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JURNAL SELULOSA
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Jurnal Selulosa (JSel) is a journal that provides scientific information resources aimed at researchers and engineers in academia, research institutions, government agencies, and industries. Jurnal Selulosa publishes original research papers, review articles and case studies focused on cellulose, cellulose derivatives, pulp technology, paper technology, environment, biorefinery and other related topics. Formerly known as Berita Selulosa, and the first publication was in 1965. Since 2011, the journal renamed to Jurnal Selulosa.
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Articles
Preface

Risdianto, Hendro

JURNAL SELULOSA Vol 7, No 02 (2017): JURNAL SELULOSA
Publisher : Center for Pulp and Paper

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Abstract

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Front Cover

Risdianto, Hendro

JURNAL SELULOSA Vol 7, No 02 (2017): JURNAL SELULOSA
Publisher : Center for Pulp and Paper

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Abstract

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HUBUNGAN SPECIFIC GRAVITY KAYUDAUN TERHADAP SERAT DAN KUALITAS PULP (THE RELATIONSHIP OF HARDWOOD SPECIFIC GRAVITY TO FIBER AND PULP QUALITY)

Haroen, Wawan Kartiwa

JURNAL SELULOSA Vol 7, No 02 (2017): JURNAL SELULOSA
Publisher : Center for Pulp and Paper

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Abstract

The demand for hardwood pulp increased due to the limited hardwood in several countries and its advantage as raw material for paper or paper boards. The hardwood has a specific grafity ranging from low to high that causes the quality of pulp produced not uniform. The observation of specific gravity, fiber morphology, and chemical content of hardwood; and the quality of hardwood pulp have been done. FAO data were used to evaluate the fiber length, fiber wall, lignin, extractives, Kappa Number, and the quality of sulphate pulp. The sulfidity, active alkali, solid to liquor ratio, temperature, and cooking time of pulping process were 25%, 17%, 1 :4, 170°C, and 3.5 hours, respectively. The specific gravity of hardwood in the range of 0.30 to 0.99 was grouped into seven classes and analyzed by statistical regression. The specific gravity of the hardwood was associated withfiber morphology, chemical content, pulping, and pulp quality. The results showed that tha specific gravity of wood affects certain parameters with regression equation model that can be used for the selection ofwood raw materials for sulphate pulping. There is a tendency that the specific gravity can influence the hardwood fiber wall thickness, lignin content, pulp yield, Kappa Number, and the physical properties of pulp for tear and tensile srength. ABSTRAKPermintaan terhadap pulp kayudaun terjadi peningkatan akibat terbatasnya kayudaun di beberapa negara dan keunggulannya sebagai bahan baku kertas atau karton. Kayudaun memiliki specific gravity rendah sampai tinggi, menyebabkan kualitas pulp yang dihasilkan tidak seragam. Pengamatan specific gravity, morfologi serat,dan kandungan kimia kayudaun, serta kualitas pulp telah dilakukan. Evaluasi dilakukan menggunakan data FAO terhadap panjang serat, dinding serat, kadar lignin, ekstraktif, bilangan Kappa, dan kualitas pulp sulfat.Kondisi pemasakan sulfiditas 25%, alkali aktif 17% , ratio 1:4, suhu 170 o C, dan waktu 3,5 jam. Specific gravity kayudaun 0,30-0,99 dikelompokkan kedalam tujuh kelas dan dianalisis dengan statistik regresi. Specific gravity kayu sebagai data tetap dihubungkan dengan morfologi serat, kimia kayu, pulping, dan kualitas pulp. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa specific gravity mempengaruhi parameter tertentu dengan model persamaan regresi yang dapat digunakan untuk seleksi bahan baku hardwood untuk pembuatan pulp sulfat. Terdapat kecenderungan bahwa specific gravity kayudaun dapat mempengaruhi ketebalan dinding serat, kadar lignin, rendemen pulp, bilangan Kappa, sifat fisik pulp untuk sobek, dan tarik.

POTENSI KERTAS SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PAPER ROPES (POTENTIAL OF PAPER AS THE RAW MATERIAL FOR PAPER ROPES)

Romas, Mungki Septian, Pramuaji, Ikhwan, Indriati, Lies, Wirawan, Sonny Kurnia

JURNAL SELULOSA Vol 7, No 02 (2017): JURNAL SELULOSA
Publisher : Center for Pulp and Paper

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Abstract

One of the raw materials furniture common in Indonesia is rattan. Because of the availability of local rattan is very limited so that it is necessary to find alternative raw materials that can be used to substitute the rattan. Paper ropes made from spinning paper, is one of alternative that can be utilized. Paper ropes making from various spinning papers have been studied. Some types of paper were used in this experiment. The spinning papers were characterized and treated to modify its surface properties especially to increase their water resistance. Paper ropes making were done by using the twisting machine and then the physical properties of paper ropes resulted were tested. The results showed that paper surface treatment increased tensile strength, and reduced water absorption and porosity of treated papers. The use of water barrier chemicals and adhesive are effective in increasing water resistance of paper surface. Decreased water absorption and porosity are  20% - 43% and 30% - 98%, respectively. Based on this result, paper ropes is potential to become an alternative raw material for furniture.  ABSTRAKSalah satu bahan baku furnitur umum di Indonesia adalah rotan. Karena ketersediaan rotan lokal sangat terbatas sehingga diperlukan untuk mencari bahan baku alternatif yang dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan rotan. Paper ropes yang terbuat dari spinning paper, merupakan salah satu alternatif yang dapat dimanfaatkan. Pembuatan paper ropes dari berbagai jenis spinning paper telah dipelajari pada penelitian ini. Beberapa jenis kertas digunakan dalam percobaan ini. Spinning paper dikarakterisasi dan diperlakukan khusus untuk memodifikasi sifat permukaannya terutama untuk meningkatkan ketahanan airnya. Pembuatan paper ropes dilakukan dengan menggunakan mesin pemilin dan pengujian sifat fisik paper ropes telah dilakukan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan khusus permukaan kertas meningkatkan kekuatan tarik, dan mengurangi penyerapan air dan porositas. Penggunaan bahan kimia water barrier dan adhesif cukup efektif dalam meningkatkan ketahanan air permukaan kertas.  Penurunan penyerapan air dan porositas masing-masing sebesar 20% - 43% dan 30% - 98%. Berdasarkan hasil ini, paper ropes memiliki potensi sebagai bahan bahan baku alternatif untuk furnitur.

SAKARIFIKASI LUMPUR PRIMER INDUSTRI KERTAS SECARA FED BATCH MENJADI GLUKOSA UNTUK PEMBUATAN BIOETANOL (FED BATCH SACCHARIFICATION OF PRIMARY PAPER MILL SLUDGE TO PRODUCE FERMENTABLE SUGAR)

Aini, Mukharomah Nur, S. Soetopo, Rina, Septiningrum, Krisna, Saepulloh, Saepulloh, Asthary, Prima Besty

JURNAL SELULOSA Vol 7, No 02 (2017): JURNAL SELULOSA
Publisher : Center for Pulp and Paper

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Abstract

Research of fed batch saccharification using paper mill primary sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) has been conducted. The research was conducted in several stages i.e. sludge characterization, determining optimum dosage of cellulase and glucosidase through batch saccharification, and continued with fed batch saccharification. The characterization was performed on 3 primary sludge type from 3 paper mill, which are print paper mill with virgin pulp raw material, paper tissue mill with virgin pulp raw material and core board mill with waste paper raw material. The characterization results showed that the sludge derived from the tissue paper mill with virgin pulp raw material has the highest content of cellulose which is 47.06%, this sludge was used as further research material. The initial trial of batch saccharification at 6% w/w and temperature of 60oC gave optimum dosage of cellulase 9 FPU/g cellulose and β-glucosidase 80 IU/g cellulose with reducing sugar 20.01 g/L and a saccharification efficiency of 63.84%. Fed batch saccharification was performed on tissue paper mill sludge at cellulase and glucosidase enzyme doses respectively 9 FPU/g cellulose and 80 IU/g, temperature 60°C and initial pH of 4 with two variables, which are cumulative solid content (10%, 14%, and 18% w/v) and feed enzyme system (at the beginning and in step). The best results were obtained at fed batch sakarifikasi with gradual enzyme feeding at 14% solids content resulting in reducing sugar 43.899 g/L and efficiency 60.03%. 

BIODEINKING SORTED WHITE LEDGER (SWL) MENGGUNAKAN SELULASE (BIODEINKING SORTED WHITE LEDGER (SWL) BY CELLULASE)

Purwita, Chandra Apriana, Wirawan, Sonny Kurnia

JURNAL SELULOSA Vol 7, No 02 (2017): JURNAL SELULOSA
Publisher : Center for Pulp and Paper

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Abstract

Biodeinking is a process of separating ink on the fiber surface by enzymes. This research was conducted to study and optimize biodeinking condition of sorted white ledger (SWL) by cellulase. Commercial cellulase (Sigma Aldrich, Singapore) at a dose of 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1; 2 U/g dry weight pulp was applied to the deinking of SWL and compared with blank. The deinked pulp was then analyzed for the fiber morphology and made laboratory hand sheets for the characterization of physical and optical properties. Based on the experiment, at the optimum dose of cellulase 0.75 IU/g dry weight pulp was obtained a maximum increasement of ISO brightness by 4.7 points and a decreasement of ERIC by 34.45%. The use of celulase on the biodeinking was not affecting the fibers length and diameter so the tensile and tear index of deinked pulp unchanged. Loss of fines by enzymatic degradation causes the tear index decreased by 8.70 % and porosity increased. The increasement of coarseness resulted in the decreasement of pulp opacity.ABSTRAKBiodeinking merupakan proses pemisahan tinta pada permukaan serat menggunakan enzim. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mempelajari dan memperoleh kondisi optimum biodeinking sorted white ledger (SWL) menggunakan selulase. Selulase komersial (Sigma Aldrich, Singapura) dengan dosis 0,25; 0,5; 0,75; 1; 2 U/g kering pulp diaplikasikan pada deinking SWL dan dibandingkan terhadap blanko. Pulp deinked yang diperoleh kemudian dilakukan analisis morfologi serat dan dibuat lembaran tangan laboratorium untuk karakterisasi sifat fisik dan optik. Berdasarkan percobaan, pada dosis optimum selulase 0,75 IU/g kering pulp diperoleh kenaikan derajat cerah ISO maksimum sebesar 4,7 poin dan penurunan ERIC 34,45%. Analisis morfologi serat menunjukkan penggunaan selulase pada proses biodeinking tidak berpengaruh terhadap panjang dan diameter serat sehingga indeks tarik dan retak pulp deinked tidak berubah. Kehilangan fines karena degradasi enzimatik menyebabkan indeks sobek turun sebesar 8,70% dan porositas naik. Naiknya nilai coarseness menyebabkan meningkatnya opasitas pulp deinked.

PENGARUH KONDISI KULTUR PADA AKTIVITAS SELULASE ISOLAT Pycnoporus sp. DAN Phlebiopsis sp. (EFFECTS OF CULTURE CONDITIONS ON CELLULASE ACTIVITIES PRODUCED BY Pycnoporus sp. AND Phlebiopsis sp.)

Agustini, Luciasih, Irianto, Ragil S.B, Turjaman, Maman, Faulina, Sarah Asih, Ariantari, Resti, Stephandra, Sira, Yuniar, Herni, Aryanto, Aryanto, Najmulah, Najmulah, Yani, Ahmad

JURNAL SELULOSA Vol 7, No 02 (2017): JURNAL SELULOSA
Publisher : Center for Pulp and Paper

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Abstract

The effects of media, pH and temperature on cellulase-complex enzyme produced by Pycnoporus sp. FORDACC-03452 and Phlebiopsis sp. FORDACC-02482 cultivated in rice bran and corn cobs media under solid state fermentation with pH 4–7 and temperature 30°C–45°C were investigated. Rice bran media showed a propensity to induce endo-β,1,4-glucanase and cellobiohydrolase productions, while corn cobs media induce β-glucosidase production. However, the mixture of rice bran and corn cobs did not result in better cellulase complex enzyme activities. Cellulase-complex produced by Pycnoporussp. showed superior activities compared to those produced by Phlebiopsissp. Crude enzyme of Pycnoporus sp. showed optimum specifc-activities of endo-β-1,4-glucanase at pH 6, temperature 35°C (0.403 ± 0.010 IU/mg), cellobiohydrolase at pH 6, temperature 40°C (0.540 ± 0.020 IU/mg) and β-glucosidase at pH 4, temperature 30 °C (0.022 ± 0.001 IU/mg). While Phlebiopsis sp. showed optimum specifc-activities of endo-β-1,4-glucanase at pH 6, temperature 35°C (0.202 ± 0.005 IU/mg), cellobiohydrolase at pH 4, temperature 45°C (0.180 ± 0.002 IU/mg) and β-glucosidase at pH 6, temperature 45°C (0.007 ± 0.001 IU/mg). Due to low β-glucosidase activities, the cellulase-complex generated from this study were not able to completely hydrolyse lignocellulosic waste and yielded unsufficient sugars content. Further investigation to optimize cellulase-complex production from these fungal isolates is still required.ABSTRAKPenelitian pengaruh media kultivasi, pH dan suhu inkubasi terhadap produksi enzim selulase-kompleks dari Pycnoporus sp. FORDACC-03452 dan Phlebiopsis sp. FORDACC-02482 yang ditumbuhkan di media dedak padi dan tongkol jagung dengan metode kultur padat pada variasi pH 4–7 dan suhu 30°C–45°C, telah dilakukan. Hasil memperlihatkan bahwa media dedak padi cenderung menginduksi produksi endo-β-1,4-glukanase dan selobiohidrolase, sedangkan media tongkol jagung menginduksi produksi β-glukosidase. Namun, campuran kedua substrat tersebut tidak menghasilkan aktivitas selulase yang lebih baik. Selulase-kompleks yang dihasilkan Pycnoporus sp. menunjukkan aktivitas lebih baik dibandingkan dengan yang diproduksi Phlebiopsis sp. Filtrat kasar Pycnoporus sp. menunjukkan aktivitas-spesifk endo-β-1,4-glukanase optimum pada pH 6, suhu 35°C (0,403 ± 0,010 IU/mg); selobiohidrolase pada pH 6, suhu 40°C (0,540 ± 0,020 IU/mg); dan β -glukosidase pada pH 4, suhu 30°C (0,022±0,001 IU/mg). Sementara, Phlebiopsis sp. menunjukkan aktivitas-spesifk endo-β-1,4-glukanase optimum pada pH 6, suhu 35°C (0,202 ± 0,005 IU/mg); selobiohidrolase pada pH 4, suhu 45°C (0,180 ± 0,002 IU/mg); dan β-glukosidase pada pH 6, suhu 45°C (0,007 ± 0,001 IU/mg). Rendahnya aktivitas β-glukosidase menyebabkan selulase-kompleks dari penelitian ini belum dapat menghidrolisis limbah lignoselulosa dengan sempurna dan kadar glukosa yang diperoleh masih rendah. Oleh karena itu, optimasi produksi selulasekompleks dari Pycnoporus sp. dan Phlebiopsis sp. masih perlu diteliti lebih lanjut.

PENJELIDIKAN MENGENAI TJARA PENJIMPANAN KAJU KARET (Hevea brasiliensis MA)

Selulosa, Balai Rayon dan

JURNAL SELULOSA Vol 1, No 1 (1965): BERITA SELULOSA
Publisher : Center for Pulp and Paper

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Abstract

The effect of storage of Hevea brasiliensis MA upon the chemical composition of the wood and the pulp was studied. In this experimenc, the cooking and bleaching conditions were kept constant, but the method of srorage was varied.The growth of blue staining fungi dur"ing srorage was also studied.Logs stored under roof cr in the open air were severely attacked by staining fungi, especially when barked. Storage of the logs under warer or under continuous water spraying markedly inhibited the growth of this fungi.Six month storage showed no clear trend of change in the chemical composition of the wood or the yield of cooking, but the chipping rendement decreased with storage time. The pentosan content and the permanganate number of the unbleached pulp decreased also withstorage time. Especially when stored under water, the permanganate numbers were low.The severe attack of blue stain, resulted in pulp with small black spots and this caused difficulties in the bleaching process.Preliminary investigation upon the suitability of Hevea pulp for rayon making was promising.

PENGARUH PENJADAPAN TERHADAP KADAR SARI KAJU TUSAM (Pinus merkusii Jungh. et de Vriese)

Kaseno, Soeprapti S.I, Margono, Sri

JURNAL SELULOSA Vol 1, No 2 (1965): BERITA SELULOSA
Publisher : Center for Pulp and Paper

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Abstract

The effect of tapping Pinus merkusii upon its extractive matters was studied.The extracttve matters were separated from the wood samples using a one to twomixture of alcohol and benzene in a Soxhlet apparatus.Three Pinus merkusii trees were studied, the first tree had been tapped for 3 months and was still being tapped when felled. The second tree had been tapped for 6 months and had afterwaids been left for 1/2 year before felling. The third tree has not been tapped.The effect of tapping was studied up to a height of 10 meters.The study reveals the following: wounding the tree stimulate the resin - yielding cell of the wood. Thus the formation of the extraneous materials in the tree increase.Samples taken from the tree which had been tapped and then left for 1/2 year before feling, showed a high extractive content, especially at regions near the face of the wound. It can be seen even with the naked eye, that this parts was heavily impregnated with resineous matters. The effect of the tapping upon the upper parts the tree above the wound was negligible.Samples taken from the tree which was still being tapped, showed a lower than average extractive content, for most of the resin was secreted as oleoresin.The presence of branching and knots within the trunk of the tree, showed a high extractive content in that part of the tree and a darker coloration of the wood.The infuence of tapping operation on other wood components was negligible.

Sari Pustaka

Risdianto, Hendro

JURNAL SELULOSA Vol 41, No 01 (2006): BERITA SELULOSA
Publisher : Center for Pulp and Paper

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Abstract

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