dan daun batang atas menunjukkan bahwa isoenzim MDH, PGD, PGI, PER, SKD, GOT dan LAP menghasilkan pita yang monomorfik untuk seluruh kombinasi okulasi yang diuji. Polimorfisme EST ditemukan pada PR255/PB260, LCB1320/ PB260, GT1/PB260, BPM24/ RRIC100 dan BPM24/RRIC101. Sedang polimorfisme AP ditemukan pada PR255/ PB260, LCB1320/PB260, GT1/ PB260, BPM24/ RRIC101, BPM24/ RRIC102, dan RRIC100/RRIC110. Polimorfisme untuk MDH dan SKD juga ditemukan pada PR255/PB260, LCB1320/PB260 dan GT1/ PB260. Berdasarkan sidik gerombol dan UPGMA dari penggabungan data analisis SDS-PAGE protein dan isoenzim menunjukkan bahwa batang atas dari klon yang sama yang diokulasikan pada berbagai batang bawah yang berbeda, umumnya berada dalam satu sub kelompok yang sama. Namun tingkat kesamaan genetiknya beragam, hal ini menunjukkan adanya perbedaan pengaruh batang bawah terhadap batang atas yang sama. SummaryThe heterogenity of root stocks leads to stock-scion interactions resulting in considerable variation at different level among the population of a single clone. The aim of this research is to study the effect of several rootstock on scion of the rubber clone, based on the changes on budding patterns of leaf or latex protein and isozymes esterase (EST, acid phosphatase (AP), malat dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphogluco oxaloacetate (PGD), phospho glucose isomerase (PGI), peroxidase (PER), shikimic dehydrogenase (SKD), glutamate oxaloacetate (GOT) and leucyne aminopeptidase (LAP), bands pattern. The combinations stocks/scions tested were (a) scion PB260 clone combined with PR255, BPM1, LCB1320, PR300, AVROS2037, RRIM712 and GT1. Control combinations used were GT1/GT1 and (b) as a scion BPM1, BPM24, RRIC100 dan RRIC102 combined with BPM1, BPM24, RRIC100, RRIC101, RRIC102 and RRIC110. The results showed that latex protein bands pattern of PB 260 as a scion were changed in combination with PR255, BPM1, LCB1320, PR300, AVROS2037, RRIM712 as a rootstocks. BPM1, BPM24, RRIC100, RRIC101, RRIC102 and RRIC110 as a rootstocks caused the changes of the latex protein patterns of BPM1, BPM24, RRIC100, RRIC102 as a scion. The interaction among stock/scion showed by the changes on the levels proteins or the prsence of new proteins with MW 24-63 kDa especially in combination of BPM1/ RRIC100, BPM24/ RRIC100, BPM24/ RRIC102 and BPM24/ RRIC110. BPM1, BPM24, RRIC100, RRIC102 and PB260 in combined with all the stocks were tested. Analyses of leaf and latex isozymes showed that MDH, PGD, PGI, PER, SKD, GOT and LAP produced monomorphic isozyme bands. The polymorphism were found on EST of PR255/PB260, LCB1320/PB260, GT1/PB260, BPM24/RRIC100 and BPM24/ RRIC101. While the combination of PR255/ PB260, LCB1320/ PB260, GT1/ PB260, BPM24/RRIC101, BPM24/ RIC102, and RRIC100/RRIC110 produced AP polymorphism. Polymorphism for MDH and SKD were also found in PR255/ PB260, LCB1320/PB260 and GT1/PB260. Cluster and UPGMA analyses of protein and isozyme pattern showed combinations of a scion with several different rootstocks belong to the same sub group. However, genetic symilarities among individuals were varieties, it showed that the differences effect of rootstock to the scion from the same clone.
Front Matter Sinta, Masna Maya
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 86, No 1 (2018): April, 2018
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (245.652 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v86i1.309

Abstract

Pengaruh periode pra-kondisi dan penutupan sungkup terhadap daya hidup planlet karet (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) Effect of pre-condition period and vessel closure on the survival rate of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) plantlets SINTA, Masna Maya; NURHAIMI-HARIS, .; SUMARYONO, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 81, No 1: Juni 2013
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (191.813 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v81i1.47

Abstract

AbstractAcclimatization of plantlets is a critical stage in themicropropagation of many plants. An experiment wasconducted to determine the effect of pre-condition periodand vessel closure on the growth and survival rate ofrubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg.) plantlets derivedfrom in vitro microcutting during acclimatization.Plantlets were planted in plastic pots containing mixedgrowing media after being conditioned in ex vitroenvironment for 0, 3 and 6 days. Five closure vesseltreatments were closed pots placed in opened container,opened pots in closed glass container, closed pots inclosed glass container, opened pots in closed plasticcontainer, and closed pots in closed plastic container.Observation on leaf conditions, rooting frequency, andplant height were conducted at 1.5 months and on thepercentage of survive plantlets at 1.5 and 3 months afteracclimatization. The results showed that pre-conditionwas required to increase survival rate and growth of theplantlets. Pre-condition period of six days gave a highersurvival rate than 0 and 3 days which reached 100% and93% on opened pot in closed plastic container and closedpot in opened container, respectively after 1.5 monthsand was reduced to 80% after three months ofacclimatization. The highest formation of new leaves androots were also obtained on six days pre-conditionperiod. Plantlets with pre-condition for six days and wereplanted on closed pots in an opened container had thebest rooting frequency which was 90%. The resultshowed that the highest survival rate (80%) of rubberplantlets after three months was obtained when theplantlets were pre-conditioned in ex vitro conditions forsix days before acclimatization and planted on openedpots in a closed plastic container or closed pots in anopened container.AbstrakAklimatisasi planlet merupakan tahap kritis dalammikropopagasi tanaman. Penelitian dilakukan untuk me-nentukan pengaruh periode pra-kondisi dan penyung-kupan terhadap pertumbuhan dan daya hidup planletkaret (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg.) asal stek mikro (invitro microcutting) selama aklimatisasi. Planlet ditanampada pot plastik berisi campuran media tanam setelahdikondisikan lebih dahulu pada lingkungan luar selama 0,3 dan 6 hari. Lima perlakuan penyungkupan adalahpenanaman planlet pada pot tertutup diletakkan dalamwadah terbuka, pot terbuka dalam wadah kaca tertutup,pot tertutup dalam wadah kaca tertutup, pot terbukadalam wadah plastik tertutup dan pot tertutup dalamwadah plastik tertutup. Pengamatan keadaan daun, pem-bentukan akar dan tinggi tanaman dilakukan pada 1,5bulan, sedangkan persentase planlet yang hidup diamatipada 1,5 dan 3 bulan setelah aklimatisasi. Hasil penelitianmenunjukkan bahwa periode pra-kondisi diperlukanuntuk meningkatkan daya hidup dan pertumbuhanplanlet. Pra-kondisi selama enam hari memberikan dayahidup planlet lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan 0 dan 3hari yaitu 100% dan 93% pada perlakuan penanamanpada pot terbuka dalam wadah plastik tertutup dan pottertutup dalam wadah terbuka setelah 1,5 bulan danmenjadi 80% setelah tiga bulan. Penambahan daun barudan pembentukan akar tertinggi juga terdapat padaperlakuan pra-kondisi enam hari. Perlakuan pra-kondisienam hari dengan pot tertutup yang diletakkan dalamwadah terbuka memperlihatkan persentase pembentukanakar yang paling baik yakni 90%. Hasil peneltian me-nunjukkan bahwa daya hidup planlet karet tertinggi(80%) pada umur tiga bulan diperoleh apabila planletdipra-kondisi pada lingkungan ex vitro selama enam hari,kemudian ditanam pada pot terbuka dalam wadah plastiktertutup atau pot tertutup dalam wadah terbuka.
Pengembangan pelacak DNA spesifik gen melalui bioinformatika: Indentifikasi gen penyandi protein biji 21 kDa pada kakao UAH Indonesia The development of gene-specific probe by bioinformatica: Identification of 21 kDa-encoding seed protein gene on Indonesian UAH cacao SANTOSO, D. SANTOSO
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 69, No 1: Juni 2001
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (317.409 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v69i1.174

Abstract

SummaryA proper gene-specific probe is inevitablefor the process of gene discovery. In additionsuch probe can be utilized to study the expressionof corresponding gene. Probe, which is specificto gene of interest maybe developed usinginternet-accessible database coupled withmolecular techniques. This research aimed todevelop a probe, specific to 21 kDa-encodingseed protein gene and try it on cacao genomes.Two pairs of DNA primers were made based onthe conserved regions. Examined on the cacaogenomes with PCR technique demonstrated thatboth the specific and nested primer pairs wereable to amplify the targeted gene fragments withpredicted sizes, about 465 and 160 bp. RT-PCRwith total RNA from cacao seeds suggested thatthe specific primer can be utilized to determinethe expression level of the gene in the organ.Furthermore, Southern blotting analysis withgenomic DNA from five different cacao clones inIndonesia indicated that the probe wassignificantly specific to the gene. These concludethat a probe specific to the 21 kDa-encoding genewas developed and tested effective to identify thepresence and determine the expression of thegene.RingkasanProses penemuan gen memerlukan adanyapelacak spesifik gen tersebut. Selain itu, pelacakspesifik juga dapat digunakan dalam mempelajariekspresi suatu gen yang sesuai. Pelacak spesifikgen dapat dikembangkan dengan memanfaatkankemajuan bioinformatika teknik-teknik biologimolekuler. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmerintis pengembangan pelacak spesifik gen danmengujinya pada genom kakao. Adapuntargetnya adalah gen penyandi protein 21 kDayang diekspresikan di biji kakao namun bukanmerupakan protein penyimpanan (storageprotein). Dua pasang primer DNA dihasilkan dariperancangan menggunakan dasar daerahterkonservasi. Pengujian di tingkat genom kakaodengan teknik PCR membuktikan bahwa keduapasangan primer tersebut dapat mengamplifikasisecara spesifik gen penyandi protein target. BaikPCR dengan pasangan primer spesifik genmaupun nested, terhadap dua klon kakao, masing-masing menghasilkan dua amplikon yangukurannya sesuai dengan ukuran prediksi, yaitusekitar 465 dan 160 pb-an. Pengujian dengan RT-PCR menunjukkan bahwa pelacak tersebut dapatdigunakan untuk menentukan ekspresi gentersebut dibiji kakao. Lebih dari itu, Southernblotting terhadap genom dari lima klon kakaoyang berbeda menegaskan bahwa pelacak gentersebut memiliki spesifisitas yang tinggi. Dengandemikian pelacak spesifik gen penyandi proteinbiji 21 kDa dapat dikembangkan dan terbuktiefektif untuk beberapa klon kakao di Indonesia.
Lipase spesifik 1,3-gliserida dari fungi lokal untuk biokonversi CPO menjadi diasilgliserol Specific lipase of 1,3-glyceride from indigenous fungi for bioconversion of CPO to produce diacylglycerol TRI-PANJI, .; SUHARYANTO, .; ARINI, Nining
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 76, No 1: Juni 2008
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (180.243 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v76i1.90

Abstract

SummaryDownstream industry of palm oil producing specialty oil with higher economic value compared to that of CPO in Indonesia is less developed due to technical obstacle and the availability of supporting materials. Specific lipase 1,3-glyceride for example which is used for oleochemical processing of healthy oil production is still imported with relatively high price.  Healthy oil can be made from CPO bioconversion using the enzyme that produces oil rich in diacylglycerol (DAG). Although research on the production and the use of lipase has been well studied, production of specific lipase from microbes of local source is still very limited.  This article reports one part of the series of the research activities on bioprocess and genetic engineering approaches to produce specific lipase for bioconversion of CPO i.e optimization of 1,3-glyceride-spesific lipase production from fungi selected from local sources. Based on the fluorescence zone on the screening media, of the twenty isolates collection, it was found that P6 isolate, thereafter indentified as Neurospora sitophila, has the highest activity of 1,3-glyceride-specific lipase. The lipase of N.  sitophila was able to catalyze glycerolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in CPO to produce DAG. The bioconversion products of lipase yielding ratio of DAG/TAG was higher than ratio of free fatty acids (FFA)/TAG (0.12 > 0.08). The optimum condition of the enzymatic bioconversion was at 40 oC, pH 6, and 10-day incubation. The primary fatty acids on the DAG were oleic (56.2%), palmitic (40.0%), and myristic (2.7%) acids. The decrease of palmitic acid on DAG compared to on TAG, indicated that the lipase of N. sitophila worked relatively specific at C1 or C3 of the TAG.Kurang berkembangnya industri hilir yang menghasilkan minyak khusus yang nilainya berlipat dibandingkan CPO antara lain karena hambatan teknis dan ketersediaan bahan pendukungnya. Lipase spesifik 1,3-gliserida misalnya, yang digunakan untuk produksi minyak kesehatan, masih diimpor dengan harga relatif tinggi. Minyak kesehatan dapat diproduksi dari biokonversi CPO dengan lipase spesifik 1,3-gliserida hingga diperoleh minyak yang kaya kandungan diasilgliserol (DAG). Tulisan ini melaporkan optimasi aktivitas lipase spesifik 1,3-gliserida dari fungi isolat lokal terpilih. Berdasarkan zona fluoresens pada medium penapis lipase, dari 20 isolat fungi yang diuji isolat P6 yang kemudian diidentifikasi sebagai Neurospora sitophila memiliki aktivitas tertinggi dan bersifat spesifik 1,3-gliserida. Lipase N. sitophilamampu mengkatalisis gliserolisis triasilgliserol (TAG) dalam CPO untuk menghasilkan DAG. Lipase tersebut menghasilkan nilai perban-dingan DAG/TAG  lebih  besar  dari nilai perbandingan asam lemak bebas (ALB)/TAG (0,12 > 0,08). Kondisi optimum biokonversi enzimatis ini terjadi pada suhu 40 oC, pH 6, dan waktu inkubasi selama 10 hari. Asam lemak utama penyusun DAG adalah asam oleat (56,2%), palmitat (40,0%), dan miristat (2,7%). Berkurangnya asam palmitat pada DAG dibanding pada TAG menunjukkan bahwa lipase N. sitophila bekerja secara relatif spesifik pada C1 atau C3 dari gliserida.
Ekspresi fenotipe gen APETALA1 kakao (TcAP1) pada eksplan tembakau Phenotypic expression of cacao APETALA1 (TcAP1) in tobacco explant CHAIDAMSARI, Tetty; SAMANHUDI, .; BUDIANI, Asmini; POERWANTO, Roedhy; SANTOSO, Djoko
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 74, No 1: Juni 2006
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1665.837 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v74i1.116

Abstract

Summary APETALA1 (AP1) is one of flowering identity genes that determines the formation of sepal and petal tissues. An AP1 homologue was cloned from cacao flowers by bio-techniques coupled with bio-informatics. Examination of phenotypic expression was conducted with transgenesis of the 35S-TcAP1 construct using leaf disk technique of tobacco leaf explants mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PCR specific to TcAP1 demonstrated that the technique is effective in introducing the 35S-TcAP1 construct into tobacco plant cells. RT-PCR with total RNA from the leaves of transgenic tobacco plantlets showed that expression levels of the TcAP1 events varied. The variation of the transcript levels was comparable to the morphological phenotype of the tobacco plantlets grown in vitro. The cultures expressing TcAP1 at moderate levels, have developed into intact plantlets and set up flowers in vitro.Ringkasan APETALA1 (AP1) diketahui merupakan salah satu gen identitas pembungaan yang mengendalikan terbentuknya jaringan sepal dan petal. Homolog AP1 telah diklon dari organ bunga kakao (TcAP1) dengan kombinasi bio-techniques dan bio-informatics. Pengujian ekspresi fenotipe TcAP1 dilakukan dengan transgenesis konstruk konstitutif 35S-TcAP1 menggunakan teknik leaf disk eksplan daun tembakau dan mediasi Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Pengujian PCR spesifik TcAP1 menunjukkan bahwa teknik tersebut cukup efektif dalam mengintroduksikan konstruk 35S-TcAP1 ke dalam sel tanaman tembakau. RT-PCR dari daun planlet tembakau trangenik membuktikan bahwa tingkat ekspresi TcAP1 tersebut bervariasi. Perbedaan level ekspresi TcAP1 ini memberikan pengaruh yang nampak sebanding terhadap perkembangan morfologis planlet tembakau in vitro.  Kultur yang mengekspresikan TcAP1 pada level sedang mampu beregenerasi menjadi planlet sempurna dan membentuk bunga in vitro.

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