Reka Buana : Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia
Focus and Scope of this journal are : Chemical Engineering including : bioenergy processing, environmental engineering, natural resource management, Heat and Mass Transfer, Chemical Reaction, Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, Designing tools and chemical processes, Chemical industry process, Computing and modeling (simulation) process, Particle and nano technology, membrane technology, esessential oil technology, and phytopharmaca, etc. Civil Engineering including : technology of construction materials, transportation system, environmental layout, concrete and wood structures, steel construction, bridge and dam construction, management of water resources and Hydrology, earthquake engineering, sanitation systems and urban drainage.
Articles
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Articles
Studi Pemanfaatan Air Sumber Jenon untuk Pemenuhan Kebutuhan Air Irigasi dan Domestik di Kecamatan Tajinan Kabupaten Malang

Sulistyani, Kiki Frida, Irianto, Danang Bimo

Reka Buana : Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 3, No 2 (2018): EDISI SEPTEMBER 2018
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Sumber Jenon merupakan salah satu sumber potensial yang ada di Kabupaten Malang, tepatnya di Desa Gunung Ronggo Kecamatan Tajinan. Saat ini Sumber Jenon sudah dimanfaatkan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan air Domestik seluruh penduduk Desa Gunung Ronggo (1136 KK) dan Desa Purwo Sekar sebanyak 2 RT (76 KK), serta untuk kebutuhan air irigasi di Desa Gunung Ronggo Seluas 72 Ha, dengan Pola Tanam Padi-Palawija. Sumber Jenon memiliki tampungan dengan keliling 159,13 m dan luas 649,1 m2. Dari Hasil pengukuran pada outlet kolam tampungan di dapatkan debit rata-rata air Sumber Jenon setelah dikurangi untuk kebutuhan air domestik adalah 139,2 l/dt. Berdasarkan kebutuhan air dari dinas ciptakarya, serta hasil informasi dari pengguna Kebutuhan air domestik untuk masyarakat kecamatan Tajinan adalah 60 l/orang/hari. Kebutuhan air domestik Desa Gunung Ronggo dan Sumber Sekar ( 2 RT)  saat ini adalah   3,44 l/dt, kebutuhan air irigasi 123,84 l/dt dengan daerah layanan seluas 72 Ha,sehingga didapatkan Ketersediaan air total Sumber Jenon saat ini adalah 142,6 l/dt. Hasil Perhitungan proyeksi penduduk tahun 2030 menyatakan , jumlah penduduk Desa Gunung Ronggo adalah 4093 jiwa dan Desa Sumber Sekar (2 RT) adalah 399 Jiwa. Dari hasil perhitungan  kebutuhan air domestik  tahun 2030 adalah 4,1 l/dt. Kebutuhan air untuk irigasi desa Gunung Ronggo adalah 123,84 l/dt dengan asumsi luas areal irigasi tetap bertahan 72 Ha. Dari Perhitungan ketersediaan air dan kebutuhan air di dapatkan neraca air pada tahun 2018 adalah 15,33 l/dt dan pada Tahun 2030 adalah 14,7 l/dt. Hasil Analisa  neraca air sampai dengan Tahun 2030, menyatakan bahwa air dari Sumber Jenon masih bisa dimanfaatkan untuk eksisting serta proyeksinya sampai tahun 2030 dan masih memiliki sisa potensi sebesar 10,45 liter/detik sehingga masih berpeluang di kembangkan untuk Seluruh Desa Gunung Ronggo, Purwo Sekar, Gunung Sari , Tajinan  serta areal irigasi seluas 72 Ha, dengan neraca air surplus sebesar 1,37 l/dt.Kata-kata kunci : ketersediaan air;kebutuhan air; pemanfaatan air ABSTRACTSumber jenon  is one of the potential sources that exist in Malang Regency, precisely in Gunung Ronggo Village, Tajinan District. Currently Jenon has been used to meet domestic water needs for all residents in Gunung Ronggo Village (1136 households) and 2 RT in Purwo Sekar Village (76 households), and for irrigation water needs in Gunung Ronggo Village, 72 hectares wide, with Pattern Padi-Palawija. At present Sumber Jenon has a 159.13 m3 storage area and 649.1 m2 of pool area. From the results of measurements at the storage pond outlet, the average discharge of Sumber jenon after being reduced for domestic water needs is 139.2 l / sec. Based on the water requirements of the Cipta Karya service, as well as the results of information from users, domestic water needs for the community of Tajinan sub-district are 60 l / person / day. Domestic water needs of Gunung Ronggo and Sumber Sekar Villages (2 RT) currently served by Sumber Jenon  are 3.44 l / sec, irrigation water needs 123.84 l / sec with 72 Ha of service area,  so the availability of Sumber Jenon total water source is 142.6 l / sec. Calculation Results of population projections in 2030 states, the population of Gunung Ronggo Village is 4093 people and Sumber Sekar Village (2 RT) is 399 people.   From the results of the calculation, domestic water demand in 2030 is 4.1 l / sec. The water needs for the irrigation of Gunung Ronggo village is 123.84 l / sec with the assumption that the irrigation area will last 72 ha. From the calculation of water availability and water demand, the water balance surplus in 2018 is 15.33 l / sec and in 2030 is 14.7 l / sec. Water balance analysis results up to 2030, stated that the water from Sumber Jenon can still be used for existing and projected until 2030 and still has the remaining potential of 10.45 liters / second so that it is still likely to be developed for the entire Gunung Ronggo Village, Purwo Sekar , Gunung Sari, Tajinan and an area of 72 ha of irrigation, with a surplus water balance of 1.37 l / sec.

Penilaian Resiko Kesehatan Lingkungan-EHRA (Fasilitas dan Perilaku Warga Perumahan Karanglo Indah) Terhadap Sampah Rumah Tangga

Sunik, Sunik, Kristianto, Deddy, Khamelda, Lila

Reka Buana : Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 3, No 2 (2018): EDISI SEPTEMBER 2018
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Perumahan Karanglo Indah, Kelurahan Balearjosari, Kecamatan Blimbing, Malang, Jawa Timur adalah salah satu perumahan menengah dengan beberapa masalah terkait dengan layanan sampah yaitu: 1) frekuensi pengambilan oleh petugas dari rumah ke rumah belum terpenuhi,  2) timbunan sampah yang tidak rutin diambil pada TPS  menimbulkan bau tidak sedap dan mengganggu, terlebih efek samping pada musim penghujan berupa bau, air sampah , lalat dan belatung semakin meningkat, 3) terjadi gunungan sampah karena timbunan sampah tidak diangkut menuju TPA pusat, 4) setiap rumah tangga sering membuang sendiri sampah ke TPS, 5) belum adanya kesadaran pemilahan sampah rumah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendapatkan pemetaan hasil analisis penilaian resiko (EHRA) dalam bentuk persentase terkait fasilitas (layanan pembuangan-pengumpulan sampah) dan perilaku sanitasi (pemilahan sampah) terhadap sampah warga perumahan. Metode penelitian yang dilakukan adalah sosialisasi, survei dan wawancara kepada warga RW IV (RT 01 - RT 07) dan RW X (RT 04 dan RT 06).Terdapat + 26 blok, blok A – blok FF, populasi  sekitar 364 KK dan ditetapkan 96 KK sebagai sampel. Analisis data kuisioner menggunakan program bantu Excel dan SPSS. Analisis awal adalah reliabilitas dan validitas kuisioner. Analisis lanjutan berupa persentase hasil análisis EHRA berdasar rekapitulasi kuisioner. Hasil analisis penilaian resiko (EHRA) terkait fasilitas yaitu cara utama pembuangan sampah adalah 51,04% warga membuang sendiri ke TPS, frukuensi pengangkutan sampah 39,58% dilakukan sekali dalam seminggu, pengangkutan sampah 50% menyatakan bahwa kadang sampah diangkut kadang tidak meski 95,83% warga membayar iuran sampah (1 x dalam sebulan). Untuk perilaku sanitasi tentang sampah berupa pemisahan sampah sebelum dibuang (organik,sampah basah, dapur & logam, gelas, plastik), 64,58% menyatakan memilah sampah sebelum dibuang dengan pertimbangan supaya bersih (72,92%). Kesimpulan penelitian yaitu fasilitas dan perilaku sanitasi warga tentang sampah masih beresiko terhadap kesehatan, warga masih kurang sadar dan peduli tentang sanitasi sampah dan pemilahannya.Kata kunci: fasilitas (layanan pembuangan-pengumpulan sampah); perilaku sanitasi (pemilahan sampah); EHRA  ABSTRACTKaranglo Indah Residential, Balearjosari Village, Blimbing Subdistrict, Malang, East Java is one of the middle residential with several problems related to waste services, namely: 1) the frequency of officers taking home-to-home has not been fulfilled, 2) landfills that irregular taken at laystall causes unpleasant odors and disturbances, especially the side effects in the rainy season in the form of odors, garbage water, flies and maggots are increasing, 3) there is a mountain of garbage because the landfill is not transported to the central landfill, 4) each household often throws garbage into laystall by own, 5) there is no awareness of sorting home waste. The research purpose was to obtain a map as analysis results of the risk assessment (EHRA) in the form of percentages related to facilities (garbage collection-collection services) and sanitation behavior (waste sorting) towards residential waste. The research method that used was socialization, surveys and interviews to residents of RW IV (RT 01 - RT 07) and RW X (RT 04 and RT 06). There were + 26 blocks, block A - block FF, a population of around 364 households and 96 households as a sample. Questionnaire data analysis using Excel and SPSS as assistance programs. The initial analysis is the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Further analysis in the form of percentage of EHRA analysis results based on questionnaire recapitulation. Results of the risk assessment analysis (EHRA) related to facilities as the main method of waste disposal was 51.04% of residents throw the disposal by their own to the laystall station, the frequency of transporting waste was 39.58% done once a week, for garbage transport 50% stated that sometimes garbage was transported, sometimes it was not, even 95.83% of residents pay garbage fees (each month). For sanitation behavior about waste in the form of waste separation before being disposal (organic, wet waste, kitchen & metal, glass, plastic), 64.58% stated that they sorting the waste before being disposed in consideration of being clean (72.92%). The research conclusion for sanitation facilities and behavior of residents about waste were still at risk against to health, people were still less aware and lack of care about waste sanitation and sorting.

Optimalisasi Kinerja Alat Pirolisis pada Pembuatan Biochar dari Limbah Jengkok Tembakau

Banat, Hendra, Abrina Anggraini, Sinar Perbawani, Rahayu, Yeni Ulfi, Iskandar, Taufik

Reka Buana : Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 3, No 2 (2018): EDISI SEPTEMBER 2018
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

The pyrolysis process can convert biomass waste from various agricultural wastes into high value products, easy to operate, friendly of high environmental security standard and environment. This research aims to determine the optimization of pyrolysis machine performance based on temperature and combustion time in producing quality biochar. Variable pyrolisis temperature are (400, 450, 500, 550, 600) 0C with combustion time (30, 35, 40) minutes and type of biomass waste in the form of tobacco waste. Tobacco waste is the remnants of the production process of cigarettes in the form of fine (powder), put in a sack or burlap and stored in certain warehouses to avoid undesirable things to the environment. Pursuant to result of research which have been done, the optimal performance of pyrolysis machine is at 500 °C and 30 minutes with biochar moisture content of 0,06%, biochar percentage 29,79%, loss components of 70,21%, heat loss of 304,50 KJ / Kg and machine performance of 17,06 Kg / m.h. So that can be concluded that a pyrolysis machine can be said to be optimal if the machine produces biochar with low moisture content, high biochar percentage (yield percentage), low loss components, low discharged energy and produce high machine performance with the lowest possible time.

Analisis Perbandingan Karakteristik, Biaya dan Waktu Material Dinding Komposit dan Non Komposit

Khamelda, Lila, Yoedono, Benedictus Sonny, Catharina S.P.S, Anna

Reka Buana : Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 3, No 2 (2018): EDISI SEPTEMBER 2018
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Perkembangan kebutuhan akan hunian telah mendorong inovasi material dinding  yang bersaing dari berbagai segi. Dinding merupakan struktur rumah yang dapat bersifat struktural, non struktural atau sebagai partisi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan pilihan material dinding pada rumah tipe 38 yaitu material non komposit (bata) dan komposit (beton/bata ringan (AAC), batako, M-Panel). Bata, AAC dan batako merupakan material yang telah umum digunakan, sedangkan M-Panel belum terlalu umum digunakan. M-panel merupakan material komposit yang berbentuk panel  atau plat (papan tipis) yang dapat digunakan sebagai dinding, tangga, atap dan lantai. Analisa Harga Satuan Pekerjaan terhadap konstruksi dinding dalam penelitian ini menggunakan AHSP Dirjen PU 2016. Ditemukan bahwa biaya terendah untuk aplikasi material dinding diperoleh dari batu bata dan sebaliknya yang tertinggi diperoleh dari M-Panel. Juga ditemukan bahwa durasi terpendek diperoleh dari M-Panel dan durasi terpanjang diperoleh dari batako. Karakteristik material yang didapatkan dari responden tidak sepenuhnya memenuhi proposisi peneliti, diperkirakan hal tersebut disebabkan karena kurangnya pengetahuan terkait salah satu material yaitu M-Panel. ABSTRACTThe development of residential needs has encouraged the innovation of wall materials that competitive in various aspects. Walls are home structures that can be structural, non-structural or as partitions. This study aims to provide a choice of wall materials in houses type 38, which are covering non-composite (brick) and composite materials (concrete/light brick (AAC), concrete brick (batako), M-Panel). Brick, AAC and concrete brick are commonly used, while M-Panel is not too commonly used. M-panel is a composite material in the form of panels or plates (thin boards) that can be used as walls, stairs, roofs and floors. Work Unit Price Analysis of wall construction in this study uses AHSP Director General of Public Works 2016. It is found that the lowest cost for wall material application is obtained by brick and the contrary the highest is obtained by M-Panel. It is also found that the shortest duration is obtained by M-Panel and the longest is obtained by concrete brick. Material characteristics obtained from respondents did not fully fulfill the researchers propositions, it was estimated that things were caused by a lack of knowledge regarding one of the materials, namely the M-Panel.

Identifikasi Pemetaan Potensi Peternakan di Kabupaten Probolinggo

Primasworo, Rifky Aldila, Widyastuti, Fikka Kartika

Reka Buana : Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 3, No 2 (2018): EDISI SEPTEMBER 2018
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Probolinggo has good breeding potential in terms of natural resources and agro-ecosystems need to aquaculture farms are equipped with facilities and infrastructure, but it supported the availability of land pasture and forage availability of fodder. The development potential of the farm can stimulate the economy of a region-based agribusiness farms that are located in the region could walk properly and systematically. Region farms are breeding business district of existing or new location which has natural resources as needed for aquaculture farms agro-ecosystems incorporating livestock development infrastructure supported adequately by the availability of land or pasture and forage availability of fodder. The livestock sector development concept is intended to stimulate the economy of a region-based agribusiness farms that are located in the region can work well. In this study the early stages of identifying and mapping potential livestock production and provide guidance as well as strategy development potential of livestock in Probolinggo. The results of this study are expected to provide a general description of the location of the future development of the livestock area.

Pemanfaatan Limbah Bambu Menjadi Asap Cair sebagai Pengawet Alami pada Struktur Kayu

ridolf, lady dian, Abrina Anggraini, Sinar Perbawani, Gani, Maria Odelia, Noviadi, Tio

Reka Buana : Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 3, No 2 (2018): EDISI SEPTEMBER 2018
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Kualitas kayu yang semakin menurun mengakibatkan keresahan bagi masyarakat terutama para pengrajin kayu dan industri karet. Hal ini dikarenakan, semakin banyaknya penggunaan bahan pengawet kayu yang membahayakan kesehatan. Salah satu cara yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengawetkan kayu, yaitu melalui pemanfaatan limbah pertanian atau biomassa seperti bambu dengan proses pirolisis. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menentukan kualitas asap cair dengan limbah bambu sebagai pengawet alami kayu. Pada penelitian dilikakukan proses pirolisis dan pemurnian asap cair dari bambu menggunakan reaktor pirolisis pada kondisi operasi optimum dimana panjang pipa penghubung kondensor yang digunakan adalah 43 cm pada suhu 250ºC selama 1,5 jam. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan rendemen asap cair yang diperoleh dari  masing-masing pipa penghubung kondensor 43 cm adalah 19,5 dengan  nilai pH dan fenol 2,43 dan 1,15%.Kata kunci: Asap cair; pengawet alami; rendemen asap cair; pH dan fenol.ABSTRACTThe quality of the wood that declining result in unrest for the public especially the craftsmen of wood and rubber industry. This is because, more use of wood preservatives that endanger health. One of theways that can be done to preserve the wood, namely through the utilization of agricultural waste or biomass such as bamboo by pyrolisis. The purpose of this research was to determine the quality of liquid smoke with bamboo as a preservative atural waste wood. Research on the pyrolysis is done and liquid smoke purification of bamboo pyrolysis reactor using on optimum operating condirions where the length of the connecting pipe condenser used is 43 cm at a temperature of 250 ºC  for 1.5 hours. The results of this study showed yield liquid smoke obtained from each of the connecting pipes of the condenser is 19.5 cm 43 with the pH and the phenol 2,43 and 1,15%.

Review Kuat Tekan Beton Polos dari Perspektif Mekanika Fraktur

Murdiyanto, Danang, Yoedono, Benedictus Sonny, Patty, Agnes Hanna

Reka Buana : Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 3, No 2 (2018): EDISI SEPTEMBER 2018
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Concrete is a discreet material that consist of aggregate as filler and cement paste (matrix) as binder. Both of them work together as a composite or monolithic mechanism, depends on the interface zone characteristic that developed by aggregate. Monolithic mechanism leading to failure catastrophically (brittle and instantly), while composite mechanism prevails failure occurs gradually. Monolithic mechanism maybe found in high strength concrete where hardness and stiffness of aggregate are compatible with their matrix. At the moment when the matrix tensile strength (ft) is reached. The cracks will propagate quickly cutting both aggregates and matrix, as well at once. Contrary to the composite condition, when the matrix tensile strength is reached, the aggregate will take over the load and the crack will propagate through the interface zone. The perspective of fracture mechanics and the failure parameters explain the mechanism of crack propagation based on the energy principles. This investigation reviews the phenomenon of concrete compressive strength with angular aggregates compared to rounded aggregates on cylindrical specimens with diameter (d) 15 cm and height (h) 30 cm of the same compressive strength.  The difference between them, shows the tendency of the influence of the interface zone as traction, which significantly contributes to the performance capacity before  collapse

Review Analisis Teknologi Degradasi Limbah Minyak Bumi untuk Mengurangi Pencemaran Air Laut di Indonesia

Fadhila Prakasita, Iffat Ganjar, Wulansarie, Ria

Reka Buana : Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 3, No 2 (2018): EDISI SEPTEMBER 2018
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Penentuan metode degradasi minyak bumi yang tepat sangat diperlukan untuk mengatasi pencemaran tumpahan minyak bumi khususnya di air laut Indonesia. Metode degradasi limbah minyak bumi yang digunakan adalah metode degradasi secara kimia dan biologi yaitu menggunakan surfaktan nonionik (Tween 80 dan Brij 35) dan bioremediasi menggunakan bakteri Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Variabel yang digunakan pada metode degradasi kimia dengan surfaktan nonionik adalah variasi konsentrasi 0.0000, 0.0025, 0.0050, 0.0075, 0.0100, 0.0125, 0.0150, 0.0175, 0.0200, 0.0225, 0.0250, 0.0275, 0.0300, 0.0350, 0.0400 % (v/v) dan variasi pengadukan untuk menguji stabilitas emulsi minyak bumi dengan laju 100, 120, dan 140 rpm selama 1 jam. Variabel yang digunakan pada metode bioremediasi adalah konsentrasi penambahan mikroba Pseudomonas aeruginosa sebanyak 0%; 1%; 3% (v/v), konsentrasi cemaran minyak bumi 1000 ppm dan 1500 ppm serta media aerasi dan media tanpa aerasi. Hasil degradasi minyak bumi terbaik didapatkan pada metode bioremeidasi menggunakan Pseudomonas aeruginosa dengan konsentrasi bakteri sebanyak 3% (v/v) pada media teraerasi dan konsentrasi cemaran minyak 1000 ppm dengan % biodegradasi TPH yang dicapai sebesar 100% dalam waktu 21 hari.ABSTRACTDetermination of appropriate petroleum degradation method is needed to overcome the contamination of oil spills, especially in Indonesias seawater. The method of degradation of petroleum waste used is chemical and biological degradation method using nonionic surfactant (Tween 80 and Brij 35) and bioremediation using Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. Variable used in chemical degradation method with nonionic surfactant is concentration variation 0.0000; 0.0025; 0.0050; 0.0075; 0.0100; 0.0125; 0.0150; 0.0175; 0.0200; 0.0225; 0.0250; 0.0275; 0.0300; 0.0350, 0.0400% (v / v) and stirring variations to test the stability of petroleum emulsion at rates 100, 120, and 140 rpm for 1 hour. The variable used in the bioremediation method is the concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa addition of 0%; 1%; 3% (v/v), the concentration of petroleum contamination 1000 ppm and 1500 ppm also aeration medium and aeration non medium. The best petroleum degradation results were obtained in bioremediation method using Pseudomonas aeruginosa with bacterial concentration of 3% (v / v) in aerated media and concentration of 1000 ppm oil contamination with TPH biodegradation achieved at 100% within 21 days.

Optimalisasi Proses Karbonisasi Limbah Plastik Menggunakan Teknologi Teknologi Pyrolisis Menjadi Briket Arang (Briquette Charcoal)

Malo, Heny Adisansury, Iskandar, Taufik, Wandal, Susanti Konga, Diah, Dina Trisak

Reka Buana : Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 3, No 2 (2018): EDISI SEPTEMBER 2018
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Limbah plastik adalah salah satu sumber pencemaran lingkungan hidup yang meningkat setiap tahunnya seiring dengan pertumbuhan penduduk namun belum dapat memberikan nilai ekonomis bagi masyarakat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengubah limbah plastik menjadi briket arang (Briquette charcoal) sebagai bahan bakar alternatif dengan cara dikarbonisasi/diarangkan menggunakan reaktor fast pirolisis pada suhu 400ᵒC ; 500ᵒC ; 600ᵒC selama 30 menit ; 45 menit ; 60 menit hingga menghasilkan arang. Arang plastik yang telah terbentuk dicampur dengan perekat amylum dengan konsentrasi 5% ; 8% ; 11% serta dicetak dengan alat hydrolic press. Hasil analisa yang  diperoleh, nilai kadar abu (1,26%), kadar air (0,0098%), volatile matter (1,37%),  fixed carbon (97,43%) dan nilai kalor (7.399 kkal/kg). Berdasarkan hasil analisa statistik, maka kondisi operasi optimal pembuatan briket arang plastik (Plastic briquette charcoal) yaitu pada suhu 600ᵒC selama 60 menit dengan konsentrasi perekat 5%.Kata kunci: Limbah plastik, briket arang plastik, bahan bakar alternatif, fast pirolisisABSTRACTPlastic waste is one of the sources of environmental pollution that increases every year along with population growth but has not been able to provide economic value to the community. The purpose of this study was to convert plastic waste into charcoal briquette (Briquette charcoal) as an alternative fuel by carbonized/fabricated using a fast pyrolysis reactor at a temperature of 400ᵒC ; 500ᵒC ; 600ᵒC for 30 minutes ; 45 minutes ; 60 minutes to produce charcoal. The formed plastic charcoal is mixed with amylum adhesive with a concentration of 5% ; 8% ; 11% and printed with a hydrolic press. The results of the analysis were obtained, the value of ash content (1.26%), moisture content (0.0098%), volatile matter (1.37%), fixed carbon (97.43%) and heating value (7,399 kcal/kg). Based on the results of statistical analysis, the optimal operating conditions for making plastic briquettes charcoal are at 600 on for 60 minutes with an adhesive concentration of 5%.

Perencanaan Groundsill di Hilir Bendung Waikomo Kabupaten Lembata - NTT

ST., MT., Suhudi, Dai Tukan, Damianus

Reka Buana : Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 3, No 2 (2018): EDISI SEPTEMBER 2018
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Waikomo weir located in Lembata Regency - East Nusa Tenggara is the only building on the river were built in 1972 and used to raise the water level Waikomo River to flow into the rice field of 1200 Ha. The length of Weir 40 m and height 1.50 m, was made of concrete. The condition of Waikomo weir todays has occurred crush depth 1.0 m downstream of the dam to 75.00 m further downstream and ruined retaining wall along the side of 7.00 m. The purpose of this research was to determine the cause of crush and how dimensions of groundsill building used to overcame the crushing and how stability groundsill planned to roll, shear and bearing capacity. Phase of this research includes observations, measurements in the field and collected secondary data from government instances. After used analysis cause of scour in the downstream weir, rainfall analysis, then continued with the Log Pearson Type III method. Once known discharge plans period return 50 years of 39.999 m3/sec, so did the design of groundsill measure and calculate the stability. The results showed that the cause of crush in the downstream weir is due to the mining Waikomo excavated material C by the local community. Groundsill planned height of 1.00 m, length 30.00 m, width 4.61 m, used energy absorbers pool type III and was located 75.00 m from Waikomo weir. From the calculations were known that groundsill plan safe to roll, moved and soil bearing capacity with a safety factor (SF) > 1,5.