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BIOMA
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Published by Universitas Diponegoro
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BIOMA (ISSN 1410-8801) adalah Majalah Ilmiah Biologi yang bertujuan mewadahi semua informasi hasil penelitian, telaah pustaka, makalah teknis, dan kajian buku, dari berbagai cabang ilmu Biologi. Diharapkan penerbitan ini dapat berkontribusi dalam penyampaian informasi ilmiah yang merupakan mata rantai proses kegiatan ilmiah. Terbit sejak tahun 1999.
Articles
154
Articles
Struktur Komunitas Semut (Hymenoptera : Formicidae) di Lahan Pertanian Organik dan Anorganik Desa Batur, Kecamatan Getasan, Kabupaten Semarang

Putra, Ivan Mahadika, Hadi, Mochamad, Rahadian, Rully

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Ants play an important role in terrestrial ecosystems, including in organic and inorganic farmland, as predators, scavengers, and their interaction with other organism. The objectives of this study were to compare the community structure and the role of the ant in organic and inorganic farmland, and also to determine soil abiotic factors in both farmland. The study was conducted in organic and inorganic chili crop land at Batur village, Getasan, Semarang. The sampling of ants was performed using pitfall traps and bait traps, and then the ants were identified. Data analysis used is an abundance index, diversity index, evenness index, Hutchinson test and similarity index. The results showed that the number of species and the number of individual of ants in organic farm were higher (45 individuals, 8 species) than inorganic farm (35 individuals, 6 species). Diversity index of ant species in both farmlands were categorized moderate with the index value of 1.92 and 1.42. Statistically, there were no significant differences in species diversity of ants in organic and inorganic farmland. There were five dominant species in organic field and three dominant species in inorganic field. Ants that predominate in both farmlands were Iridomyrmexsp, Tetramorium sp, Solenopsisgeminata, Odontoponeradenticulata and Diacammasp. The similarity of ant communities between organic and inorganic farmland showed high value of similarity index (IS) which was 85.7%. Statistically, abiotic factors showed that there were significantly different of some abiotic factors in both farmlands, the content of carbon, phospor, organic matter and c / n ratio. Keywords: community structure of ants, agricultural ecosystems

Struktur Komunitas Fitoplankton sebagai Dasar Pengelolaan Kualitas Perairan Pantai Mangrove di Tapak Tugurejo Semarang

Lathifah, Nurul, Hidayat, Jafron Wasiq, Muhammad, Fuad

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Phytoplankton has of important role in water as of base of the food chain this is also can service a bioindicator the pollution of waters. This study aims to assess the phytoplankton community structure in Tapak Semarang, assessing the level of fertility of inshore mangrove community, and to assess the water quality of inshore. Samples were take in is in the mangrove region of Tapak Semarang. This study was conducted in May 2016 (rain season) and in September 2016 (dry season). Selection of the stations were based on different environmental conditions in the research include the pond and public waters in the waters of coastal mangrove the soles of Semarang. Analysis of index diversity, index evennes and index saprobik. The results showed that the spesies of phytoplankton obtained during the study on mangrove coastal waters Tapak Tugurejo Semarang were 13 species (rainy season) and 25 species (dry season). The most common species of phytoplankton found in all stations wereCerataulina bergonii, Nitzhcia sp, Rhizosolenia spp, Synedra ulna, Netrium digitus, Gloeotrichia echinulata, and Oscillatoria Formosa. Index of species diversity (H’) that exist in mangrove coastal waters Tapak Tugurejo Semarang were in the range of 0.73 to 1.95 low to moderate with low to moderate quality of stabilities during the rainy season. Mean while in the dry season of high species diversity index in the range of 2.24 to 2.82 which indicated stability of the ecosystem was low to moderate. The value of evennes index (e) ranged from 0.66 to 0.97 during the rainy season, and 0.90 to 0.94 in the dry seasons these indices illustrated that each station has a moderate to high similaritas. In term of saprobitas level it was at Oligosaprobik state to β-Meso/Oligosaprobik describe very mild to light polluted. The quality of mangrove coastal waters based DO, temperature, salinity and pH are still good for fish farming. Keywords: community structure, phytoplankton, Tapak, Tugurejo, Semarang.. 

Uji Aktivitas Inhibisi α-Glukosidase Isolat Bakteri Endofit Tanaman Duwet (Syzygium cumini L. Skeels) Sebagai Sumber Alternatif Antidiabetes

Fatin, Nuhaul, Pujiyanto, Sri, Raharjo, Budi

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease contributes to the health problem in Indonesia. The inhibition of α-glucosidase is one of the mechanisms of antidiabetic treatment. α-glucosidase inhibitor can be found in the duwet plants (Syzygium cumini L. Skeels)  that have been used traditionally in Indonesia as antidiabetic drug. However, due to the insufficient quantity and the long harvesting time, the forthcoming appliclation of duwet is consideraly not promising. The natural tendencies of endophytic microorganisms are identicl to the host plant. In this case the endophytic bacteria of the duwet plant is studied to determine its potential as an alternative to producing α-glucosidase inhibitors. A total of 14 isolates of endophytic duwet bacteria isolated tested the ability of α-glucosidase inhibitors using p-nitrophenyl-D-α-glucopyranoside. The result of  the absorbance based on breakdown of substrate that produce colored product and analyzed by spectrophotometric technique. All isolates had α-glucosidase inhibitor activity, the highest activity produced by isolates A21 and A22 with value of 69,18% and 69,22%. Keywords : inhibitor α-glucosidase, endophytic bacteria, Syzygium cumini

Studi Populasi dan Habitat Owa Jawa (Hylobates moloch Audebert 1797) di Kawasan Wana Wisata Kali Paingan Linggo Asri, Pekalongan, Jawa Tengah

Putra, M. Fadhil Randa, Baskoro, Karyadi, Hadi, Mochamad

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch) is an Indonesian endemic primate found on Java, in the province of West Java and Central Java. It is an Endangered species by IUCN and protected by Ministry of Environment and Forestry regulation No. P20/2018. Wana Wisata Kali Paingan was known as Javan gibbon habitat in Central Java, although not much research have been done. This study aimed to find out the population data and habitat of Javan Gibbon. This study was conducted in Wana Wisata Kali Paingan during April until May 2018 and Line Transect method was used in two tracks, Kali Wadas and Jurang Jero, with 1 kilometer and 5 repetition each. Result showed that 12 individuals in 4 groups was found with the density was 13,75 individuals /km2 and 4,39 groups/km2. Then at 6,7 km2 representative area the estimation was obtained 92 individuals and 29 groups. Javan gibbons were distributed from 630-780 MASL with the different sizes of groups. There were 25 species in 21 families trees and 4 species in 4 family poles was found. The dominant species was bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) and terap tree (Artocarpus elasticus). Javan gibbon’s favorite food trees were Terap tree, Ficus (Urostigma glaberrium) and (Ficus sinuata). There were several families of food trees for Javan gibbons including Moraceae, Euphobiaceae, Meliaceae, Lauraceae, and Fagaceae..   Keywords : Javan gibbon, Population, Habitat, Wana Wisata Kali Paingan

Kadar Kolesterol Daging Pada Keturunan F1 Dari Induk Puyuh Jepang (Coturnix coturnix japonica L.) Yang Diberi Suplemen Tepung Kunyit (Curcuma longa L.) Dalam Pakan

Andriani, Regita, Saraswati, Tyas Rini, Tana, Silvana

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Quail is one of poultry commodities that compliance the needed of animal protein like egg and meat. Good quality was breed from quail parent that has good physiological condition. This research aimed to quantified cholesterol of quail meat from F1 from quail parent that treatment using turmeric powder supplement on itsfed in order to obtained best quail chick with good physiological condition. This research use Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experimental method. Animal on this research was 15 Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica L.) hens that gave 3 treatments with 5 repetitions. K0 was F1 of quail parent without turmeric powder supplementation, K1 was F1 of quail parent with 54 mg/quail/day turmeric powder supplementation before its sex period, K2 was F1 of quail parent with 108 mg/quail/day turmeric powder supplementation before its sex period. The F1 quail was fed using standard quail feed. Data was obtained from daily fed consumption average, daily water consumption, and quail meat cholesterol rate on 60 day old chicken. Data was analyses using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). This research result showed that daily fed consumption, daily water consumption and meat cholesterol rate of F1 that treatment using turmeric powder supplementation wasn’t show significant difference, so conclusion of this research is physiological condition of F1 was normal. Key words: Quail Meat Cholesterol, F1 of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), Turmeric powder

Keanekaragaman dan Kemelimpahan Jenis Tumbuhan Invasif di Hutan Wisata Penggaron Kabupaten Semarang Jawa Tengah

Utami, Sri, Murningsih, M

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Forests are ecosystems that have very potential natural resources, including storing high genetic resources. One of the things that threatens the decline of genetic resources in the forest is the presence of invasive species. This study aims to determine the species of invasive plants and their abundance in the Penggaron tourism forest of Ungaran Regency, Central Java. The research method was carried out by exploring the entire forest area through the path. The results of the study showed that 13 species of invasive plants were included in 7 families. The most number of invasive plants from the Poaceae family include 5 species : Axonopus Compressus, Cynodon dactylon, Pennisetum purpureum, Paspalum conjugatum and Eleusine indica. The highest relative abundance was Eleusine indica and was followed by Synedrella nodiflora, Elephantopus scaber and Paspalum conjugatum. The species of invasive plants, especially the abundant ones, need to be controlled by the population so as not to threaten native plants and cause environmental degradation in Penggaron tourism forests. Key word : Invansive plant, Penggaron tourism forest, genetic resources.

Karakterisasi Uwi-Uwian (Dioscorea spp) Dari Banjarnegara Berdasarkan Penanda Morfologi

Pertiwa, Susy Ika, Jumari, J, Wiryani, Erry

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

    The diversity of Dioscorea spp. both inter-species and intra-species are spreaded in several areas in Central Java, including Banjarnegara.  Dioscorea is a  plant that has the potentials to be developed and cultivated. The purposes of this reasearch are to identify the species, characterize the morphological characters (stem, leaf, and tuber) of eight varians Dioscorea spp from Banjarnegara. The sample used in this reasearch are the eight varians of Dioscorea spp from Banjarnegara.  The Identification was done by using a identification keys. Characterization of morphological characters was done by using the guidebook of Descriptor for Yam. The results showed that eight cultivars of Dioscorea spp are grouped into two types: Dioscorea alata and Dioscorea esculenta. Dioscorea alata has a stem which rotate the to the right, rectangular shaped of stem, it’s has wing and doesn’t have a spin, elongated heart-shaped leaves, oval-oblong and round shaped tuber. Dioscorea esculenta has a stem which rotate to the left, rounded shaped of stem, it has not wing but spiked, dilated heart-shaped leaf, and oval shape tuber.  Keywords: Dioscorea spp, identifikasi, characteristic, morphology,

Keanekaragaman Tumbuhan yang Berpotensi sebagai Bahan Pangan di Hutan Lindung Pulau Panjang Jepara Jawa Tengah

Utami, Sri

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Panjang Isaland is small island in Jepara, Central Java province, with covers about 19,73 ha areas but information on plant biodiversity especially, which has potency as source of foodstuff is still limited. For that reason a plant exploration and inventory in this area has been done in forest protected Panjang Island. Nineteen species of edible plant have been recorded, and they consist of fruits (6 species), vegetables (7 species) and tuber (6 species). Of these species have not all used by local communities to fulfill their food needs. Need to be introduced to local communities the potential  of edible plants  in Panjang Island in order to support the efforts of food independence in Indonesia.

Distribusi dan Keanekaragaman Zooplankton di Waduk Jatibarang Kodya Semarang

Hariyati, Riche

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Jatibarang Reservoir is a dam built in Talun Kacang village, Kandri, Gunung Pati, Semarang t with the aim of Water Resources Management and flood control in Semarang City. The presence of Zooplankton in a waters has a close relationship with water quality and its interaction in the environment.The research aimed to find out the distribution and diversity of Zooplankton species in Jatibarang reservoir waters. The method used is Purposive Random Sampling method by dividing the sampling point into 4 research stations, namely Dermaga zone, middle zone, inlet zone, and outlet zone. From the result of this research, we get the type of zooplankton Brachionus sp., Cylops sp., Collotecha sp., Conochilus sp., Daphnia sp., Harringia sp., Rotaria sp., Keratella sp. and species from the Asphlanchnidae (Asphlanchinii) and Trichotriidae Family. The species diversity in Jatibarang reservoirs in each zone is low with abundance between 30-80 ind / L and the equalization and dominance of each low species. The dominant species is Brachionus sp. and Cyclops sp.  Water quality measurement results show the waters of Jatibarang reservoir is good for the life of aquatic biota Keywords: Zooplankton, Jatibarang Reservoir, Diversity.

Keanekaragaman dan Kelimpahan Semut sebagai Predator Hama Tanaman Padi di Lahan Sawah Organik dan Anorganik Kecamatan Karanganom Kabupaten Klaten

Adhi, Siska Lesiana, Hadi, Mochamad, Tarwotjo, Udi

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Ants potentially as predators that become natural enemies of insect pests in rice fields with paddy cultivation. This study aims to know the diversity and abundance of ants, the role of ants, the population of ants, and the influence of physical and chemical factors in organic and inorganic rice fields. The ants were collected using pit fall trap method with insect bait, fish meat, and sugar solution. The results showed that the number of species and the number of individuals in organic rice fields was higher (429 individuals, 11 species) than inorganic rice fields (193 individuals, 10 species). In general, the index of diversity in organic rice fields was higher (ranging from 0.73 to 1.65) compared to inorganic rice fields (ranging from 0 to 1.28). The index of evenness in organic rice fields ranged from 0.63 to 0.99 (evenly distributed), whereas in inorganic rice fields ranged from 0 to 0.99 (uneven until evenly distributed). The dominant ants in organic rice fields were Camponotus sp, Solenopsis geminata, Anoplolepis gracilipes, and Paratrechina longicornis, whereas in the inorganic rice fields were Tapinoma sp, Solenopsis geminata, and Camponotus sp. The index of similarity between organic and inorganic rice fields showed a high and very high degree of similarity based on the type of feed. Physical factors of high soil and air humidity environment, high soil and air temperature increased the diversity and abundance of ants in the rice fields ecosystem. Factors soil pH in accordance with the growth of soil Arthropods were neutral or slightly acidic. Chemical factors of organic matter content, Nitrogen (N), the content of C organic, and a high P total content increased the diversity and abundance of ants. Keywords: diversity and abundance, ants, organic and inorganic rice fields