JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
ISSN : -     EISSN : -
Articles 195 Documents
Motivasi Peran Serta Masyarakat dan Penerapan Sistem Pemantauan Lingkungan Berkala Terpadu dalam Pengendalian Pencemaran Sungai akibat Industri dan Pemukiman

Setiani, Onny ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Universitas Diponegoro Jalan Imam Bardjo SH No. 5 Semarang Telp. (024) 8417007 ) , Takarini, Noverita Dian ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Universitas Diponegoro Jalan Imam Bardjo SH No. 5 Semarang Telp. (024) 8417007 ) , Hanani, Yusniar ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Universitas Diponegoro Jalan Imam Bardjo SH No. 5 Semarang Telp. (024) 8417007 ) , Budiyono, Budiyono ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Universitas Diponegoro Jalan Imam Bardjo SH No. 5 Semarang Telp. (024) 8417007 )

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 1, No 1 Tahun 2002
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (252.9 KB)

Abstract

The aim of this research is to motivate community to participate on continuous monitoring of theenvironment. The implementation of continuous environmental monitoring by community isexpected to augment the achievement of river pollution control program.The research areas were located on Plumbon and Beringin river basin on Semarang City asrepresentative of industrial area, Kreo and Garang River basin as representative of settlementarea. The research was conducted in 2 stages. The first stage was to examine water quality,environmental sanitation and community characteristics determination. Situation analysis wasperformed for program planning based on collected data. The motivation program wasimplemented in this stage. The second stage was observational research to evaluate thecommunity participation on environmental conservation. The achievement parameter is theimprovement of community participation and river water quality. The research was conductedfrom July 1999 until June 2001.The results show in all research areas before motivation program implementation thecommunity behavior was not support the environmental conservation. This condition wasconfirmed by poor sanitation and the rivers were heavily polluted. After program implementation,the community participation was improved, the people participation was shown by developingenvironmental conservation cadre. The achievement was shown by the improvement of riverwater quality.In conclusion, community participation is able to improve the quality of environment, however,the government support is necessary.Keywords: Community participation, continuous monitoring, river pollution, industry, settlement

Faktor Risiko Lingkungan Fisik Rumah dan Karakteristik Wilayah Sebagai Determinan Kejadian Penyakit Tuberkulosis Paru di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Sentani Kabupaten Jayapura Provinsi Papua

Christian Ayomi, Andreas ( Poltekkes Jayapura ) , Setiani, Onny ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro ) , Joko, Tri ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro )

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 11, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (267.19 KB)

Abstract

Background: Lung Tuberculosis is caused by pathogen bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and has infected a third of the world population. The incidence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in industrialized countries for the last 40 years indicates that prevalence rate is very small, whereas 95% of the sufferers in developing countries are approximately 8 million people. They are infected by Pulmonary Tuberculosis with 3 million of death rate per year. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Indonesia according to WHO (1999 and 2004), is as many as 583,000 cases: 140,000 for death and 13/100.000 people are new patients. Papua province in 2007 has the number of new patients with smear Basil (BTA) (+) amounting 1535 patients, more than half of the patients are those who are between 15-45 years of age or equal to 933 cases. If such a condition continues, Papua Province will lose productive human resources. Methods: This research was aimed to determine risk factors of physical environment in housing and regional characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in the working area of Public Health Centre, Sentani, Jayapura Regency, Papua Province. Type of the study was an observational study with case control approach. Subjects of the research were 106 respondents, consisting of 53 cases and 53 controls. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test, the relationship of risk factors with the occurrence of tuberculosis (by using univariate and bivariate analysis), and then multivariate analysis with logistic regression test. Results: The result of bivariate analysis showed that there is a relationship between factors type of house (p = 0,031), natural lighting (p = 0.004), the existence among of direct sunlight (p = 0.020), house ventilation (p = 0.020), bedroom ventilation (p = 0.003),  humidity of bedroom (p = 0.000), temperature of bedroom (p = 0.000), house density  (0,004), and type of house floor (0.001), whereas the result of multivariate analysis shows that risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis is bedroom ventilation (OR = 16.949), temperature of bedroom (OR = 8.913), and type of house floor (OR = 4.575), and as protective factor is house ventilation (OR = 0.036). Conclusions: In this research, all of variables studied have significant relationships and 3 variables which are risk factors for the occurrence of tuberculosis, namely, bedroom ventilation, temperature of bedroom, and type of house floor.   Key words: Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Environmental Characteristics, Regional Characteristics.

Hubungan Riwayat Pajanan Pestisida Dengan Kejadian Gangguan Fungsi Hati (Studi pada Wanita Usia Subur di Kecamatan Kersana Kabupaten Brebes)

Siwiendrayanti, Arum ( Universitas Negeri Semarang ) , Suhartono, Suhartono ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro ) , Endah Wahyuningsih, Nur ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro )

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 11, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (218.315 KB)

Abstract

Background: Women in Kecamatan Kersana Kabupaten Brebes also involved in farming activities using pesticides. Long term of pesticides exposure was able to cause many kinds of health disorder, including liver disfunction. Liver disfunction on women in childbearing-age would make bad impacts not only to themselves but also to their fetus when they were pregnant. Former research indicated that liver disfunction came as a result of pesticides exposure. Health Profiles of Kabupaten Brebes in 2007 and 2008 recorded increasing rate of liver disfunction. The objective of this research was to analize the assossiation between pesticides exposure and liver disfunction on women in childbearing-age at Kecamatan Kersana Kabupaten Brebes. Method : This was an explanatory research with cross sectional approach. This research took sample of 86 women in childbearing-age from four villages which were chosen purposively. Questionare, tool of blood sampling and laboratory testing, and sheet of laboratory result were used as instruments in this research. Data were collected by laboratory testing to blood samples and interviewing childbearing-age women. Result : All childbearing-age women had normal cholinesterase enzyme level, but 50% of them had cholinesterase enzyme below mean level. Envolvement of childbearing-age women in farming activities was 74,4%. Based on cholinesterase enzyme level and envolvement in farming activities, it was concluded that 33 childbearing-age women (38,4%) had pesticides exposure. Occurence of childbearing-age women to have liver disfunction was 23,3%. There was no assossiation between pesticides exposure and liver disfunction on women in childbearing-age (p=0,538). Pesticides exposure, together with other risk factors, also indicated no assossiation to liver disfunction on women in childbearing-age at Kecamatan Kersana Kabupaten Brebes (p=0,651). Keywords : women in childbearing-age, pesticides exposure, liver disfunction

Beberapa Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Fungsi Tiroid Pada Pasangan Usia Subur (PUS) di Kecamatan Kersana Kabupaten Brebes

Kusumawati, Ratnasari, Suhartono, Suhartono ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro ) , Sulistiyani, Sulistiyani ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro )

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 11, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (137.257 KB)

Abstract

Background  : Pesticide exposure on women who live in agricultural areas can cause health problems such as disruption of thyroid function. Pesticides can inhibit the binding of iodine by the body. Hypothyroidism can cause disturbances in female reproductive system, including disorders of puberty and menstruation, pre menstrual syndrome, sexual disfunction, birth defects and low birth weight infant. Goiter are usually be found in mountainous or highland areas but now mostly found in the lowlands. This is probably due to the exposure to heavy metals such as Pb, the use of hormonal contraceptives, and consumption of thiocyanate.  The purpose of this study was to identify some factors associated with thyroid function on child bearing age woman in  Kersana Subdistrict,  district of Brebes Method  : It was an observational research using cross-sectional design. Research was conducted in 4 villages namely Kemukten, Limbangan, Sutamaja and Kubangpari Kersana Brebes District. The subjects were 87 women. Data obtained from TSH, FT4 serum, Pb in blood, kholinesterase in blood, urinary iodine excretion, thiocyanate, measurement of nutritional status, the interview to find out the type of contraception used by couples. Data were analyzed using chi square test. Result  : The results showed that there was no correlation between levels of kholinesterase, Pb in blood, urinary iodine excretion, urinary thiocyanate, the type of contraception, age and BMI with thyroid function on child bearing age woman in Sub district of Kersana. There was no association between exposure of pesticides and Hypothyroid cases occured in Kersana Sub district. It was recomended that women of childbearing need to reduce the adverse impacts of pesticides by using personal protective equipment in agricultural activities and improve health and clean living, and  health department should monitor and regular inspection for kholinesterase levels in women of childbearing age who live in agricultural areas. Keywords : Pesticides expose, thyroid disfunction, child bearing age woman.

Analisis Spasial Sebaran Kasus Tuberkulosis Paru Ditinjau Dari Faktor Lingkungan Dalam dan Luar Rumah di Kabupaten PekalonganAnalisis Spasial Sebaran Kasus Tuberkulosis Paru Ditinjau Dari Faktor Lingkungan Dalam dan Luar Rumah di Kabupaten Pekalongan

Ruswanto, Bambang ( DINKES KAB. PEKALONGAN ) , Nurjazuli, Nurjazuli ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro ) , Raharjo, Mursid ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro )

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 11, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (497.275 KB)

Abstract

Background : Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is caused by “mycobacterium tuberculosis”. In Pekalongan, the prevalence rate of TB is 1,08 per 1000 population. Approximately 75% of those is the economically productive group. No information of TB distribution based on the environmental characteristic. This research aimed to anlyze the association between demographic,  physical environment factors and to conduct spatial analysis of regional characteristics that influence the distribution of tuberculosis cases in Pekalongan Regency. Method: It  was an observasional research using case control design. Data analysis performed by chi-square  (univariate and bivariate analysis). Multivariate analysis uses logistic regression test to determine of risk factors which the association is significant with pulmonary tuberculosis. Result : The statistical test showed that occupancy density, ventilation area, humidity of room in the house, air temperature, natural lighting in the house, kind of floor, air temperature outside the house, knowledge, nutrition status, and contact with the cases (p=0,05). While the result of multivariate analysis proved that there are seven factors which have significantly association with tuberculosis: knowledge, occupancy density, temperature in the home, natural lighting in the house, kind of floor, nutrition status, and contact with cases (OR>1,00). It was recommended to improve thr physical environment of the house, increase investigation and counselling for amily contact in the same house.   Keywords: Risk factors, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Spatial analysis

Hubungan Paparan Pestisida Dengan Kandungan Arsen (As) Dalam Urin dan Kejadian Anemia (Studi : Pada Petani Penyemprot Pestisida di Kabupaten Brebes)

Fikri, Elanda ( RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang ) , Setiani, Onny ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro ) , Nurjazuli, Nurjazuli ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro )

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 11, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (167.977 KB)

Abstract

Background : Brebes as the largest users of pesticides (insecticide and  fungicide) in Indonesia, have potential for the occurrence of pesticide poisoning which will give effect on health. Impacts of pesticide exposure with the incidence of anemia using indicators arsenic (As) in urine has not been known. This research aimed to identify  association between pesticide exposure with the level of arsenic (As) in urine and incidence of anemia. Methods : this research was an observational research  using a cross sectional design, with  32 samples farmer were taken by purposive sampling. Data levels of arsenic in urine in a test using spectrophotometry, while the haemoglobin concentration measured by Hemocue Hb201+, and for other data obtained by interview. Data analysis performed using Kendall-tau test (α = 0.05). Result : study showed level of arsenic (As) still below threshold limit value (NAB=<35 µg/l), the highest = 14.45 µg/l, the lowest = 1.40 µg/l, mean= 5.1137 µg/l and SD=3.271. While hemoglobin concentration with the results of five respondents (+) anemia, the highest=16.8 gr%, the lowest=11.3 gr%, mean= 14.159 gr%  and SD=1.069. Statistical test results showed there was no significant association between doses of  pesticides (p-value: 0.232), combinations of pesticides (p-value: 0.532), working hour/day (p-value: 0.797), duration of working (p-value: 0.515) and intensity of spraying (p-value: 0.834) with the level of arsenic (As) in urine and incidence of anemia (p-value: 0.152). T-test results showed average levels of arsenic (As) tend to be higher in respondents with duration of working  (> 3 years) and working hour/day (≥ 3 hours/day) exposed to pesticides. Conclusion : The small sample size and  indication of long term exposure is a potential factor in strengthening the conclusion there was no significant association between pesticides exposure, level of arsenic (As) in urine and incidence of anemia. Key words : Anemia, Arsenic, Pesticides Exposure

Hubungan Kadar Timah Hitam (Pb) Dalam Darah Dengan Profil Darah Studi Pada Petugas Pengujian Emisi Gas Buang Dinas Perhubungan Kabupaten Purbalingga dan Banjarnegara

Hafsari Purwindah, Ratih ( TSSM WSP ) , Sulistiyani, Sulistiyani ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro ) , Budiyono, Budiyono ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro )

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 11, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (135.195 KB)

Abstract

Background : Fuel oil in Indonesia is still using of leaded gasoline, so that 70% of Pb from the burning will be emitted to the air. The official exhaust emission testing have a high risk, exposure to which continue to cause health problems, one of which is a disorder of the blood profile. The purpose of this study was to analysis the relationship between blood lead and blood profiles in exhaust emissions testing officer department of Transportation District Purbalingga and Banjarnegara. Methods : This research method was an observational analytic research with a cross sectional study design.Subjects were official exhaust emission testing with the inclusion criteria.Variables examined in this study are blood lead and blood profiles in the official exhaust emission testing. Data was collected through interviews, observation and measurement. Analysis of data using univariate analysis, bivariate analysis with spearman rank correlation. Results : The study found the average lead was 13.362 µg/dl, which means it was under the toxic threshold (40 ug/dl) and the average of blood profiles consisting of hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, hematocrit was 15.737 ug/dl; 5.210.106/ml; 8.0723.103 / ml; 220.06.103/ml; 45.383%, 87.31 fl; 30.297pg; 34.685 fl. Bivariate analysis showed that there was a relationship between blood lead and blood profile (erythrocytes and hematocrit ), with  p-value and sequentially rho 0.018; 0.397 and 0.039; 0.35 (p-value <0.05). Conclusions : The conclusion of this study, although the value level of blood lead below the threshold toxic but are at risk in blood profile (decrease the number of erythrocytes and hematocrit levels) so that there is need for an appeal to the official testing of exhaust emissions in order to use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) like a respirator, to reduce customs cigarette consumption, routine doing check-ups, increase the consumption of foods containing iron and vitamin C as well as expand the ventilation in the testing room, install exhaust and greenery around the testing room exhaust emissions. Keywords: blood lead, blood profiles, the official exhaust emission testing

Kondisi Dan Upaya Strategi Penanganan Sanitasi di Kota Batam

Joko, Tri ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro ) , Fikri, Elanda ( RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang )

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 11, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1037.245 KB)

Abstract

Latar Belakang : Seperti pada umumnya yang terjadi di kota-kota lainnya di Indonesia, masalah air limbah dan sanitasi di Kota Batam belum mendapat perhatian yang cukup memadai dari pemerintah kota. Pesatnya pertumbuhan ekonomi, yang diiringi dengan peningkatan jumlah penduduk dengan laju pertumbuhan penduduk 12%/tahun memberikan dampak positif maupun negatif terhadap kenyamanan lingkungan dan berakibat pada kawasan kumuh dan pencemaran, ditambah dengan karakteristik Kota Batam yang merupakan daerah dengan struktur tanah bauksit (sifat impermiabel), menyebabkan air limbah yang dibuang oleh warga batam ke drainase kota tidak dapat terurai dan terserap oleh tanah, sehingga akan menambah beban pencemaran air baku pada waduk. Implikasinya terjadi peningkatan kasus (water born disease) setiap tahunnya. Metode : Metode penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif yang dilakukan untuk mengetahui gambaran atau deskripsi tentang suatu keadaan secara objektif. Hasil : Dari hasil penelitian terdapat 3 Kecamatan yang menjadi area beresiko tinggi terhadap masalah sanitasi di Kota Batam, yaitu Kecamatan Batu aji, Lubuk Baja dan Bengkong. Strategi dalam penanganan masalah ini adalah Jangka pendek : meningkatkan PHBS di area beresiko tinggi, jangka menengah : mengupayakan untuk membangun IPLT di wilayah Kecamatan Batam Kota dan melakukan revitalisasi Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) Batam Center yang sebelumnya dialihfungsikan menjadi Instalasi Pengolahan Limbah Tinja (IPLT). Jangka Panjang : mengupayakan sistem perpipaan pada zona/kawasan yang mencemari waduk. yaitu Kecamatan Sekupang dan Kecamatan Batu Aji yang mencemari Waduk Sei Harapan dengan sistem pengelolaan secara Shallow Sewer, dan Kecamatan Sagulung yang mencemari Waduk Tembesi (waduk ini masih dalam konstruksi) dengan sistem pengelolaan secara Conventional Sewerage. Kata kunci :  area beresiko, cemaran,  limbah domestik, strategi sanitasi.

Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Keracunan Merkuri Pada Penambang Emas Tradisional di Desa Jendi Kecamatan Selogiri Kabupaten Wonogiri

Rianto, Sugeng ( Dinkes Provinsi Jateng ) , Setiani, Onny ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro ) , Budiyono, Budiyono ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro )

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 11, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (175.451 KB)

Abstract

Background : Gold mining at Jendi Village, Selogiri Subdistrict, Wonogiri District is artisanal gold mining without a permit/artisanal mining. The activity of gold mining was carried on traditional methode without a good planning techniques and lack of equipments, which is system of underground mines through making tunel and dweel following quartz vein direction that was predicted have a high gold content. The gold mining at Wonogiri District is divided into some groups which can produce gold in 1-2 grams average per day. Processing system use  mix-mercury whereas it can be potentially cause environmental pollution and health problems for communities and workers. The goal of research is to analyse factors which is associated with mercury poisoning of gold mining workers at Jendi Village, Selogiri Subdistrict, Wonogiri District. Methods : This research is was an Explanatory Research with cross sectional approach. Sample was selected using systematic probability sampling. The total of samples were taken 60 workers. The research was taken through laboratory investigation mercury level in blood and interview guide, those were exceed than normal standard by WHO analyzed with Chi Square and Logisttic Regression test. Results: The characteristics of respondents are 17-60 years old, 1 month – 29 years worked periode with 1-18 hours per day. From 60 samples, there were 9 workers using masker, 1 worker using glass eye, 23 workers using boots, 9 workers using long clothes and 27 workers never using self personal protection equipment along doing work. There was found no correlation between periode of work,  total of mix mercury used in mining and using personal protective equipments with mercury level in blood. The finding 40 people (66,67%) has mercury poisoning. The most influenced variable to the mercury poisoning is working days in a week and working time in a day of the Traditional Gold Miner at Jendi Village, Selogiri Subdistrict, Wonogiri District. Keywords : Mercury poisoning, Workers, Gold mining

Hubungan Riwayat Paparan Pestisida Dengan Profil Darah Pada Wanita Usia Subur di Daerah Pertanian Cabai Dan Bawang Merah

Marinajati, Dwi ( KKP Kelas II Palembang ) , Endah Wahyuningsih, Nur ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro ) , suhartono, suhartono ( Magister Kesehatan Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro )

JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Vol 11, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (131.559 KB)

Abstract

Background : Pesticides use is known to cause serious health impact ob human, one of them is abnormalities of blood profile. District of Brebes is one of the largest consumers of pesticides in Indonesia which correlate with its high production on chili and shallot. Most women of childbearing age in this area ara involved in farming which make them having great risk to have abnormalities of blood profile. The study conducted to search relation between pesticides exposure and blood profile on women child bearing age in agriculture area. Method : This was a cross-sectional study involving 80 women of childbearing age lived in agriculture area. Result : Involvement in agricultural activities (p=0,023, RP=1,52, 95%CI =1,00 to 2,29), pesticides exposure (p=0,007, RP=1,98, 95%CI=1,00 to 3,89), looking for pest (p=0,004, RP=1,52, 95% CI=1,12 to 2,04), harvesting (p=0,001, RP=1,69, 95% CI =0,19 to 2,39), releasing shallot from the stem (p=0,008, RP=1,44); 95%CI = 1.13 to 1,84) associated with increased of monocytes differential count. The result of logistic regression analysis showed pesticides exposure associated with increased of monocytes differential count (p=0,004, RP=7,50, 95% CI=1,92 to 29,29). Conclusion of the findings showed relation between pesticides exposure and increased of monocytes differential count. The finding of this study can be used for information dissemination and pesticide reduction programs in agriculture area.   Keywords: women of childbearing age, pesticide, chili, shallot and blood profile

Page 1 of 20 | Total Record : 195