Global Health Management Journal
GLOBAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT JOURNAL (GHMJ) focuses on health field with strong preference (but not limited) on public health in general, maternal and child health, nursing, midwifery, sexual and reproductive health, public health nutrition, environmental health, occupational health and safety, health promotion, health economics in South East Asia and other regions. Applied science in health also becomes one of our priority, especially in the field of health information and technology, innovation in health, and development of devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures and systems developed to solve a health problem and improve quality of lives.
Articles
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Articles
Gargling with Aloe vera extract is effective to prevent the Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP)

Agustina, Mita

Global Health Management Journal Vol 2, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : YAYASAN ALIANSI CENDEKIAWAN INDONESIA THAILAND (Indonesian Scholars Alliance)

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Abstract

Background: Long-term use of a mechanic ventilator may cause Ventilator- Associated Pneumonia (VAP) infection, nosocomial pneumonia that occurs after 48 hours in patients using mechanical ventilation either through the endotracheal tube or the tracheostomy tube. To prevent the occurrence of VAP, antiseptic liquid (mouthwash) such as chlorhexidine 2% maybe recommended. However, gargling using chlorhexidine may also cause allergies, thus, Aloe vera extract could be an alternative. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Aloe vera extract as mouthwash to prevent the occurrence of Ventilator-associated pneumonia. Methods: This research is a quasi-experiment case-control study with a pre- posttest control group design. The sample size in this study was 30 respondents who were equally distributed into two groups; intervention group was administered using Aloe vera extract, while chlorhexidine was practiced for the control group. To determine the occurrence of VAP, Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia was measured on the first day of intubation and the fourth day, enumerated by nurses in the emergency room. CPIS is a set of indicators comprised of temperature, leucocyte, trachea secretion, oxygenation (PaO2/FiO in mm Hg), and thorax photo. CPIS value below than five will be regarded non-VAP, while CPIS scored 6-9 will be diagnosed as VAP. Results: Oral hygiene with Aloe vera extract was able to prevent the occurrence of VAP (p-value = 0.001), but there was no significant difference between the control group and intervention in the CPIS component temperature, leukocytes, tracheal secretions, FiO2, and the thoracic component. Conclusions: Oral hygiene with Aloe vera extract effectively prevented the occurrence of V entilator-Associated Pneumonia (V AP) compared to chlorhexidine. 

Mothers knowledge of the causes and prevention associated with diarrhea among under-five children in Hlaing Thar Yar Township, Yangon, Myanmar

Lwin, Khaing Zar, Edi Putra, I Gusti Ngurah

Global Health Management Journal Vol 2, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : YAYASAN ALIANSI CENDEKIAWAN INDONESIA THAILAND (Indonesian Scholars Alliance)

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Abstract

Background: Diarrhea among under-five children remains a major public health problem in developing countries, such as Myanmar. Its complications contribute to the worse health outcomes as well as increase the child mortality in Myanmar. Hlaing Thar Yar was recognized as a township with the highest incidence of diarrhea in Yangon region. Aims: This study aimed to identify the association of mother’s knowledge on diarrhea with the diarrheal disease among under-five children in Hlaing Thar Yar Township, Yangon, Myanmar. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study by collecting primary data in the Hlaing Thar Yar Township of Yangon, Myanmar from November to December 2016. About 277 records of mothers and their under-five children have been collected through multistage random sampling. A dependent variable in this study was the occurrence of diarrhea among under-five children whilst independent variables consisted of socio-demographic characteristics of parents and five domains of mother’s knowledge on diarrhea. Data were analyzed by using univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results: This study found that a half (53.43%) of under-five children suffered diarrhea within two weeks prior to the survey. Based on multivariate analysis by controlling all socio-demographic factors, two out of five domains of mother’s knowledge showed significant association. An increased one score of mother’s knowledge on causes and prevention of diarrhea contributed to decrease the likelihood of diarrheal disease by 37% (OR=0.63; 95%CI=0.44-0.90) and 27% (OR=0.73; 95%CI=0.54-0.99), respectively. Conclusions: This study confirmed that the knowledge of mothers on causes and prevention of diarrhea appears to have important effects on the occurrence of diarrhea among the under-five children. Therefore, health promotion program with an emphasis on providing information related to diarrhea causes and prevention is worth to enhance mother’s knowledge and their ability to prevent diarrhea among under-five children in Hlaing Thar Yar Township, Yangon. 

Social factors associated to the multiple risk behaviors among high school students: A case study of Hanoi high school students, Vietnam

Huong, Duong Thi Thu

Global Health Management Journal Vol 2, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : YAYASAN ALIANSI CENDEKIAWAN INDONESIA THAILAND (Indonesian Scholars Alliance)

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Abstract

Background: Young people who engaged in different risk behaviors attracted concern nowadays. Noticeably, the concurrent multiple risk behaviors generate adverse effect to health and their future life. Aims: The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of the concurrent multiple risk behaviors and to evaluate the association between social factors and the concurrent multiple risk behaviors among the high school students in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods: A quantitative survey with a cross sectional design was applied involving a total of 1,333 Hanoi high school students. The survey was conducted in the end of 2016. The multivariate linear regression models were applied to examine the social factors associated with the concurrent multiple risk behaviors of Hanoi high school students. Eighteen different risk behaviors had been selected for constructing a composite variable of the total risk behaviors that students have engaged in. Results: On average, the high school students have been reported involving in 4.88 behaviors of the 18 selected observed risk behaviors. The multivariate linear regression models with demographic factors and different social connections of high school students could explain for about 37.6% of the difference in composite variable of the total risk behaviors. This present study reveals several factors that increase the number of risk behaviors the students may engage, including the connection to the familys members or friends, duration in social media, and the number of friends in the online network. In the contrast, strong family connection has been demonstrated to provide a "safe haven" for protecting the high school students from involving in increasing multiple different risk behaviors. Conclusion: The research findings strongly recommend early prevention strategies should be conducted among the high school students. The identified concurrent risk behaviors should be targeted as prevention actions rather than focusing on controlling individual risk behaviors. In addition, the involvement of their parents and friends are suggested to be the target audience together with students in concurrent risk behaviors controlling and preventing programs among the high school students and young generation. 

The effectiveness of discharge planning and range of motion (ROM) training in increasing muscle strength of nonhemorrhagic stroke patients

Iskandar, Mohamat

Global Health Management Journal Vol 2, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : YAYASAN ALIANSI CENDEKIAWAN INDONESIA THAILAND (Indonesian Scholars Alliance)

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Abstract

Background: Non-hemorrhagic stroke patients experience hemiparesis, an improper handling results in joint contractures. Discharge planning combined with a range of motion (ROM) training given to patients and their families are expected to improve muscle strength in patients after returning from the hospital. Aims: This study is to identify the effectiveness of discharge planning in increasing muscle strength. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with a pre-posttest design. A total of 34 respondents were selected by cluster random sampling technique, from RAA Soewondo Pati General Hospital of Pati, Central Java, Indonesia. The respondents were divided equally into two groups; an intervention group (N = 17) was given a discharge planning program together with stroke information and range of motion (ROM) training while the control group (N = 17) received a standard discharge planning available in the hospital. Further, Muscle Rating Scale (MRS) was employed to assess the muscle strength on the 2nd, 7th, and 14th day after discharge planning presented to the nonhemorrhagic stroke patients. Results: This present study clearly acknowledges the standard discharge planning program available in the hospital improve the muscle strength of the upper and lower extremity in the nonhemorrhagic stroke patients just 2nd day after the care (pretest), and the significant improvement was observed until the day 14. Moreover, combining the care with ROM training at the intervention group faster the recovery and the muscle strength improved significantly at the 7th day and continue increase at the day 14. Looking to the muscle strength since the 2nd day to the day 14, respectively the muscle strength of upper and lower limb at the control group improved at the point of 0.588 and 0.882, while at the group received the ROM training reached the value of 1.472 and 1.412. Conclusions: The ROM training combined to the current discharge planning program will faster the muscle strength recovery of the nonhemorrhagic stroke patients. This research provide insight how family plays important role to the success in monitoring the rehabilitation and recovery progress. 

Stress, coping, and mental health status among nursing students at a private university in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

Racal, Sarah Jane, Molina, Stephanie

Global Health Management Journal Vol 2, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : YAYASAN ALIANSI CENDEKIAWAN INDONESIA THAILAND (Indonesian Scholars Alliance)

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Abstract

Background: Stress, especially among young people, leads to life-threatening mental conditions such as depression and suicide. Nursing students, in particular, are exposed to different kinds of stress such as pressures from both academic and clinical exposures coupled with expectations to succeed. These stressors influence individual coping styles which may eventually affect students’ mental, physical, and over-all wellbeing leading to the decline in their learning and academic performance. Aims: This descriptive-correlational study was aimed at exploring the relationships among stress, coping, and mental health status among nursing students at a private university in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Methods: Using a systematic random sampling, a descriptive cross-sectional study was done among one hundred and fifty 3rd and 4th year nursing students under the international nursing program. The Perceived Stress Scale, Brief COPE, and the General Health Questionnaire were used to assess the level of stress, the coping strategies used, and the mental health status of the respondents. Descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson’s correlation were used to answer the research questions. Results: It revealed that the nursing students had moderate level of perceived stress, used acceptance as the most common form of coping, and substance use and denial as the least used. Furthermore, the respondents had mild level of mental health related-illness. Significant gender differences were found in the perceived level of stress, and use of coping strategies. While mental health status significantly differed according to year level and interest in nursing. Significant mild to moderate relationships were found among perceived stress level, coping strategies, mental health status, and selected socio-demographic variables. Conclusion: The findings of the study provide additional useful information on the relationships of stress, coping, and health outcomes. Results can also be useful in creating a stress management program for nursing students such as awareness on individual stress response and reinforcing the use of healthy coping strategies. 

Knowledge transfer of advances in applied health and science

Macnab, Andrew John

Global Health Management Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : YAYASAN ALIANSI CENDEKIAWAN INDONESIA THAILAND (Indonesian Scholars Alliance)

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Abstract

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The Use of Photo-Essay to Report Advances in Applied Science and Health

Macnab, Andrew John, Mukisa, Ronald, Stothers, Lynn

Global Health Management Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : YAYASAN ALIANSI CENDEKIAWAN INDONESIA THAILAND (Indonesian Scholars Alliance)

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Abstract

Background: In the applied health and science disciples there is an expectation that project work is reported through a publication. The conventional papers written to do this follow a structure that includes sections providing background, methods, results and a discussion or conclusion, supported by figures and tables. Sometimes photographs are included, and with more on-line publications the opportunities have increased for these to be available in full color. Borrowing from the field of photojournalism photo-essays are now a publication option where a series of images are used to tell the story; these are often related to health and well-being.Aims: To summarize the methodology used to effectively combine a series of images with a brief text, and short reference list to create a visually engaging and informative short report.Guidelines: Images are taken throughout the project with consent obtained from those whose images will be recognisable. Creative licence is used to compile representative images into a sequence that conveys the background, method, results and outcome(s) of the project. Images need to be of high resolution; editing for light, colour and contrast, and cropping is allowed to increase their clarity and relevance. The ethics of photojournalism apply making inappropriate manipulation of images or erroneous captions unacceptable.Conclusions: Photo-essays are a novel and informative way to report on an applied health, social or scientific topic. The format is an excellent one to use for a brief report, or to prepare a research presentation for a scientific meeting.Keywords: Photograph, Photojournalism, Photo-manipulation.

Factors Influencing Stigma to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Among Teenagers at Ngaran Village, Gamping, Sleman, Indonesia

Astuti, Dhesi Ari, Kurniati, Nurul

Global Health Management Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : YAYASAN ALIANSI CENDEKIAWAN INDONESIA THAILAND (Indonesian Scholars Alliance)

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Abstract

Background: As the part of sexual orientation varieties and gender identities, until now the existence of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) still becomes a social, theological, and psychological problem. Similar to trauma, low self acceptance, low self esteem, and anxiety, if it is not handled properly, the condition will be getting worse. Aims: The aim of the study is to increase prevention efforts toward growing phenomena of TGBT on teenagers. Methods: This is a quantitative study with one group pretest and posttest design. The work involved a total of 41 teenagers at at Ngaran Village, Balecatur, Gamping, Sleman, Indonesia. A set of questionnaires was given to the respondents to measure knowledge, attitude, perception, service access, and also peer’s attitude to LGBT. Counseling was given once together with material content about LGBT awareness in family. Statistical analysis was employed to process and analyze the data. Results: The result showed factors correlated to stigma about LGBT on teenagers namely knowledge, attitude, perception, access to any service, and peer’s attitude. The most influential factor was knowledge factor with p value 0.00 and peer’s attitude with p value 0.02.Conclusion: After being participated in the study, it is expected that teenagers can give information to the family members, so the family members and the society will have appropriate knowledge and attitude related LGBT stigma. Keywords       : Teenagers, LGBT, Stigma, Indonesia

Sentinel Surveillance for HIV Among People who Inject Drugs, Gia Lai Province, Vietnam

Hoang, Thang Nghia, Pham, Duoc Tho, Nguyen, Ha Thi Thu

Global Health Management Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : YAYASAN ALIANSI CENDEKIAWAN INDONESIA THAILAND (Indonesian Scholars Alliance)

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Abstract

Background: HIV remains a public health challenge, especially among people who inject drug (PWID). The HIV Sentinel Surveillance (HSS), together with the HIV/AIDS case reporting, are two core components of the HIV/AIDS surveillance system providing systematic, on-going monitoring of HIV epidemic in Viet Nam. The HSS was first conducted in 1994 to determine HIV prevalence among the high-risk group by collecting blood sample. But in 2009, this system was monitored the risk behaviors by addition of a brief behavioral questionnaire, known as HSS+. In Central Highland, the HIV situation in Gia Lai province has primarily affected PWID, which are main criteria to select into the surveillance system.Aims: This study aims to determine risk factors for HIV infection to improve intervention programs for PWID in Gia Lai province, Vietnam.Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey of 150 randomly selected PWID from June to September 2014 in Gia Lai province. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect information regarding drug use, sexual behavior, accessibility of HIV/AIDS counseling and testing services. Blood samples were collected and tested for the presence of HIV antibodies using ELISA and rapid test. For data analysis, the frequencies and proportions were calculated. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests and multivariable logistic regression were performed to assess the association between risk factors and HIV infection.Results: We identified 14 infections among 150 PWID (prevalence = 9.3%). Among PWID, 22.7% (34/150) had shared needles and 3 HIV prevalence among PWIDs injecting drug for at least 3 years was 2.4%. HIV prevalence among PWIDs who have had sexual intercourse with more than one commercial sex worker (CSW) per month was 6.5%. In multivariable logistic regression, the odds of HIV infection with sharing needles, injecting for over 3 years, and sexual intercourse with more than one CSW per month was 6.7 (95% CI: 1.6-27.7), 6.1 (95% CI: 1.2-30.3) and with 4.0 (95% CI: 1.0-15.3), respectively.Conclusion: We identified a few modifiable risk factors among PWID. Based on these data, we recommend improving harm reduction intervention and behavior change communication. The sentinel surveillance site should continue monitoring PWID behavior over time.

Potential of Carrageenans in Foods and Medical Applications

Noor, Hafizh Muhammad

Global Health Management Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : YAYASAN ALIANSI CENDEKIAWAN INDONESIA THAILAND (Indonesian Scholars Alliance)

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Abstract

Background: Carrageenans, the polysaccharides obtained by extraction of certain species of red seaweeds (Rhodophyceae), have been widely used in both food industry and medical applications because of their excellent physical functional properties that are used as gelling, thickening and stabilizing agent. Several studies showed biological properties of carrageenans such as antiviral, anticoagulant, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory activity.  Aims: This study is to bring a short overview of the potential of carrageenans in foods and medical applications based on their biological activities.Methods: This short overview used relevant works and articles examined that collected through several electronic database including PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link and Google Scholars for the years 1991-2018 with full text in English.Results: This study is an alternative approach that is necessary in order to present the potential of carrageenans in foods and medical applications.The advantages of carrageenans as a food additive and pharmaceutical formulation lie on their high availability, low cost, and low induction of resistance. Conclusion: This review suggested that carrageenans are suitable to be applied in many kinds of food products as gelling and thickening agent with their antioxidant potency as well as medical applications such as pharmaceutical formulations in drug delivery and experimental medicine. However, more comprehensive studies on toxicity and side effect of carrageenans are necessary.