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JURNAL KIMIA SAINS DAN APLIKASI
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
urnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi (p-ISSN: 1410-8917) and e-ISSN: 2597-9914) is published by Department of Chemistry, Diponegoro University. This journal is published four times per year and publishes research, review and short communication in field of Chemistry.
Articles
395
Articles
Metabolite Profiling of Java Turmeric (Curcuma xanthoriza) Essential Oil with Different Harvest Times

Rafi, Mohamad, Septaningsih, Dewi Anggraini, Heryanto, Rudi

Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 4 (2018): volume 21 Issue 4 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Java turmeric (Curcuma xanthoriza) is one of the native plants from Indonesia. Java turmeric is known as a medicinal plant with a high content of volatile oils. In this study, we investigated the chemical profile of java turmeric essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation associated with different harvesting times of the rhizome (7, 9, and 11 months). The constituent of the essential oil was determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. About 19, 20 and 34 compounds were identified in 7, 9, and 11-month old java turmeric. Fifteen compounds were found in all samples namely β-elemene, zingiberene, γ-elemene, β-farnesene, α-curcumene, benzofuran, α-cedrene, epicurzerenone, ar-curcumene, germacrone, aromadendrene, α??longipene, trans-caryophilene, curcuphenol, and xanthorrhizol. This study showed the level of all compound detected in 7, 9, and 11 months old of java turmeric is different.

Validation of UV-VIS Spectrophotometric Methods for Determination of Inulin Levels from Lesser Yam (Dioscorea esculenta L.)

Apriliyani, Sandra Ayu, Martono, Yohanes, Riyanto, Cucun Alep, Mutmainah, Mutmainah, Kusmita, Kusmita

Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 4 (2018): volume 21 Issue 4 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Validation of methods is necessary to ensure that the analytical methods used are appropriate and reliable. In this research, the determination of validation method and determination of inulin content from gembili bulb (Dioscorea esculenta L.). The method used for determining inulin levels is UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Based on the results obtained, the maximum wavelength determination of inulin levels is 520 nm. The method of analysis in this study meets the specified validation requirements. These parameters include the equation on the inulin raw curve y = 0.0045x +0.109 with the coefficient of determination 0.9992. The accuracy of the methods tested using the recovery test was 96.14-106.76% at concentrations of 25, 100, and 225 ppm. The intraday precision test is in the range of 2.67-6.82% at the same concentration as the accuracy test. Precision interday equal to 7.41% at concentration 225 ppm for 3 day analysis period. The values of LOD and LOQ are 3.58 ppm and 11.95 ppm, respectively. The concentration of inulin extract from gembili bulb is 840.44-12188.59 ppm.

The Chemical Characteristics of Iron Oxide/Carbon Synthesized by the Arc Discharge Method in Liquid Media with the Addition of Ammonia

Retnosari, Indah, Hayati, Ikrima Nur, Amalia, Amalia, Hastuti, Sri, Saraswati, Teguh Endah

Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 4 (2018): volume 21 Issue 4 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

The chemical characteristics of composite material of iron oxide with carbon synthesized by arc discharge method in liquid medium have been identified. The liquid medium used in the method was ethanol with ammonia addition. The chemical characteristics of the resulting product were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The morphology of the material was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The observed materials have a spherical and orderly structure. The FTIR spectra profile shows the peaks of N-H and C-N. The amino groups coming from ammonia as a liquid medium during arc discharge were supposed to have been covalently attached to carbon materials composited with iron oxide. The elemental analysis of EDX confirms the presence of nitrogen elements that were not found on the materials synthesized in arc discharge without ammonia addition.

Adsorption of HDTMA-Br surfactant with concentration variation by rice husk-based activated carbon produced by variation of carbonization temperature

Pargiman, Galih N. R., Arnelli, Arnelli, Astuti, Yayuk

Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 4 (2018): volume 21 Issue 4 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Research has been conducted on the adsorption of HDTMA-Br surfactant by rice husk-activated carbon with variation of carbonization temperature and concentration of HDTMA-Br. This study aims to produce surfactant modified activated carbon (SMAC), therefore it is necessary to determine the influence of carbonization temperature to the adsorption capability of activated carbon on HDTMA-Br surfactant by identifying the amount of HDTMA-Br surfactant absorbed, to characterize the characters of carbon, activated carbon and activated carbon adsorbing surfactant using FTIR and SAA. Carbonization was carried out by pyrolysis with temperature variations of 300, 350 and 400°C. The carbon produced was activated using 60% H3PO4 for 1 hour. After that, the activated carbon was applied to adsorb HDTMA-Br surfactant by varying the concentration that were 300, 1100, 1900, 2700, 3500 and 4300 ppm. The results showed that HDTMA-Br adsorbed tended to increase by increasing the concentration of surfactant. In addition, the best carbonization temperature showing high adsorption capability of activated carbon was at 300°C. FTIR spectra of activated carbon showed the presence of P = O peak; at the SMAC sampel there was peak of N-(CH3)3 with different intensities in three samples. Moreover, SAA analysis showed that the surface area of activated carbon increased compared to carbon and slightly decreased after the activated carbon absorbed HDTMA-Br.

Isolation of Flavonoid Compounds from Eceng Gondok (Eichhornia crassipes) and Antioxidant Tests with DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl) Method

Elvira, Kautsar, Fachriyah, Enny, Kusrini, Dewi

Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 4 (2018): volume 21 Issue 4 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

The research had been conducted of the isolation of flavonoid compounds from water hyacinth plants (Eichhornia crassipes) and antioxidant activity test by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method. This research starts from maceration of water hyacinth with ethanol solvent. Ethanol extract was hydrolyzed with HCl. Flavonoid separation is carried out by column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography. The obtained isolates were analyzed by UV vis spectrophotometer and FTIR spectrophotometer. Antioxidant activity was carried out by DPPH method. Flavonoid isolates were obtained as heavy as 4.5 mg (0.006%). The results of the analysis of flavonoid isolates A4a with UV vis spectrophotometer appear at a wavelength of 368 nm (band I) and 260 nm (band II). The results of the analysis with FTIR shown that the isolates had functional groups O-H, aliphatic C-H, CH3, C =O, aromatic C = C, and C-O ether, it was suspected that flavonoid isolates had a basic structure of quercetin 7-methyl ether compounds. The results of antioxidant activity test of flavonoid isolates shown IC50 price of 254.66 mg / L

Effect of Phosphate Addition and Exposure of Micro Waves on Comparatives Ca/F in Gipsum Waste: Preliminary Study of Hydroxyappatite Synthesis (HAp) from Ceramics Gypsum Industry Waste

Dewantoro, Dewantoro, Cahyanti, Margareta Novian, Hartini, Sri

Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 4 (2018): volume 21 Issue 4 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

This study aims to conduct an initial study of hydroxyapatite synthesis from ceramic gypsum waste. The parameters of the synthesis process carried out were variations in the time of the hydrothermal process namely 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes. The time variation was studied to study the effect of time on the hydroxyapatite character of gypsum waste. The initial synthesis process was conducted by looking at the comparison of Phosphate and Calcium levels in gypsum. In this study the results of the highest Phosphate levels obtained were 0.607% in the 10th  minute, while the largest Calcium levels were obtained in the 30th minute which was 0.171%. The treatment in the 30th minute gave the most optimal difference in effect which was 0.413. FTIR results showed the emergence of hydroxyapatite peaks namely ??OH, PO43- and Ca-O, as well as the increase in the intensity of the peak of gypsum powder before treatment and after treatment. While the XRD results strengthened the presence of hydroxyapatite in gypsum with the presence of high peaks at 2θ = 31.08°; 32.14° and 33.45° respectively which indicated the presence of hydroxyapatite. While the main impurities in the synthesized hydroxyapatite are carbonates identified from FTIR results.

Synthesis of 4-Hydroxy-2-Methylchalcone from meta-Cresol Formilation Product and Its Activities as an Antibacteria

Ismiyarto, Ismiyarto, Suyanti, Suyanti, Ngadiwiyana, Ngadiwiyana, Sarjono, Purbowatiningrum Ria, Prasetya, Nor Basid Adiwibawa

Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 4 (2018): volume 21 Issue 4 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Research on the synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-methylchalcone from 4-hidroksi-2-metilbenzaldehida as formilated meta-cresol product and its antibacterial activity test has been conducted. As the first step, synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-methylbenzaldehyde was carried out by treatment meta-cresol with chloroform through the Reimer-Tiemann formylation. Product is a brown solid with 23.94% yields. Furthermore, the 4-hydroxy-2-methylchalcone was synthesized using the 4-hydroxy-2-methylbenzaldehyde and acetophenone through the Claisen-Schmidt reaction. The product is a brownish yellow solid with 29.74% yields. Antibacterial test against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was carried out by comparing the activity of 4-hydroxy-2-methylchalcone with 4-hydroxy-3-methoxychalcone, and chalcone compounds. The antibacterial activity test showed that the 4-hydroxy-2-methylchalcone compound, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxychalcone, and chalcone compounds gave a better antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli than the Staphylococcus aureus.

Utilization and Characterization of Oyster Shell as Chitosan and Nanochitosan

Handayani, Lia, Syahputra, Faisal, Astuti, Yayuk

Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 4 (2018): volume 21 Issue 4 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Oyster is one of bivalve groups widely consumed by human, thus, it results in producing huge waste shells affecting the environment. One way to increase the value of oyster shells is to process them into chitosan. This study aims to isolate chitin then synthesize it into chitosan and convert chitosan into nano-sized chitosan and analyze the characteristics. The steps to produce chitosan from waste shells included demineralization using HCl 1 N and deproteinization using NaOH 3%. The next step was to convert chitin into chitosan through a deacetylation process using NaOH 50%. After chitosan was formed, it was continued to convert chitosan into nano chitosan particles using ion gelation method with the addition of surfactant (tween 80) and crosslinker (TPP 0.1% and 0.5%). The results showed that yield of transformation chitin into chitosan was 61.1%. Meanwhile, the yield calculated from initial weight of raw material was 18.33% with deacetylation degree value equal to 89.14%. Based on morphological analysis using SEM, the size of chitosan particles was not distributed homogeneously that was in the range of 892 nm-1.54 μm, while the nano chitosan particle size obtained was uniformly formed in the range of 679 nm-910 nm.

Isolation of Phenolic Acid Compounds and Antioxidant Tests from Mindi Leaves (Melia azedarach L.)

Listyo, Andriyani Budi, Kusrini, Dewi, Fachriyah, Enny

Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 4 (2018): volume 21 Issue 4 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Melia azedarach L plant categorized as traditional medicinal plant is normally used as a medicine for cough, skin diseases, drug for malaria, diabetes, colon cancer, jaundice, vaginal discharge, fever and scabies. Melia azedarach leaves contain steroid, terpenoid, alkaloid, tannin, saponin, phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The purpose of this study was isolation of phenolic acid compounds and antioxidant activity test from Melia azedarach L. Leaves. The method used to isolate phenolic acid using 3 ways that were alkaline hydrolysis (HB), acid hydrolysis (HA), and without hydrolysis (TH). The separation of phenolic acid which has Rf not the same as standard phenolic acid was undertaken by preparative TLC and characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FT-IR, and LC-MS. Moreover, antioxidant test of phenolic acid using DPPH method was also conducted. The results showed that isolation of Melia azedarach L. Leaves resulted in HB, HA and TH fractions with the weight of 1.05 grams, 1.26 grams and 1.38 grams, respectively. The identification of phenolic acid which has Rf the same as standard phenolic acids was ferulic acid. While result of phenolic acid (FA) isolates which has Rf not the same as phenolic acids standard was caffeic acid after the identifying using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR and LC-MS. Qualitative antioxidant activity test showed that FA isolate had IC50 of 168,650 ppm. This result indicated that FA isolate is potential as antioxidant compound.

Cassava Skin Usage (Manihot esculenta L.) as Photocatalyst for Degradation of Methylene Blue in the River of Textile Industrial Zone

Ellyana, Kharisma Madda, Rahayu, Kharisma Luthfiaratri, Febriastuti, Ratri, Haris, Abdul

Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 4 (2018): volume 21 Issue 4 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

The progress of the textile industry can increase the amount of dyestuff waste, but often waste disposal is overlooked. The purpose of this research is to provide solution in handling river water pollution by textile industry dye waste. The degradation of textile industry dye waste can be done with TiO2 semiconductors with UV light as a source of irradiation, but only 5% of sunlight can be utilized TiO2 to excite its electrons, so degradation process is not effective. It needs a material that can optimize the activity of TiO2 semiconductor, one of them C-dot coming from cassava skin. The results obtained in this research were TiO2/C-dot composite which could degrade methylene blue where its effectiveness was tested using UV-Vis spectrophotometer instrument. TiO2/C-dot photocatalyst activity test for methylene blue 0.0001 M showed that the concentration of 20% with the amount of degradation up to 96,99%, best type of rays was sunshine with amount of degradation up to 66,25% and longest radiation in sunshine with the amount of degradation was up to 78.77% and UV with the amount of degradation up to 75.99%.

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