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Journal of Maternal and Child Health
Journal of Maternal and Child Health (JMCH) is an electronic, open-access, double-blind and peer-reviewed international journal, focusing on maternal and child health. The journal began its publication on July 11, 2015, and is published four times yearly. JMCH aims to improve the policy, program, service, and practice, as they impact infant, children, mother, women, adolescent, and family health.
Articles
105
Articles
Risk Factors for Acute Respiratory Infection in Children Under Five in Padang, Indonesia

Hidayanti, Rahmi, Yetti, Husna, Putra, Andani Eka

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) is a major cause of acute diseases and death in infants worldwide. Percentage of ARI (year 2017) in children aged 12-59 months in Padang was 26.5% and Andalas health center was 33.2%. ARI is influenced by many factors such as environmental condition. This study aimed to analyze risk factors for ARI in children under five in Padang, Indonesia.Subjects and Method: This was a case control study conducted at Andalas community health center, Padang, Indonesia. A sample of 90 children aged 12-59 months was selected for this study. The dependent variable was ARI. The independent variables were humidity, house ventilation, dwelling density, indoor smoke cigarette. Data on ARI status were taken from medical record. The other variables were measured by questionnaire and observation sheet. The data were analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.Results: Poor ventilation (OR = 11.73; 95% CI = 2.16 to 63.86; p = 0.004), high dwelling density (OR = 21.99; 95% CI = 3.75 to 129.04; p = 0.001), indoor cigarette smoke (OR = 5.09; 95 % CI = 1.06 to 24.34; p = 0.042), and high air humidity (OR = 5.00; 95% CI = 0.79 to 31.51; p = 0.086) increased the risk of ARI in children under five and they were statistically significant.Conclusions: Poor ventilation, high dwelling density, indoor cigarette smoke, and high air humidity increase the risk of ARI in children under five.Keywords: Acute respiratory infection, dwelling density, air humidity, children under fiveCorrespondence: Rahmi Hidayanti. Masters Program in Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Andalas Padang. Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Padang, Indonesia. Email: rahmi.hidayanti@yahoo.com. Mobile: +6281363467226Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(2): 62-69https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.02.01

Participation in Pregnant Mother Class and Implementation of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Betungan Community Health Center, Bengkulu

Ismiati, Ismiati, Lubis, Yuliana, Susmini, Susmini

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Exclusive breastfeeding can be seen from the role of the world in which in 2006, WHO (World Health Organization) issued a Child Growth Standard which is then applied throughout the world. The content is to emphasize the importance of breastfeeding only to infants from birth to 6 months of age. After that, the baby begins to be given complementary foods beside ASI. Data from the Health Profile of Bengkulu Province in 2014 showed that only 20.67% of infants aged 0-6 months get exclusive breastfeeding from the total number of infants aged 0-6 months ie 12.508 (Health Office, 2014). The purpose of this study is to obtain in-depth information about the implementation of prenatal class on exclusive breastfeeding at community health center.Subjects and Method: The qualitative research design used was Rapid Assessment Procedures, which is a qualitative approach or study. The population of mothers who have 0-6 months old baby sample was 16 people while the others were 4 heads of community health center, midwife, and cadre. Then the information received was processed and analyzed its theme (data reduction, data presentation, conclusion / verification) and then was tested for its validity with triangulation.Results: The lack of role of pregnant mother class in increasing exclusive breast feeding is caused by various factors. The practice of exclusive breastfeeding successfully performed by larger informants is due to the policies of maternity providers and post-maternal conditions for both mother and infant. For the maternal and child health program program, it is expected to be able to conduct periodic evaluation of the prenatal class.Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, intention and classes of pregnant womenCorespondence: Ismiati. School of Health Polytechnics Bengkulu, North Sumatera, Jl. Indragiri No. 3 Padang Harapan Bengkulu. Email: ismiatidzaky@gmail.com. Mobile: 085290534545Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(1): 36-39https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.01.05

The Contextual Effect of Social Norm on Early Marriage Among Young Women in Lampung: A Multilevel Analysis Evidence

Agtikasari, Nurhayati, Soemanto, RB., Murti, Bhisma

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Early marriage is driven by poverty and has many effects on girls health: increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases, cervical cancer, malaria, death during childbirth, and obstetric fistulas. Girls offspring are at increased risk for premature birth and death as neonates, infants, or children. This study aimed to investigate the contextual effect of social norm on early marriage among young women in Lampung, using multilevel analysis.Subjects and Method: This was a case control study conducted in Metro, East Lampung, Indonesia, from May to June 2018. A sample of 200 women was selected by random sampling, comprising 50 women who got married at under 21 years of age and 150 women who got married at ≥21 years of age. The dependent variable was early marriage. The dependent variables were self efficacy, family income, family support, informational access at level 1 in multilevel analysis. Social norm were placed at level 2 in multilevel analysis. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by multilevel analysis.Results: Marital age was postpone by self-efficacy (b= -1.93; 95% CI= -2.81 to -1.05 ; p<0.001), high family income (b= -1.20; 95% CI= -2.07 to -0.33; p=0.007), strong family support (b= -1.27; 95% CI= -2.35 to -0.19; p= 0.021), and access to positive information (b= -1.06; 95% CI= -2.08 to -0.04; p=0.042). Social norm had a contextual effect on marital age postponement with ICC= 14.56%.Conclusion:Marital age is reduced by strong self-efficacy, high family income, strong family support, and access to positive information. Social norm has a contextual effect on marital age postponement.Keywords: marital age postponement, self-efficacy, family income, family support, access to positive information, social normCorrespondence: Nurhayati Agtikasari. Masters Program in Public Heath, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: agtikasari2@gmail.com. Mobile: +6282185965148.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(1): 1-8https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.01.01

Factors Associated with Development in Children Under Five

Amir, Nikmah Ayu Ramadhani, Budihastuti, Uki Retno, Murti, Bhisma

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: The first five years of a child’s life are critical for development. The experiences children have in these years help shape the adults they will become. Parent relationship with their children plays a big part in the way children learn and develop. This study aimed to examine factors associated with development in children under five years of age.Subjects and Method: This was a cross sectional study conducted at 20 posyandus (integrated health posts), Ngemplak, Boyolali, Central Java, from May 5 to June 10, 2018. A total sample of 203 children under five years of age was selected by simple random sampling. The dependent variable was child development. The independent variables were maternal age at pregnancy, prolonged labor, birthweight, birth asphyxia, and family income. Data on child development were measured by pre-screening questionnaire. The other variables were measured by questionnaire. The data were analyzed by a multilevel logistic regressionrun on Stata 13.Results: Child development was positively affected by maternal age at pregnancy (b= 0.33; 95% CI= 0.03 to 0.64; p= 0.032) and absence of birth asphyxia (b= 0.60; 95% CI= 0.16 to 1.05; p= 0.007), birthweight (b= 0.01; 95% CI= -0.01 to 0.01; p= 0.111), and family income (b= 0.27; 95% CI= -0.04 to 0.58; p= 0.087). Children development was negatively affected by prolonged labor (b= -0.30; 95% CI= -0.57 to -0.03; p= 0.029). Posyandu had a strong contextual effect on child development with ICC= 16.16%.Conclusion: Child development is positively affected by maternal age at pregnancy and absence of birth asphyxia, birthweight, and family income. Children development is negatively affected by prolonged labor. Posyandu has a strong contextual effect on child development.Keywords: child development, maternal age at pregnant, prolonged labor, birth asphyxia, birthweight, family incomeCorrespondence: Nikmah Ayu Ramadhani Amir. Masters Program of Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: ad1892nr@gmail.com. Mobile: +6282323957575Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(1): 40-48https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.01.06

Multilevel Analysis: The Effect of Socioeconomic, Birth Weight, and Nutrition Intake with Wasting in Boyolali, Central Java

Roobiati, Nur Fika, Poncorini, Eti, Murti, Bhisma

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Wasting is a major health problem. Globally, wasting accounts for 4.7% of all deaths of children aged under 5 years. Severely wasted children are, on average, 11 times more likely to die than their healthy counterparts. This study aimed to investigate the effect of socioeconomic, birth weight, and nutrition intake with wasting in Boyolali, Central Java, using multilevel analysis.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a case control design. The study was conducted in Boyolali, Central Java, from April to May 2018. Twenty five posyandus (integrated health posts) were selected and positioned at level 2 in the multilevel model (MLM) analysis. A sample of 200 children under five was selected for this study by fixed disease sampling and positioned at level 1 in the MLM. The dependent variable was wasting. The independent variables were birth weight, nutrition intake, maternal education, family income, and family size. Data on wasting was measured by microtoise and weight scale. Nutrition intake was measured by food recall. The other variables were collected by questionnaire. Data were analyzed by a MLM analysis.Results: The risk of wasting decreased with high family income (b= -1.92; 95% CI= -3.77 to -0.08; p= 0.041), high maternal education (b= -2.68; 95% CI= -4.97 to -0.38; p= 0.022), small family size (b= -2.01; 95% CI= -3.67 to -0.35; p= 0.018), normal birth weight (b= -2.55; 95% CI= -4.89 to -0.21; p= 0.033), good nutritional intake (b= -2.18; 95% CI= -3.95 to -0.41; p= 0.016). Posyandu had a contextual effect on wasting with ICC= 21.45%.Conclusion: The risk of wasting decreases with high family income, high maternal education, small family size, normal birth weight, good nutritional intake. Posyandu has a contextual effect on wasting.Keywords: wasting, socioeconomic, birth weight, nutrition intake, children under fiveCorrespondence: Nur Fika Roobiati. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: nur_fika@ymail.com. Mobile: +6285799504324.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(1): 9-16https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.01.02

Low Birth, Prematurity, and Pre-Eclampsia as Risk Factors of Neonatal Asphyxia

Kusumaningrum, Remita Yuli, Murti, Bhisma, Prasetya, Hanung

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Asphyxia neonatorum is the condition of an infant who does not breathe spontaneously and regularly immediately after birth. This condition is accompanied by hypoxia, hypercapnia, and ends with acidosis. Long-standing asphyxia can cause brain damage and death. This study aimed to investigate risk factors of asphyxia in Nganjuk Hospital, East Java.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a case control design. The study was conducted in Nganjuk Hospital, East Java, in July 2018. A total sample of 150 neonates was selected by fixed disease sampling, consisting of 50 neonates with asphyxia and 1oo neonates without asphyxia. The dependent variable was asphyxia. The independent variables were low birth weight, preterm birth, and pre eclampsia. The data were obtained from medical record and analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.Results: The risk of asphyxia increased with low birth weight (OR= 2.58; 95% CI = 3.80 to 46.15; p<0.001), premature birth (OR= 1.27; 95% CI= 1.23 to 10.25; p= 0.019), and pre-eclampsia (OR= 3.74; 95% CI= 12.54 to 141.05; p <0.001).Conclusions: The risk of asphyxia increases with low birth weight, premature birth, and pre-eclampsia.Keywords: asphyxia, neonates, low birth weight, premature, preeclampsiaCorrespondence: Remita Yuli Kusumaningrum. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java.  Email: renita.yuli@gmail.com. Mobile: +6281231871222.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(1): 49-54https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.01.07

A Path Analysis on the Factors Associated with Birth Preparedness: Evidence from Wonogiri, Central Java

Ummah, Hafari Fajria Nuril, Pamungkasari, Eti Poncorini, Adriani, Rita Benya

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness is a strategy that encourages pregnant women, their families, and communities to effectively plan for births and deal with emergencies, if they occur. It is a key component of globally accepted safe motherhood programs. This study aimed to determine factors associated with birth preparedness in Wonogiri, Central Java.Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Wonogiri, Central Java, from April to May 2018. A sample of 200 pregnant women was selected by cluster sampling. The dependent variable was birth preparedness. The independent variables were gestational age, parity, maternal education, maternal knowledge on birth sign, husband support, and health personnel role. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis, run on Stata 13.Results: Birth preparedness was positively affected by good maternal knowledge on birth sign (b=2.97; 95% CI=0.10 to 5.84; p=0.043), husband support (b=5.06; 95% CI=2.62 to 7.51; p<0.001), and health personnel role (b=5.53; 95% CI=2.95 to 8.11; p<0.001). Birth preparedness was indirectly affected by gestational age, maternal education, and parity.Conclusion: Birth preparedness is positively affected by good maternal knowledge on birth sign, husband support, and health personnel role. Birth preparedness is indirectly affected by gestational age, maternal education, and parity.Keywords: birth preparedness, gestational age, education, knowledge, husband support, health personnel roleCorrespondence: Hafari Fajria Nuril Ummah. Masters Program on Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: mbakfari93@gmail.com. Mobile:+6285712211401. Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(1): 17-24https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.01.03

Factors Affecting Maternal Birth Preparedness: Evidence from Salatiga, Cental Java

Yuliana, Ana, Murti, Bhisma, Prasetya, Hanung

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Maternal unpreparedness in facing childbirth is one of the factors causing the high maternal mortality rate (AKI). To support efforts to accelerate the reduction of MMR, preparation of childbirth is an important matter that must be improved. Pregnant women class is an activity to prepare the mother physically and psychologically in facing the delivery. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence preparation for childbirth in pregnant women, including: the role of midwives, motivation of pregnant women and utilization of pregnant classes.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a cross sectional design. The study was conducted in 6 community health centers in Salatiga, from June to July 2018. A sample of 120 mothers was selected by total sampling. The dependent variable was birth preparation. The independent variables were motivation, midwife role, and utilization of pregnant class. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multiple linear regression.Results: Birth preparedness was increased with strong midwife role (b= 2.82; 95% CI= -0.45 to 5.68; p= o.054), strong motivation (b= 4.12; 95% CI= 0.97 to 7.27; p= 0.011), and utilization of pregnant class (b= 3.90; 95% CI= 0.66 to 7.13; p= 0.019).Conclusions: Birth preparedness is increased with strong midwife role, strong motivation, and utilization of pregnant class.Keywords: birth preparedness, motivation, midwife role, pregnancy class, pregnant womenCorrespondence: Ana Yuliana. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: aishabilqisnugroho@gmail.com. Mobile: +62139321543.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(1): 55-61https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.01.08

Path Analysis on the Life-Course Biopsychosocial Determinants of Stunting in Children Under Five Years of Age in Karawang, West Java

Fauziyyah, Rona Luthfi, Dewi, Yulia Lanti Retno, Wekadigunawan, CSP, Adriani, Rita Benya

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Studies have shown that stunted children are more likely to start school later, perform more poorly on cognitive functioning tests, and are more likely to drop out of school. In future, adults who are stunted as children earn 20% less than comparable adults who were not stunted and are 30% more likely to live in poverty and less likely to work in skilled labor. This study aimed to examine the life-course biopsychosocial determinantsof stunting in children under five years of agein Karawang, West Java, using a path analysis model.Subjects and Method: This was a case control study carried out inTunggakjati, Rengasdengklok, Kutawaluya, Pedes, and Medangasem community health centers, Karawang, West Java, from April to May 2018. A sample of 225 children under five was selected for this study by fixed disease sampling, consisting of 75 stunted children and 150 normal children. The dependent variable was stunting. The independent variables were maternal height, maternal middle upper arm circumference (MUAC), low birthweight (LBW), history of infection illness, maternal education, exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and family support. Child height was measured by infantometer or microtoice. The other variables were measured by questionnaire. The data were analyzed by path analysis run on Stata 13.Results: Stunting increased with LBW (b=1.64; 95% CI=0.69 to 2.59; p=0.001) and history of infection illness (b=1.80; 95% CI=0.94 to 2.67; p<0.001). Stunting decreased with maternal height ≥150 cm (b=-1.57; 95% CI=-2.43 to -0.71; p<0.001) and appropriate complementary feeding (b=-1.80; 95% CI=-2.53 to -1.08; p<0.001). Stunting was indirectly affected by maternal MUAC, maternal education, exclusive breastfeeding, and family support.Conclusion: Stunting increases with LBW and history of infection illness, but decreases with maternal height ≥150 cm and appropriate complementary feeding. Stunting is indirectly affected by maternal MUAC, maternal education, exclusive breastfeeding, and family support.Keywords: stunting, life-course, biopsychosocial, children under fiveCorrespondence: Rona Luthfi Fauziyyah. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: rona.luthfi@gmail.com. Mobile: +6281316970696.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(1): 25-35https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.01.04 

Path Analysis on the Biopsychosocial Determinants of Quality of Life among Children with Cerebral Palsy

Ramadhani, Alinda Nur, Adriani, Rita Benya, Salimo, Harsono

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 3, No 4 (2018)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

 Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is group of disorders characterized by long-term disabilities that affect the quality of life (QoL) of both patients and those caring for them. This study aimed to examine biopsychosocial determinants of quality of life among children with cerebral palsy, using path analysis model.Subjects and Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fondation for the Care of Disable Children (YPAC) and Pediatric Neurodevelopmental Therapy Center, Surakarta, Central Java, from April to May 2018. A sample of 110 children with cerebral palsy was selected for this study by simple random sampling. The dependent variable was quality of life. The independent variables were gross motoric skill, parental stress, family support, and social support. Data on quality of life was measured by Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life (CP-QOL) questionnaire. The other data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis.Results: Quality of life of children with cerebral palsy increased with better gross motor (b= 2.79; 95% CI= 1.54 to 4.03; p<0.001), strong family support (b=1.25; 95% CI= 0.26 to 2.24; p= 0.013), and strong social support (b= 0.99; 95% CI= 0.014 to 1.97; p= 0.047). Quality of life of children with cerebral palsy indirectly decreased with high parental stress (b= -1.55; 95% CI= -2.38 to -0.72; p<0.001).Conclusion: Quality of life of children with cerebral palsy increases with better gross motor, strong family support, and strong social support, but indirectly decreases with high parental stress.Keywords: cerebral palsy, quality of life, gross motor, family support, parental stress, childrenCorrespondence: Alinda Nur Ramadhani. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: aramadhani95@gmail.comJournal of Maternal and Child Health (2018), 3(4): 301-307
https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2018.03.04.08