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BIOMA
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Published by Universitas Diponegoro
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BIOMA (ISSN 1410-8801) adalah Majalah Ilmiah Biologi yang bertujuan mewadahi semua informasi hasil penelitian, telaah pustaka, makalah teknis, dan kajian buku, dari berbagai cabang ilmu Biologi. Diharapkan penerbitan ini dapat berkontribusi dalam penyampaian informasi ilmiah yang merupakan mata rantai proses kegiatan ilmiah. Terbit sejak tahun 1999.
Articles
154
Articles
Struktur Komunitas Plankton sebagai Indikator Kualitas Perairan Budidaya di Tambak Lorok Semarang

Makhfudhoh, Dzunnuroini Khanif, Hidayat, Jafron Wasiq, Muhammad, Fuad

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Plankton is organisms that had an important role in water as natural feed of fishes and as an indicator. This study aimed to identify water quality which was suitable for fish cultivation reviewed from physics-chemicals parameters of water and its saprobic status in Tambak Lorok Tanjung Mas Kota Semarang. Sampling were take based on 5 stations that could represented from plankton variety of condition water stability . Plankton samples were by using net plankton number 25, then preserved with alcohol 70% and formalin 4%. Variables of ponds water quality measured were temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, N concentration, and Pb content. Identification of planktons used SRC method under microscop. The result of plankton analysis in Tambak Lorok water showed 42 phytoplankton species, the commonly species found are Coscinodiscus centralis, Coscinodiscus granii, Gyrosigma sp., Navicula radiosa, Pandorina sp., and Melosira sp. Meanwhile, zooplankton found was 22 species with common species are Cyclops, Harpaticoida, Tricodesmium evythraeum, Brachinus plicatilis, and Lensia subtilis. Phytoplankton diversity index are 0.057-0.367 and equity index are 0.025-0.176. Zooplankton diversity index are 0.247-0.360 and equity index are 0.157-0.201. This indices showed that there were low level of species diversity and community stability, dominance since the species occurred. Measurement of water quality variables indicated that Tambak Lorok had been contaminated and needed a preliminary management before d be used as fish cultivation ponds, because the analysis result was not appropriate with Government water quality  regulation. Based on the measurement, soprobic index categories on α/β-Mesosaprobic to Oligosaprobic phase and the degree of pollution is very mild to moderate. Keywords :  Community Structure, plankton, Tambak Lorok, Tanjung Mas, Semarang   

Pengaruh Waktu Fermentasi Teh Kombucha Kadar 50% Terhadap Tebal Dinding Dan Diameter Lumen Arteria Koronaria Tikus Putih

Isdadiyanto, Sri

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to analyze the influences of 50% kombucha tea level on wall thickness and lumen diameter of coronary artery in rats. Sixteen male Rattus norvegicus rats, 2 months of age were used as experimental animals, with treatment kombucha tea that has been fermented for 6, 9 and 12 days at the temperature of 25oC per oral. The research design used to a completely randomized with 4 treatment (for 4 weeks) and 4 replications, i.e., P0 = control, without of kombucha tea, P1 = water + 1,8 ml kombucha tea that has been fermented for 6 days in the morning and afternoon, P2 = water + 1,8 ml kombucha tea that has been fermented for 9 days in morning and afternoon, P3 = water + 1,8 ml kombucha tea that has been fermented for 12 days in morning and afternoon. Variables measured were wall thickness and lumen diameter of coronary artery. Data were analyzed with ANOVA followed by Duncan test at 95% confidence level were performed using SPSS version 10,0. The result showed that kombucha tea did not influences the wall thickness and lumen diameter of coronary artery in rats. Key words:   Rattus norvegicus, 50% kombucha tea level, wall thickness, lumen diameter, coronary artery

Glikogen Otot Rangka Ayam Broiler (Gallus gallus) setelah Pemberian Teh Kombucha dalam Air Minum

Fathoni, Nasrul, Djaelani, M Anwar, Isdadiyanto, Sri

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Kombucha tea beverage obtained by fermenting sweetened green tea for 12 days with Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces which produce various kinds of organic acids, vitamins, and acts as a probiotic. The role of kombucha tea as a growth promoter is to that improve the metabolic process in the digestion of broiler chickens, so that nutrients can and fulfilled optimally for growth and development. The aim of this research was to analyze the sceletal muscle glycogen glycogen (Gallus gallus) after treat with kombucha tea in drinking water. Kombucha tea used is the result of fermentation of green tea for 12 days. This research used DOC chickens (Day Old Chicken) as much as 20 randomly divided into 4 treatments with concentration ie 0%, 10%, 20%, and 40% kombucha tea in drinking water for 32 days. The variables measured were skeletal muscle glycogen levels, body weight, feed consumption and drink consumption. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Duncan Test with 95% confidence level using SPSS 17.0 software. The results of this study showed that kombucha tea on skeletal muscle glycogen and feed consumption showed no significant difference, while on body weight and drink consumption showed significantly different results. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that giving kombucha tea in drinking water to a concentration of 40% has not been able to affect the skeletal muscle glycogen in broiler chickens. Key words: Kombucha tea, broiler chicken, glycogen skeletal muscle

Pengaruh Perendaman Akar Bibit Bayam Merah (Alternanthera amoena Voss.) dalam Larutan Na2CuEDTA terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Kandungan Antosianin

Aini, Nabilah, Nurchayati, Yulita, Suedy, Sri Widodo Agung

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Red spinach is one of plants containing anthocyanin pigment which has various functions as food and beverage dye, and play a role in the field of health. Anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants is influenced by environmental factors, one of them are nutrients. One of the nutrients needed by plants and part of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway is copper (Cu). Cu can be added in the form of a fertilizer such as Na2CuEDTA. This research aims to study the effect of soaking the red spinach in Na2CuEDTA solution on growth and anthocyanin content, and knowing the optimal Na2CuEDTA concentration for growth and anthocyanin content of red spinach. This research conduct to Complete Random Design of single factor pattern with 5 treatments and 5 replications which are aquades, nutrient solution, nutrient solution+Na2CuEDTA 5 ppm, nutrient solution+Na2CuEDTA 10 ppm, nutrient solution+Na2CuEDTA 20 ppm. Sprouts red spinach that already has 4 leaves soaked in the treatment solution for 10 days, then the plants moved into a soil medium inside the pot for 20 days. The analyzing data which is used is ANOVA continuing with further testing of Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at the 95% significance level. The result of this research show that soaking of red spinach in Na2CuEDTA solution did not show any significant effect on growth. The growth of red spinach plant is more influenced by nutrient solution while the anthocyanin contents is influenced by nutrients in soil medium. Key words : Red Spinach, Copper, Anthocyanin, Na2CuEDTA

Pengaruh Komposisi Azolla pinnata Pada Pakan Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ikan Bandeng (Chanos chanos Forsskal) di Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BBPBAP) Jepara

Wicaksono, Andy, Muhammad, Fuad, Hidayat, Jafron Wasiq, Suryanto, Damang

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Milkfish is one of the main commodities in the field of fishery and is known to be the most cultivated. One of the important’s factors to the success of milkfish cultivation is feed availability, both quality and quantity. Feed quality is an important aspect that must be fulfilled because of its relation to nutrients required for the fish growth. Azolla pinnata has a good potential that can be used as an additional ingredient for the fish growth because of its protein-rich content. This study is aimed to examine the effect of Azolla pinnata powder feed on growth of milkfish (length and body weight). This research was conducted in May – July 2017 at Aquatic Animal Health Management Laboratory, Center of Brackish Water Aquaculture of Jepara. The research design used is a Complete Randomized Design (CRD), using five treatments with different concentrations of Azolla pinnata powder, i.e. 0% as control, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%. Each treatments consist of three repeatitions. The parameters observed were milkfish growth (length and body weight) and dissolved oxygen (DO). Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method. If the data showing significant differences it will be continued with Least Significance Different (LSD) test. The results showed that the administration of Azolla pinnata powder on the feed significantly influenced the growth (lenght and body weight) of milkfish. The most optimal and efficient feed composition for milkfish growth is done by feeding 40% of Azolla pinnata powder. The overall dissolved oxygen (DO) is still in suitable condition for the cultivation of milkfish. Key Words :  Azolla pinnata, dissolved oxygen, feed nutrition, milkfish

Metode Monitoring Resistensi Populasi Aedes aegypti Dengan Penetapan Konsentrasi Diagnostik

Sari, Vicka Kusuma, Tarwotjo, Udi, Hadi, Mochamad

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue fever disease. The most effective way to prevent dengue fever is cutting the spreading chain of dengue fever by controlling the vector with using conventional chemical insecticides. The used of insecticide intensively has became the main factor of resistance in Tembalang, then monitoring is needed to determine the change of A. aegypti susceptibility status against the insecticide. The aim of this research is to determine the sensitivity of A. aegypti population from five locations in Tembalang against pyrethroid synthetic insecticide, and to determine the validity of the diagnostic concentration as a method of monitoring resistance A. aegypti population in Tembalang. This research was conducted in Laboratory of Ecology and Biosystematics Department of Biology Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University Semarang. The procedure of this research were: larvae collection (A. aegypti), insect breeding test, sensitivity test including bioassay, determination of diagnostic concentration and validation. The result showed that the susceptibility level of five population was not significantly different since all populations are still susceptible, with the LC50 range between 0,0031-0,0043% and FR range between 1-1,39 (<4). The result of validation test of diagnostic concentration was 0,0038%, valid as a monitoring method of the resistance of A. aegypti population against pyrethroid synthetic insecticide in Tembalang because c2 value of the five population was lower than the c2 table (df = 1; α = 0,05) = 3,84. Keywords : A. aegypti, monitoring resistance, LC50, diagnostic concentration..

Pengaruh Pemberian Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) dan Olive Oil terhadap Mikroanatomi Ren Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus)

Nurasri, Riani, Wachidah Yuniwarti, Enny Yusuf, Djaelani, M Anwar

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) and olive oil have been widely applied in the field of health. Saturated fatty acid content of VCO dominates the total fatty acid content of about 85%. Olive oil contains a lot of oleic acid, which is one type of unsaturated fatty acid (mono-unsaturated fatty acid). This study aimed to analyze the kidney microanatomy rat (Rattus norvegicus) after supplementation with VCO and olive oil in the feed. This study used 25 rats were divided into five treatment groups, P1 was the control group, P2 was a group with VCO 5 mL / kg feed, P3 was a group with VCO 10 mL / kg of feed, P4 was a group with olive oil 5 mL / kg feed and was a group with olive oil 10 mL / kg of feed. The results of ren weight and diameter rat glomerular analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Research design used was completely randomized design with five treatments and five replication. Results of studies on weight ren showed no significant difference between treatments P2, P3, P4 and P5 to the control (P1). The results of the glomerular diameter  shows there is significantly difference between the diameter of the glomerulous treatment P2 and P3 with control (P1), while in treatment P4 and P5 are not significantly different from the control so that it can be concluded that the administration of the VCO and olive oil at various concentrations do not give rise to different responses to weight ren. Olive oil does not increases glomerular diameter white mice, while VCO at a dose of 5 mL / kg feed and 10 mL / kg of feed can increased glomerular diameter mice. Keywords: ren weight, glomerular diameter, Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO), olive oil.

Perbandingan Karakter Ekologi OPT (Organisme Pengganggu Tanaman) Dan Musuh Alaminya Pada Masa Tanam Yang Berbeda Di Sawah Organik Dan Anorganik

Hadi, Mochamad

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No. 1, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Kualitas dan kuantitas tanaman padi sebagai produsen dalam jaring makanan akan mengundang hadirnya serangga herbivore sebagai konsumen pertama. Hadirnya serangga herbivore atau sering disebut OPT (Organisme Pengganggu Tanaman) di ekosistem sawah akan mengganggu produktivitas tanaman padi. Namun demikian hadirnya OPT di ekosistem sawah juga akan mengundang serangga musuh alaminya sebagai konsumen tingkat kedua, baik predator maupun parasitoiid, yang akan mengontrol keberadaan OPT. Pertanian organik adalah manajemen pertanian yang meniadakan  penggunaan bahan kimia sintetik sebagai sarana produksi, baik berupa pupuk maupun pestisida. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana karakter  ekologi serangga OPT dan musuh alaminya pada masa tanam yang berbeda yaitu padi dan palawija pada sawah organik dan anorganik. Karakter ekologi dianalisis dengan jumlah jenis, jumlah individu, indeks keragaman (H’), kelimpahan (Di) dan kemerataan (e). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara umum karakter ekologi OPT dan musuh alami di dua masa tanam yang berbeda hampir sama, baik di sawah organik maupun anorganik. Jumlah jenis maupun jumlah individu OPT dan musuh alaminya di sawah organik maupun anorganik pada dua masa tanam yang berbeda juga menunjukkan hasil yang hampir sama. Keragaman dan kemerataan persebaran OPT dan musuh alaminya juga tidak berbeda pada kedua masa tanam yang berbeda. Namun demikian pada kedua masa tanam menunjukkan perbedaan dalam jenis OPT maupun musuh alaminya yang hadir, namun antara sawah organik dengan sawah anorganik tidak menunjukkan perbedaan.            Kata kunci :  OPT, musuh alami, masa tanam, sawah organik dan sawah anorganik.

Struktur Komunitas Makrobentos Pada Kawasan Budidaya dan Non Budidaya Di Pulau Tembelas, Kabupaten Karimun Kepuluan Riau

Prahmawaty, Raden Faradhiva, Putro, Sapto punomo, Hariyati, Riche

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No. 1, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

The macrobenthos community structure of living organisms in aquatic base, can function as a bioindicator of changes in aquatic environments, are sensitive to any disturbance of environmental changes within a waters. This research aims to determine the effect of different structures of macrobenthos communities in the cultivation environment and noncultivation environment. The research was conducted for 4 months on Tembelas island in 2 areas that were monoculture cultivation and reference area. Abiotic data obtained were substrate grain analysis and total organic analysis of carbon and nitrogen, as well as abiotic environmental parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity and dissolved oxygen. The biotic data obtained in the form of macrobenthos species that were found and the amount in the area was then calculated using non parametric index that were the level of diversity, eveness and abundance, and T test. The identification result showed the number of species found as many as 24 species in the monoculture location and 42 species at the reference location. Dominant species found in monoculture locations were Costoanachis sp and Anodontia sp. dominant species found in the reference sites were Nuculana sp and Ellobium sp. Shannon-Wiener (H) diversity index value at monoculture location was 2,43, while reference index value index had bigger index value 2,83. The abiotic quality of monoculture and reference aquatic environments was categorized as good. Based on the result of the research, it can be concluded that reference environment had better macrobenthos diversity value than monoculture environment. Keywords: Makrobenthos, Monoculture, Reference Environment

Produksi Enzim Selulase Dari Bakteri Serratia marcescens KE-B6 Dengan Penambahan Sumber Karbon, Nitrogen dan Kalsium Pada Medium Produksi

Septiani, Arom, Wijanarka, W, Rukmi, MG Isworo

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

The waste of cellulose in the agro-industry can be reduced by decomposing the cellulose polymer into glucose. This process was carried out by cellulase enzyme (EC 3.2.1.4) produced by cellulolytic bacteria. Bacteria required food as nutrition to survived their life, can be obtained through growth medium or enzyme production medium. Carbon, nitrogen and calcium belong to the essential nutrients contained in growth medium and enzyme production medium. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the addition of carbon, nitrogen and calcium source and the time of incubation on the production of cellulase enzyme from Seratia marcescens KE-B6 bacteria. This research used Completely Randomized Design (RAL) of Factorial Pattern with two factors. The first factor is the type of medium, the first medium is the standard medium (M1) and the second medium is enriched with carbon, nitrogen and calcium sources (M2), the second factor is the incubation time with 5 repetitions. The enzyme production is measured by the reducing sugar method. The data obtained were analyzed using Anova. The results showed that the addition of carbon, nitrogen, and calcium sources and incubation time did not affect the production of cellulase enzyme by Serratia marcescens KE-B6. Keywords: Cellulose, Cellulase enzyme, Serratia marcescens