Journal of Tropical Crop Science
ISSN : 23560169     EISSN : 23560177
Journal of Tropical Crop Science is an international journal publishing research related to tropical crops. Articles in the journal focus on in-vivo and in-vitro production and production environment, breeding, seed technology, physiology, postharvest, pest and pathology of cereals, vegetables, fruits, ornamentals, medicinal and plantation crops; soil, landscape, turf and agro ecology management under tropical conditions.
Articles 94 Documents
Modification of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) Spacing for Long-term Intercropping

Sahuri, Sahuri, Cahyo, Andi Nur, Ardika, Risal, Nugraha, Iman Satra, Alamsyah, Aprizal, Nurmansyah, Nurmansyah

Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 6 No 01 (2019): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Low prices of rubber has been a serious problem to rubber growers in Indonesia. Rubber-based intercropping systems offers a practical solution to this issue and increasing overall productivity, for example by growing upland rice and maize between the rubber tree rows. This study was aimed to determine the suitable spacing in rubber planting to facilitate long-term rubber-based intercropping systems. A field experiment was established in a smallholder rubber plantation in the Tanah Laut Regency, South Kalimantan with area of 50 ha. Two planting patterns of rubber clone PB260 were tested: (1) single row planting pattern (SR) by 6 m x 3 m, and (2) double row planting pattern (DR) by 18 m x 2 m x 2.5 m. The experiment showed that the girth of the rubber trees with the SR system at the 1st tapping year was slightly larger than that in the DR system, even though statistically it was not signifi cant. The latex yield per tree of SR and DR systems were similar, however, latex yield per hectare of SR system was higher than the DR system due to a higher tree population in the SR system. The DR system was technically suitable for long term intercropping, because when the rubber tree reached 8 to 9-year-old, the light penetration was > 80% at distance of about 4 m from the rubber tree rows. Economically, DR system can increase the added values for rubber farmers because it allows long term intercropping. Rubber-based intercropping with DR system is suitable to be applied, especially by smallholders, with a marginal benefi t cost ratio of around 2.07. Keywords: Hevea, intercropping system, rubber planting pattern, spatial arrangement

Evaluation of Yield and Pigment Content of Eleven Genotypes of Green and Purple Pod Yard Long Bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)

Sari Dewi, Okky Tiara, Syukur, Muhamad

Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 6 No 01 (2019): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

The consumption of yard long bean in Indonesia is high and it has been increasing continuously, but the production and harvest area has been decreasing. New, superior long bean varieties with higher productivity are required to meet the increasing demands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and yield characters of selected purple and green long bean genotypes. The research was conducted from February to May 2018 in the Madiun district, East Java, Indonesia. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with genotypes as the single factor treatment, replicated three times. Eleven yard long bean genotypes were tested, consisting of four new genotypes, F7-013014- 4U-16-1-1, “F7-013014-4U-16-1-2”, “F7-013014- 4U-16-1-3”, and “F7-013014-7P-4-1-1”, and seven control genotypes, “KP13”, “KP14”, “KP Putih China”, “KP Putih China”, “Borneo”, “Sabrina” and “Parade”. The new genotypes, “F7-013014-4U-16-1-1, “F7- 013014-4U-16-1-2”, “F7-013014-4U-16-1-3”, and “F7-013014-7P-4-1-1” had at least one superior characters compared to the control genotypes, i.e. earlier fl owering and time to harvest, longer leaves, greater pod weight, longer pods, larger pod diameter, and higher contents of anthocyanin, carotene, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll. Keywords: anthocyanin, genotype, pigment, carotene, chlorophyll

Response of Corn Varieties under Saturated Soil Culture and Temporary Flooding in Tidal Swamp

Maulana, Arlingga Ichwan, Ghulamahdi, Munif, Lubis, Iskandar

Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 6 No 01 (2019): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Corn is one of the important food crops and feeds in the world. Conversion of agricultural land into non-agricultural land is one of the major causes of the decline in corn production. Saturated soil culture (SSC) is a cultivation technology that gives continuous irrigation and maintains water depth constantly and makes soil layer in saturated condition. This technology can prevent pyrite oxidation in the tidal swamp. This research aimed to study the effect of temporary fl ooding under saturated soil culture on the growth and productivity of corn. The research was conducted at Karya Bhakti village, Rantau Rasau, Tanjung Jabung Timur, Jambi Province, Indonesia. The experiment used a split plot design with three replications. The main plot is fl ooding condition, consisted of 1) saturated soil condition continuously, from planting until harvesting time (as control), and 2) saturated soil condition from 0 to 10 DAP (Days after Planting) + fl ooding from 11 to 13 DAP + saturated soil condition from 14 to 28 DAP + fl ooding from 29-31 DAP + saturated soil condition from 32 DAP until harvesting time. The subplot is corn variety, “Sukmaraga”, “Bisma”, “Pioneer 27”, and “Bima 20”. “Pioneer 27” had the highest productivity of 9.33 t.ha-1. Corn varieties with moderate tolerance to temporary fl ooding were “Sukmaraga” and “Bisma”, whereas “Pioneer 27” and “Bima 20” are sensitive to fl ooding.

Cocopeat as Soil Substitute Media for Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) Planting Material

Cahyo, Andi Nur, Sahuri, Sahuri, Nugraha, Iman Satra, Ardika, Risal

Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 6 No 01 (2019): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

To establish rubber plantations smallholders in South Sumatra, Indonesia, plant materials are planted in polybags fi lled with top soil media from the local area. Good quality media is very important to ensure optimal growth of the rubber planting materials. The availability of top soil has become increasingly limited. In order to fulfi ll the need of planting media, cocopeat, which is available in abundance in the area, can potentially be an alternative to top soil. Cocopeat can potentially be used alone, or in combination with other type of media. In this study, cocopeat was mixed with soil at several mixture ratios to determine the best formula of cocopeat based planting media for rubber planting material. The study was conducted from August 2016 to January 2017 in the Nursery of Sembawa Research Centre Experimental Field, Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia. A completely randomized design was employed with six combinations of cocopeat and soil, replicated three times. This study showed that the best mixture ratio is 80% cocopeat and 20% soil, whereas 100% soil or 100% cocopeat is not recommended. The use of cocopeat as planting media should be followed by balanced fertilization in order to provide nutrients that are not available in cocopeat.

Evaluation of Growth and Physiological Responses of Three Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties to Elevated Temperatures

Kurniawan, Dede Yudo, Junaedi, Ahmad, Lubis, Iskandar, Sunarti, Titi Candra

Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 6 No 01 (2019): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Temperature is a primary factor that affects the rate of plant development and has great impacts on plant growth, metabolism, and yield. A study was conducted to analyze the effects of elevated temperature on rice morphological and the physiological growth. The research was arranged in a nested randomized block design consisting of two factors, temperatures and rice varieties. Elevated temperatures were provided through the uses of different materials of plastic roof and walls to have an average and maximum temperature of 27.6 °C and 41.6 °C (T1); 28.1°C and 43.8 °C (T2), and 29.5°C and 47.1 C (T3), respectively. The study used three varieties of rice, “Ciasem”, “Ciherang”, and “IR64”. All rice varieties showed signifi cant increases in tiller number per hill and shoot dry weight, but had a decrease in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and SPAD values at grain fi lling stage with the increasing temperatures. The number of tiller per hill increased when temperature was elevated from 27.6 to 28.1 and 29.5°C by about 29.9 and 21.3%, respectively.

Effect of Storage Methods and Management of Sweet Potato on the Incidence of Tuber Rot Induced by Rhizopus stolonifer in Kano, Nigeria

Edun, Bolanle Tolani, Lurwanu, Yahuza, Sunusi, Mustapha, Aliyu, Rabi’u Shehu

Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 6 No 01 (2019): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Different storage methods and management practices of sweet potatoes in Kano state, northwestern Nigeria, were investigated to fi nd out how they may affect the incidence of tuber rot. Three local government areas were selected for the sample collection. In each local government area, two sweet potato farming communities were selected, infected and uninfected tubers were sampled and taken to the laboratory for further studies. Pathogenicity test confi rmed Rhizopus stolonifer as the causal pathogen responsible for tuber rot and this fungus was used for the inoculation of fresh sweet potato tubers in all the storage and management methods used in the experiment. Tubers preserved using ash + sand and fungicide + sand showed the least incidence of tuber rots. Similarly, it was also observed that storage of tubers with sand alone showed a reduction in the severity of the disease across the storage weeks. There was no signifi cant difference in the incidence and severity of tuber rot between the two inoculation methods with both the treatment combinations. Our result showed that the incubation period of R. stolonifer to infect sweet potato tubers started at two days after inoculation with about 25% infection. The result also indicated that none of the tubers treated with fungicide, ash, and eucalyptus sprouted at both the storage weeks, this may be attributed to the possibility of having some inhibitory properties against sprouting.

Evaluation of Growth, Flowering and Seed Morphology of Batflower, Tacca chantrieri Andre

Ajisyahputra, Nikko Rizky, Palupi, Endah Retno, Krisantini, Krisantini, Wiendi, Ni Made Armini, Mulyono, Joko

Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 4 No 2 (2017): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Tacca chantrieri is a perennial plant belongs to Taccaceae family that has the potential to be marketed as an ornamental plant due to its unique shape and dark color inflorescence. To date, very limited publication on T. chantrieri are available. The aim of this research was to examine plant growth pattern and flower phenology of T. chantrieri from West Borneo, Indonesia, and from Queensland, Australia in relation to their potential development as ornamental pot plants. The study was extended to examine T. chantrieri seed morphology with an inclusion of an accession from Thailand.  The field experiment was conducted at the Leuwikopo experimental station in Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia. Seed morphology examination was conducted at the Histology Laboratory of Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University. T. chantrieri from West Borneo blooms six times a year whereas the Queensland accession twice a year. West Borneo accession had smaller bractea, fewer numbers of flowers per inflorescence and shorter flower stalk than Queensland accession. In addition, T. chantrieri Queensland grew faster than Borneo with the one leaf formed every two to three weeks, whereas it was at least four weeks in the Borneo accession. Both accessions were susceptible to leaf brown spot disease caused by Cercospora taccae. T. chantrieri Queensland seeds are oval dark brown, whereas West Borneo and Thailand accessions were shaped like kidneys (reniform) with a lighter brown color. This study demonstrated that there is great diversity in T. chantrieri including plant morphology, seed shape and color, which are important for species identification and for development of T. chantrieri as ornamental pot plant.

Study of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) In Vitro Embryogenesis using Young Leaves Explants

Wiendi, Ni Made Armini, Constantin, Mondjeli, Wachyar, Ade

Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 2 No 2 (2015): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

This study reported in vitro embryogenesis of oil palm using young leaves as explants. Explants were grown in solid modified MS or Eeuwens medium containing different concentrations of NAA and 2,4-D, i.e. media C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5, M1, M2, M3 and M4, to induce embryogenic calli. Compact and pearly-white, globular calli were obtained from the youngest leaf explants 28 weeks after culture.C1 media (MS medium + 107.41 µM of NAA + 100 mg.L-1 of asparagine + 100 mg.L of glutamine-1) produced the highest percentage of calli formation (30.56%), whereas C4 media (C1 supplemented with 67.86 µM of 2,-D ) was the optimal media for embryogenic callus induction. Direct embryoids were obtained from slightly older leaf explants on the C3 media containing NAA after 36 weeks of culture. However, four subcultures using the same medium with gradual reduction of auxin concentration were not successful to develop embryogenic callus and embryoid cells during the course of this study.  

Fruit Coating with Chitosan and Beeswax to Increase Papaya Shelf Life

Mukdisari, Yurisqi, Suketi, Ketty, Widodo, Winarso Drajad

Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 3 No 3 (2016): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a climacteric fruit with an increased respiration rate during ripening process. Papaya respiration rate can be inhibited by providing a coating on the surface of the fruits, including chitosan, a polysaccharide derived from shrimp shell waste, or beeswax.The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of chitosan and beeswax coating on the shelf life and quality of papaya Callina fruit during storage. Results of the experiments showed that fruit coating with chitosan and beeswax can extend the shelf life of papaya Callina by four to five days compared to control due to inhibition respiration rate of papaya fruits during storage.The use of chitosan and beeswax was beneficial to maintain the physical and chemical quality of papaya Callina fruits.

Influence of Manure, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizer Application on Growth of One-year-old Oil Palms on Marginal Soil in Jonggol, Bogor, Indonesia

Sudrajat, Sudradjat, Sukmawan, Yan, Sugiyanta, Sugiyanta

Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 1 No 2 (2014): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

The oil palms (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) are highlyefcient oil producers. It produces ve to seven timesmore vegetable oil per hectare than soybean, sunower,and rapeseed. The objectives of this research were tostudy the role of organic and N, P, and K fertilizers ongrowth of one-year-old immature oil palm on marginalsoil in Jonggol. The research was conducted at IPBCargill Teaching Farm (ICTF) of Oil Palm, Jonggol,Bogor,West Java from March 2013 to March 2014. Theexperiment was arranged in a factorial experimentfollowing a randomized block design with threereplications. The rst factor was organic fertilizer(manure) consisting of 0 (O), 15 (O1) and 30 (O2) kg pertree per year. The second factor was inorganic fertilizerconsisting of 0 (S0); 0.25 kg N + 0.25 kg P O + 0.39 kg 2 5K O(S ) 0.50 k N+ 0.50 kg P O + 0.78 kg K O(S ) 2 25 2 1and g 2per tree. The results demonstrated that application ofmanure up to 30 kg per tree per year did not affect thegrowth of one-year-old oil palm. Application of 0.50 kg N+ 0.50 kg P O + 0.78 kg K O highest 2 5 2 per tree gave theresult in increasing frond production, stem girth, and leafnutrient concentration. The results of leaf analysis andplant growth responses suggested that the rates ofmanure and inorganic fertilizers applied in this study arenot sufcient to improve young oil palm growth inmarginal soil in Jonggol.Keywords: cow manure, critical nutrient level, inorganicfertilizer, soil fertility, vegetative growth

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