Forest and Society
Published by Universitas Hasanuddin
ISSN : 25494724     EISSN : 25494333
Forest and Society is an international and interdisciplinary journal, which publishes peer-reviewed social, political and economic research relating to people, land, and forests. Forest and Society has main geographic focus on Southeast Asia but we do not limit research possibilities that compare between and across regions.
Articles 36 Documents
Corporate Spheres of Responsibility: Architects, Cowboys, and Eco-Warriors in Myanmar’s Oil & Gas Industry

Strasser, Hillary

Forest and Society VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1, APRIL 2017
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v1i1.1322

Abstract

Myanmars recently opened economy is flush with incoming investment and activity. World leaders advocate that all businesses entering the country must operate in a "socially responsible manner." However, the history of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Myanmar is undefined, contradictory, and complex. Thus, to get a handle around what it means to be “responsible,” this paper investigates the collective way in which actors in the petroleum industry in Myanmar enact CSR from 1990 to 2014. The oil and gas (O&G) industry is the most lucrative, and arguably powerful, national sector. The practice and philosophy of CSR, which originated in this industry, is now proclaimed to be the starting point for this newly charted course of responsible business in Myanmar. Yet, activists and critics maintain that CSR is an insincere PR measure of profit maximization whereby companies can conduct business as normal. I argue that CSR in the Myanmar petroleum industry is influenced by more complex factors than profit maximization or image management. CSR initiatives are sculpted by (1) the geography of petroleum extraction, (2) corporate philosophies and company national origins, and (3) type of company operations. The petroleum industry’s CSR activities to date, in terms of geographic span and development targets, all fit into a spectrum of assumed spheres of corporate responsibility that have been forged by the corporate ‘architects’ and tempered by geographic and global forces.

Improving food security? Setting indicators and observing change of rural household in Central Sulawesi

Asih, Dewi Nur, Klasen, Stephan

Forest and Society VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2, NOVEMBER 2017
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v1i2.2099

Abstract

Household food security is a critical issue for Indonesia, which is investigated in this study. Many of rural household in Indonesia depends on agricultural sectors and facing challenges of global warming that threatening food security and poverty alleviation in the country. We use panel data at the household level for a sample of households living in Central Sulawesi at the rainforest margin in Indonesia. For the purpose of this study, we apply principal component analysis to develop an indicator of food security and used the index in determining the household’s condition to be persistent food secure or insecure. The findings present the fact that over the period the household’s food security in the study area has changed to better food condition. The number of people who are food insecure has declined by 23.73 % over the year. However, the results suggest that public services on health, education and infrastructure need to be strengthened, investments in access to credit and off-farm employment policies, as well as insurance programs on social protection and disaster management, need to be developed.

Rubber plantation labor and labor movements as rubber prices decrease in southern Thailand

Tongkaemkaew, Uraiwan, Chambon, Bénédicte

Forest and Society VOLUME 2 ISSUE 1, APRIL 2018
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v2i1.3641

Abstract

A decrease in rubber prices can initiate labor migration trends from rubber production to industrial or service sectors, which could further cause labor shortages in rubber production. This case was not studied in the different communities with a long history of rubber such as the center city of southern Thailand. This study analyzes the source of labor and movement of laborers working in rubber plantations in the context of decreasing rubber prices. We selected 3 representative areas, namely rural, suburban and urban communities in Hat Yai district, Songkhla province. Owners of rubber holdings were the target group for the survey, and individual interviews were conducted. We collected data between March and July 2015, engaging with 207 owners. The results showed that family labor and hired labor were widely used in rubber plantations in the three communities. Locally hired laborers and laborers from other countries were the main sources of hired labor for rubber plantations. The transnational laborers were a secondary source of labor for all communities, especially the rural ones. Family labor was the main source of labor for smallholder rubber plots, especially for the urban and suburban areas. Hired labor was used in all sizes of rubber holding in rural and suburban communities and were very common in the small rubber holdings in urban areas. This shows that the rubber production sector creates employment for local people and for migrants. Furthermore, low rubber price conditions did not significantly impact labor movement in rubber plantations. However, rubber plantations in urban and suburban communities lacked labor supply due to their proximity to the larger urban center of Hat Yai city. Therefore, the low tapping intensity and generate the diversified source of income to attract young labor generation to work on the farms should be policy to maintain natural rubber production in Thailand

Factors influencing long term tomato seed production under contract farming

Gedgaew, Chalee, Simaraks, Suchint, Rambo, A. Terry

Forest and Society VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2, NOVEMBER 2018
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v2i2.4340

Abstract

Hybrid tomato seed production under contract farming in Northeast Thailand has been declining after three decades of initial introduction. However, some growers in some villages remain as long-term growers. This study was designed to identify factors influencing their long-term production decision making process. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the study sites and key informants for in-depth semi-structured interviews. Group interviews were conducted to validate the data. The contract hybrid tomato seed production system is a centralized model. It is based on a two-way contractual relationships between the company and the individual grower. The companies specify production systems and produce quality standards at a fixed time and price. They support a complete package of inputs credit, loans and extension services to the growers. Costs of all inputs and loans are deducted from the seed payment. These costs are usually forgiven when the crop fails through no fault of the growers. The growers cannot produce hybrid tomato seeds without a contract due to the proprietary germplasm. The quality of the product and marketing are also controlled by the companies. The companies must depend on the farmers’ knowledge however, for the management and technical skills. Therefore, the companies must allow considerable flexibility and leniency in enforcing the terms of the contracts. As a result, knowledgeable and skillful growers are vital factors in sustaining long term hybrid tomato seed production. Furthermore, grower’s personal characteristics stand out as an important factor for long term production. This is why the companies are lenient and flexible with the growers to sustain their mutual benefit. 

Forest and Society: Initiating a Southeast Asia Journal for Theoretical, Empirical, and Regional Scholarship

Fisher, Micah, Maryudi, Ahmad, Sahide, Muhammad Alif K.

Forest and Society VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1, APRIL 2017
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v1i1.1369

Abstract

Welcome to our first edition. We are excited to provide a new, and what we believe, timely avenue for presenting research findings and publications in Southeast Asia, for scholars interested in Southeast Asia. Although Southeast Asia as a region of study has provided tremendous contributions to theory and practice regarding forests and society across the social and natural sciences, avenues for cultivating a scholarship of the region remain limited. We seek to engage on a broad set of themes through the application of targeted research related to timely issues affecting the human-environment interface in a diverse region that we have much to learn from. We take a broad understanding of the forest - as a politico-administrative unit, a geographic area, and as an ecological unit. We do not limit the forest to its boundaries but rather seek to engage on the dynamics of change in social and ecological processes. Under such an umbrella, new approaches and methods become possible. ‘Forest’ can be analyzed as land use, ecological process, divided across watersheds, as landscapes, mountains, and more. The lens of ‘society’ allows for opportunities to understand change, whether it is the interaction between a resource to be preserved, exploited, forgotten, or erased. Forests, therefore, operate as the clues of what once was, has become, and what can be. Particularly in the age of climate change, riddled by increasingly complex challenges, a new dimension also emerges for the forest. Different perspectives at different scales – from the local to the global – provide equally important dimensions, and are those which we seek to provide avenues to learn from, and communicate through this journal. As the reader will find in this inaugural issue, we have compiled an initial set of studies across multiple methods and geographies that help to set the terms of future editions. We examine: historical political ecologies of land use around opium cultivation in the uplands of Thailand; emerging governance regimes of corporate social responsibility in Myanmar; the capacity of new state institutions to manage land conflict in forest estate lands in Indonesia; a close analysis of forest harvesting and management in a mangrove forest in Malaysia; and, an economic valuation of non-timber forest products in a national park in Indonesia. There is much to choose from and much more to delve into. We hope that this issue serves as an impetus to engage on these timely themes and further encourages new ideas for submissions. 

Forestry, illegibility and illegality in Omkoi, Northwest Thailand

Anderson, Bobby, Jongruck, Patamawadee

Forest and Society VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2, NOVEMBER 2017
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v1i2.2809

Abstract

Opium poppy cultivation in Thailand fell from 12,112 hectares in 1961 to 281 ha in 2015. One outlier exists: Chiang Mai province’s remote southwestern district, Omkoi. 90% of the district is a national forest reserve where human habitation is illegal. However, an ethnic Karen population has lived there since long before the law that outlawed them was created, unconnected to the state by road, with limited or no access to health, education and other services: they cultivate the majority of Thailand’s known opium poppy, because they have little other choice. They increasingly rely on cash-based markets, their lack of citizenship precludes them from land tenure which might incentivize them to grow alternate crops, and their statelessness precludes them from services and protections. Nor is the Thai state the singular Leviathan that states are often assumed to be; it is a collection of networks with divergent interests, of whom one of the most powerful, the Royal Forestry Department, has purposely made Omkoi’s population illegible to the state, and has consistently blocked the attempts of other state actors to complexify this state space beyond the simplicity of its forest. These factors make short-term, high-yield, high value, imperishable opium the most logical economic choice for poor Karen farmers residing in this “non-state” space.

Litterfall, litter decomposition, soil macrofauna, and nutrient contents in rubber monoculture and rubber-based agroforestry plantations

Tongkaemkaew, Uraiwan, Sukkul, J., Sumkhan, Narathorn, Panklang, Phantip, Brauman, Alain, Ismail, Roslan

Forest and Society VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2, NOVEMBER 2018
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v2i2.4431

Abstract

This study is a comparison of the litterfall, litter decomposition, soil macrofauna, and nutrient contents in rubber monoculture and rubber-based agroforestry plantations. The three intra-couple differences examined are rubber with pakliang (RP) compared with rubber monoculture (RMP), rubber with timber (RT) compared with rubber monoculture (RMT) and rubber with fruit (RF) compared with rubber monoculture (RMF). Rubber plantation systems were selected at 3 plantations located in nearest pairs at 18 plantations in total. Data collected included litterfall at monthly intervals from October 2016 to April 2017, as well as decomposition conditions for assessment at the end of the experimental trials. Soil samples examined the species and number of macrofaunal and decomposition measurements of mesofauna by using Lamina bait scale to analyze nutrient content. Results showed the litterfall of leaves, twinges, and fruits in rubber monoculture and rubber-based agroforestry plantations were not significant between pair comparisons. This showed leaves fell at a high incidence. However, RT experienced a higher trend in litterfall. Decomposing litterfall was also not significant between pair comparisons, but when compared by associated plant species found that RT trends were more likely to experience higher decomposition rates and the litter index was higher as well. Macrofauna in the topsoil (0-5 cm) and subsoil (5-10 cm) were not significant. The composition of mesofauna was found at high decomposition rates in RF, RP, and RT. Organic matter and nutrient contents were not significant in both soil layers. Our data emphasizes that rubber-based agroforestry plantations help regulate C and nutrient cycles, implying that external input fertilizer management requirements for rubber farmers decreased.

From voluntary private to mandatory state governance in Indonesian forest certification: Reclaiming authority by bureaucracies

Wibowo, Agung, Giessen, Lukas

Forest and Society VOLUME 2 ISSUE 1, APRIL 2018
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v2i1.3164

Abstract

Forest certification has been introduced by non-state actors as a voluntary and market-based instrument addressing forest problems, which state policies failed to resolve. Lately, however, state-driven forest-related certification schemes can be observed, e.g. in Indonesia, through the EU FLEGT-VPA negotiation process. It is argued, specific state agencies in a struggle for power and authority develop mandatory certification schemes which are directly competing with private ones. Before this background, the aims of this study are: (i) describing the current trend from voluntary private to mandatory state certification schemes in Indonesia, (ii) mapping the main actors involved in certification politics, and (iii) explaining this trend with the interests of the main actors. The results confirm a trend from voluntary private to mandatory state-driven certification of forest management. The Ministry of Forestry, the Ministry of Trade, the Ministry of Industry, wood producer and processing associations, European Union, local funding organizations, environmental organizations, certification bodies and international buyers are detected as the main coalitions and actors in the certification politics. The stronger coalition develops a mandatorily-timber legality verification system as strategies to counter their voluntary private competitor schemes.

Forest, water and people: The roles and limits of mediation in transforming watershed conflict in Northern Thailand

Dhiaulhaq, Ahmad, Wiset, Kanchana, Thaworn, Rawee, Kane, Seth, Gritten, David

Forest and Society VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2, NOVEMBER 2017
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v1i2.2049

Abstract

This study focuses on watershed management in Northern Thailand, where conflict over forest, land and water-use is a prevailing problem. A characteristic of watershed conflicts is that they are often multifaceted and involve multiple stakeholders with different interests and values, consequently requiring conflict management approaches that are sustainable in their outcomes, including addressing the underlying causes of the conflicts. Drawing from a case study in Mae Tia Mae Tae watershed in Northern Thailand, this study explores how mediation by external third party can contribute to the transformation of conflicts in the watershed and how the broader institutional contexts in which the conflict is embedded shapes the mediation outcomes. The study suggests that co-creation of mutual understanding and recognition of each party’s socio-cultural differences, including land-use practices, are critical in building trust and in how conflict transformation processes moved forward. Moreover, the ability of the mediator in facilitating the establishment of a deliberative institution (i.e. a watershed network committee) and agreed rules on forest utilization were also critical in maintaining long-term collaboration in the watershed and potentially preventing other conflicts arising in the future. Some issues, however, may threaten the continuity of the cooperation and sustainability of peace in the watershed, including the lack of structural reform that formally recognizes local people’s rights, insecure land tenure, and the absence of legal recognition for the watershed network committee as a legitimate mechanism for watershed decision making. The paper discusses these findings by comparing it with those from our previous studies in other locations (Cambodia, Indonesia and Western Thailand) to strengthen the insights from Northern Thailand. Finally, the research puts forward some recommendations for reforms and to strengthen the use of effective mediation, to achieve transformative outcomes, in conflicts of this nature. iation, to achieve transformative outcomes, in conflicts of this nature. 

Productivity and Cost Analysis of Forest Harvesting Operation in Matang Mangrove Forest, Perak, Malaysia

Tindit, Albert Empawi, Gandaseca, Seca, Nyangon, Laurna, Pazi, Ahmad Mustapha Mohamad

Forest and Society VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1, APRIL 2017
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Hasanuddin University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v1i1.1529

Abstract

Matang Mangrove Forest is under systematic management since 1902 and still considered as the best managed mangrove forest in the world. This research was conducted to measure the time and productivity of forest harvesting operation and also to analyze the cost and revenue of mangrove forest harvesting operation at Matang mangrove forest. This project had been carried out in cooperation with Seri Sepetang Enterprise, one of the harvesting licenses in Kuala Sepetang, Perak.  Data collections were taken in every station starting from standing tree until to the Kiln-Drying jetty. The data then calculated by using the formulas of productivity and cost analysis. As the result, the productivity for felling, bucking and debarking, the manual skidding using wheel-barrow and the water transportation are 1.84 tan/hour, 3.82 tan/hour and 4.64 tan/hour respectively.  The cost for each operation of 9 tan log volume for felling, bucking and debarking, the manual skidding using wheel-barrow and the water transportation are RM 56.88, RM 10.80 and RM 36.72 respectively. As the revenue, the company paid RM 260 per 9 tan of log for the in-forest operation (felling, manual skidding and loading to the ship) and pay RM 80 per 9 tan for the water transportation, and they gained the net profit of RM 192.32 and RM 43.28 respectively. The average of forest harvesting operation is twice operation in a day (equal with 2 x 9-ton volume of log production a day), so they will gain a double profit.  In conclusion, the forest harvesting operation is sustainably managed for supplying the raw material of charcoal industries in Matang mangrove forest. Since, they work manually and spend much energy in this forest harvesting operation, so for further study it recommends to conduct the ergonomics evaluation during forest harvesting operation at Matang Mangrove Forest.

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