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Journal of Maternal and Child Health
Journal of Maternal and Child Health (JMCH) is an electronic, open-access, double-blind and peer-reviewed international journal, focusing on maternal and child health. The journal began its publication on July 11, 2015, and is published four times yearly. JMCH aims to improve the policy, program, service, and practice, as they impact infant, children, mother, women, adolescent, and family health.
Articles
114
Articles
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Path Analysis on Factors Affecting the Choice of Female Surgical Contraceptive Method in Kendal, Central Java

Maghfiroh, Ainul, Budihastuti, Uki Retno, Nurhaeni, Ismi Dwi Astuti

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 3 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Indonesia is one of the developing countries with a high rate of population growth. The government established a Family Planning program in overcoming this problem with effective use of the female surgery contraception. This study aimed to analyze the determinants of female surgery contraceptive method using path analysis model.Subject and method: A retrospective case-control study was conducted in Kendal, Central Java. A sample of 200 women was selected for this study by fixed diseases sampling. The dependent variable was the choice of female surgery contraceptive method. The independent variables were age, education, number of children alive, employment, knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, husband support, and perception of gender equality. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis.Results: The choice of female surgery contraception method was directly and positively associated with good knowledge (b= 1.91; 95% CI= 0.80 to 3.02; p= 0.001), positive attitude (b= 1.56; 95% CI= 0.45 to 2.66; p= 0.006), good gender equality perception (b= 1.25; 95% CI= 0.18 to 2.32; p= 0.021), high self efficacy (b= 1.61; 95% CI= 0.48 to 2.74; p= 0.005), high education (b= 1.18; 95% CI= 0.02 to 2.35; p= 0.045), strong husband support (b= 1.24; 95% CI= 0.14 to 2.39; p= 0.027), working outside the home (b= 1.14; 95% CI= 0.06 to 2.21; p= 0.037 ), number of children alive ?3 (b= 1.74; 95% CI= 0.61 to 2.88; p= 0.003), and maternal age ?35 years (b= 1.57; 95% CI = 0.34 to 2.75; p= 0.012). It was indirectly associated with age and education.Conclusions: The choice of female surgery contraception method is directly and positively associated with good knowledge, positive attitude, good gender equality perception, high self-efficacy, high education, strong husband support, working outside the home, number of children alive ?3, and maternal age ?35 years. It is indirectly associated with age and education.Keywords: female surgery contraceptive method, determinant, path analysisCorrespondence: Ainul Maghfiroh. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126, Indonesia. Email: Ainulmaghfiroh0504@gmail.com. Mobile: +6285641012090.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(3): 146-157https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.03.02

Contextual Effect of Posyandu on Adherence to Iron Tablet Consumption among Pregnant Women in Blitar, East Java

Ardianti, Febrina, Dewi, Yulia Lanti Retno, Murti, Bhisma

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Anemia in pregnant women remains a health priority to be addressed immediately. Anemia in pregnant women may increase the risk of maternal mortality, abortion, perinatal death, low birth weight, and postpartum bleeding. This study aimed to examine the contextual effect of posyandu on adherence to iron tablet consumption among pregnant women in Blitar, East Java.Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Blitar, East Java, in November 2018. The dependent variable was adherence of iron tablet consumption. The independent variables were education, intention, attitude, perceived behavior control, family income, subjective norm, husband support, and posyandu. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multilevel linear regression run on Stata 13.Results: Iron tablet consumption increased with high education (b= 0.85; 95% CI= 0.05 to 1.66; p= 0.038), strong intention (b= 0.40; 95% CI= 0.02 to 0.77; p= 0.037), multiparity (b= 0.89; 95% CI= 0.15 to 1.62; p= 0.018), positive attitude (b= 0.29; 95% CI= 0.15 to 0.42; p<0.001), perceived behavior control (b= 0.33; 95% CI= 0.17 to 0.48; p<0.001), high family income (b= 0.05; 95% CI= 0.01 to 0.10; p= 0.018), iron tablet availability (b= 1.62; 95% CI= 0.84 to 2.40; p<0.001),strong husband support (b= 0.22; 95% CI= 0.04 to 0.40; p= 0.019), and subjective norm (b= 0.27; 95% CI= 0.03 to 0.52; p= 0.027). Iron tablet consumption decreased with side effect (b= -1.22; 95% CI= -2.12 to -0.33; p= 0.007). Posyandu had contextual effect in adherence to iron tablet consumption with ICC= 12.58%.Conclusion: Iron tablet consumption increases with high education, strong intention, multiparity, positive attitude, perceived behavior control, high family income, iron tablet availability, strong husband support, and subjective norm. Iron tablet consumption decreases with the side effect. Posyandu has contextual effect in adherence to iron tablet consumption.Keywords: Fe tablet consumption, posyandu, multilevel analysisCorrespondence: Febrina Ardianti. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126. Email: ardiantifebrina@gmail.com. Mobile:+62816609336.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(2): 110-117https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.02.06

Consumption of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrate Among Adolescent with Overweight / Obesity

Febriani, Reny Tri, Soesetidjo, Ady, Tiyas, Farida Wahyuning

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Excessive nutritional status is a problem related to food, nutrition and public health globally which increases its prevalence quickly and can occur in all aspects of life. The increasing prevalence of excessive nutritional status is a time bomb for some countries that can explode in the future both in terms of health, mental and economic impacts for countries that are associated with increased health costs. Consumption levels such as fat, protein, and carbohydrates affect excessive nutritional status, excessive fat intake for a long time can cause overweight/obesity.Subjects and Method: The design of the study is analytic observation including a total of 111 teens who are overweight and obese. The sampling technique is a random sampling. The analysis was conducted using smart pls version 3.Results: Diet had a positive effect on overweight (b= 2.18; p= 0.032) and level of food consumption (b= 2.33; p= 0.022). High level of fat, protein, and carbohydrates consumption had a positive effect on overweight among adolescents (b= 11.54; p<0.001).Conclusions: Diet has a positive effect on overweight and level of food consumption. High level of fat, protein, and carbohydrates consumption has a positive effect on overweight among adolescents.Keywords: diet, fat, protein, carbohydrate, overweight, obesity, adolescentCorrespondence:Reny Tri Febriani. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Jember. Email: reny.smkfmaharani@gmail.com.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(2): 70-76https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.02.02

Efficacy of Yoga Exercise to Reduce Anxiety in Pregnancy: A Meta-Analysis using Randomized Controlled Trials

Ningrum, Sintia Ayu, Budihastuti, Uki Retno, Prasetya, Hanung

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Anxiety can have a negative impact on mothers and infants. Anxiety can cause prematurity, impaired motor development, mental and emotional development of children. This study aimed to examine efficacy of yoga on reducing anxiety in pregnant women.Subjects and Method: This was a meta-analysis. As many as 6 randomized control trials (RCT) were extracted from Pubmed, Science Direct, Springer, Proquest, and Cochrane databases. A sample of 426 pregnant women who took yoga exercises for 4-12 weeks was selected for this study. The data were analyzed in RevMan 5.3.Results: Yoga exercise reduce anxiety in pregnant women (SMD= -0.48; 95% CI= -0.92 to -0.03; p= 0.030).Conclusion: Yoga is effective to reduce anxiety in pregnant women.Keywords: Yoga exercise, anxiety, pregnant women, randomized control trials, meta-analysisCorrespondence: Sintia Ayu Ningrum. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java. Email: tiayu.ningrum@gmail.com. Mobile: +6283866810777.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(2): 118-125https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.02.07

The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Wasting in Children Under Five: A Meta-Analysis Study

Wijiwinarsih, Amallia, Susilawati, Tri Nugraha, Murti, Bhisma

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Wasting is a form of malnutrition that has become a serious global health problem for the past few decades. Global prevalence of wasting is reported to reach 52 million or 7.7% of the under-fives. Global coverage of exclusive breastfeeding was still as low as 40%. The purpose of this study was to due a meta-analysis on the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on wasting in children under five.Subjects and Method: This was a meta-analysis study conducted from PubMed, SCOPUS, DOAJ, BASE, EBSCO, Emerald, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, ResearchGate, and Google Scholar databases. This study sought a systematic review with observational study design and multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (AOR) analysis. Wasting was defined as weight for height (WHZ) Z score <-2. The data were analyzed by RevMan 5 meta-analysis program with a fixed effect and random effect analysis model.Results: There were 13 articles included in this study. Based on 3 study design, exclusive breastfeeding could prevent the risk of wasting in children under five with each meta-analysis result from a cross-sectional study 0.42 times (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.62; p <0.001), case-control studies 0.38 times (OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.54; p <0.001), and cohort studies 0.75 times (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.55 to 1.04; p = 0.08). There was no publication bias in the results of the cross-sectional and case-control study meta-analysis, but there was in the results of the meta-analysis of the cohort study.Conclusion: Exclusive breastfeeding can prevent wasting in children under five.Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, wasting, observational studyCorrespondence: Amallia Wijiwinarsih.Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir, Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126.Email:  amalliawijiwinarsih@gmail.com. Mobile: 0857261706.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(2): 87-96https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.02.04

Path Analysis on the Determinants of Severe Preeclampsia in Surakarta, Central Java

Sari, Prafista Wulan, Budihastuti, Uki Retno, Pamungkasari, Eti Poncorini

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality that occurs at gestational age >20 weeks. It is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Shortly, severe preeclampsia may develop into eclampsia accompanied by seizures or coma. This study aimed to examine the determinants of severe preeclampsia in Surakarta, Central Java.Subjects and Method: This was a case-control study conducted in Gajahan health center, Dr. Moewardi hospital, and Surakarta hospital, Surakarta, Central Java, from October 2018 to December 2018. A sample of 200 pregnant women was selected by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was severe preeclampsia. The independent variables were age, education, stress, parity, history of hypertension, history of diabetes mellitus (DM), ANC visit, and family history of hypertension. Data on preeclampsia were obtained from medical record. The other data were collected by questionnaire. The data were analyzed by path analysis.Results: Severe preeclampsia was directly and positively associated with age <20 or ?35 years (b= 1.23; 95% CI= 0.31 to 2.14; p= 0.008), history of hypertension (b= 1.54; 95% CI= 0.58 to 2.51; p= 0.002), history of DM (b= 1.12; 95% CI= 0.21 to 2.03; p= 0.016), and stress (b= 1.58; 95% CI = 0.60 to 2.56; p = 0.002). It was negatively associated with parity (b= -0.96; 95% CI= -1.90 to - 0.01; p = 0.046) and ANC visit (b= - 1.98; 95% CI= -2.91 to - 1.05; p<0.001). Severe preeclampsia was indirectly associated with education, ANC visit, and family history of hypertension.Conclusion: Severe preeclampsia is directly and positively associated with age, history of hypertension, history of DM, and stress. It is negatively associated with parity and ANC visit. Severe preeclampsia is indirectly associated with education, ANC visit, and family history of hypertension.Keywords: severe preeclampsia, determinants, path analysisCorrespondence: Prafista Wulan Sari. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java. Email: prafistaw@yahoo.com. Mobile: +6285740772699.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(2): 126-135https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.02.08

Path Analysis on the Determinants of Pap Smear Uptake in Women of Reproductive Age in Tegal, Central Java

Armadhani, Riska, Mudigdo, Ambar, Budihastuti, Uki Retno

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in developing countries. Although Pap smear is known as an effective strategy to reduce the burden of cervical cancer, it is underused in developing countries at around 19%. This study aimed to examine the determinants of Pap smear uptake in women of reproductive age using Health Belief Model (HBM).Subjects and Method: This was a case-control study conducted in Tegal, Central Java, from October 4 to November 2, 2018. A sample of 200 women of reproductive age was selected by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was Pap smear uptake. The independent variables were perceived benefit, susceptibility, seriousness, and threat, cues to action, education, knowledge, and peer support. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis run on Stata 13.Results: Pap smear uptake directly increased with stronger perceived threat (b= 1.18; 95% CI= 0.44 to 1.92; p=0.002), stronger perceived benefit (b= 1.40; 95% CI= 0.63 to 2.16; p<0.001), and higher self-efficacy (b= 1.48; 95% CI= 0.73 to 2.24; p<0.001). Pap smear uptake was indirectly affected by perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, cues to action, education, knowledge, and peer support.Conclusion: Pap smear uptake is directly affected by perceived threat, perceived benefit, and self-efficacy. It is indirectly affected by perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, cues to action, education, knowledge, and peer support.Keywords: Pap smear, Health Belief Model, path analysisCorrespondence: Riska Armadhani. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: riska.armadhani@gmail.comJournal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(2): 77-86https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.02.03

“Women’s Three Bodies”: An Anthropological Perspective on Barriers to Safe Abortion Services in Kibera Informal Settlements, Nairobi, Kenya

Bosire, Edna N., Ouma, W.Onyango-

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Abortion remains a critical determinant of maternal morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Recent studies on induced abortion estimated an annual abortion incidence of 48 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age, which is higher than other East African countries. In 2010, the Kenyan Constitution widened the provisions under which women qualified for safe abortions. However, majority of women still seek abortion services from unqualified providers. Using an interpretive, meaning-centered approach, this study aims to explore the barriers to safe abortion services in Kibera informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya.Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study encompassing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. We used different sampling techniques (convenient, purposive and snow ball methods) to recruit our study participants (n=55). Quantitative data was collected using a survey questionnaire and data was analyzed by SPSS version 21. Qualitatively, data was collected using Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), Key Informant interviews and case study narratives. This involved note taking and audio recordings, which were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using QSR Nvivo 21 software.Results: This study revealed that women’s decisions to procure abortion are influenced by a myriad of complex factors: a multiplicity of meanings regarding abortion, as provided by the law or as dictated by cultures or religion. Women’s access to safe abortion services were also determined by their ability to afford the procedure and to identify and reach a health care provider who offered the services.Conclusions: Legal access to abortion does not simultaneously ensure access to safe abortion services. Policy makers and health promoters need to work towards changing the socio-economic and religious forces that hamper access to safe abortions. Safe and affordable abortion services to women in Kenya including post abortion care need also be ensured.Keywords: barriers, access, safe abortion, KenyaCorrespondence: Edna Nyanchama Bosire, MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit (DPHRU), School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. 27 St Andrews Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa. Email: edna.bosire@wits.ac.za. Telephone: 011 717 2383.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(2): 97-109https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.02.05

Risk Factors for Acute Respiratory Infection in Children Under Five in Padang, Indonesia

Hidayanti, Rahmi, Yetti, Husna, Putra, Andani Eka

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) is a major cause of acute diseases and death in infants worldwide. Percentage of ARI (year 2017) in children aged 12-59 months in Padang was 26.5% and Andalas health center was 33.2%. ARI is influenced by many factors such as environmental condition. This study aimed to analyze risk factors for ARI in children under five in Padang, Indonesia.Subjects and Method: This was a case control study conducted at Andalas community health center, Padang, Indonesia. A sample of 90 children aged 12-59 months was selected for this study. The dependent variable was ARI. The independent variables were humidity, house ventilation, dwelling density, indoor smoke cigarette. Data on ARI status were taken from medical record. The other variables were measured by questionnaire and observation sheet. The data were analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.Results: Poor ventilation (OR = 11.73; 95% CI = 2.16 to 63.86; p = 0.004), high dwelling density (OR = 21.99; 95% CI = 3.75 to 129.04; p = 0.001), indoor cigarette smoke (OR = 5.09; 95 % CI = 1.06 to 24.34; p = 0.042), and high air humidity (OR = 5.00; 95% CI = 0.79 to 31.51; p = 0.086) increased the risk of ARI in children under five and they were statistically significant.Conclusions: Poor ventilation, high dwelling density, indoor cigarette smoke, and high air humidity increase the risk of ARI in children under five.Keywords: Acute respiratory infection, dwelling density, air humidity, children under fiveCorrespondence:Rahmi Hidayanti. Masters Program in Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Andalas Padang. Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Padang, Indonesia. Email: rahmi.hidayanti@yahoo.com. Mobile: +6281363467226Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(2): 62-69https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.02.01

Contextual Effect of Community Health Center on Low Birtweight in East Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat

Rahayu, Baiq Zulvita, Budihastuti, Uki Retno, Rahardjo, Setyo Sri

Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 4, No 3 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Low birth weight babies (LBW) become a global health problem. Studies into the contextual effect of community health center on LBW are lacking. This study aimed to determine the contextual effect of community health center on the determinants of low birth weight in East Lombok, Indonesia using multilevel analysis.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional design. It was conducted in East Lombok, from September to November 2018. A total sample of 200 infants from 25 community health centers was selected by random sampling. The dependent variable was LBW. The independent variables were maternal age, maternal education, family income, prenatal stress, maternal nutritional status, exposure to cigarette smoke, maternal occupation, social support, and social capital. The data were collected from the medical record and questionnaire. The data were analyzed by a multilevel multiple logistic regression analysis.Results: Maternal age <20 or ?35 years (b = 2.60; 95% CI = 0.96 to 4.25; p= 0.002), prenatal stress (b = 1.30; 95% CI 95%= 0.01 to 2.57; p= 0.048), and exposure to cigarette smoke (b= 1.57; CI 95% = 0.37 to 2.76; p= 0.010) increased the risk of LBW. LBW decreased with high maternal education (b = -1.38; 95% CI= -2.60 to -0.15; p= 0.027), high family income (b= -1.32 ; 95% CI = -2.61 to -0.04; p= 0.072), strong social support (b= -1.50; 95% CI= -2.92 to -0.09; p= 0.036), good maternal nutritional status (b = -2.01; 95% CI= -3.26 to -0.76; p= 0.002), strong social capital (b= -1.45; 95% CI= -2.82 to -0.08; p=0.038), and maternal occupation (b= -1.43; 95% CI= -2.98 to 0.12; p= 0.072). Community health center had contextual effect on LBW with ICC= 20%.Conclusions: Maternal age <20 or ?35 years, prenatal stress, and exposure to cigarette smoke increase the risk of LBW. LBW decreases with high maternal education, high family income, strong social support, good maternal nutritional status, strong social capital, and maternal occupation. Community health center has contextual effect on LBW.Keywords: low birth weight, stress, social support, community health centerCorrespondence: Baiq Zulvita Rahayu. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126, Indonesia. Email: rahayubaiq.zulvita@yahoo.co.id. Mobile: +6281917744469Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(3): 136-145https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.03.01