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Jurnal Riset Akuakultur
ISSN : 19076754     EISSN : 25026534     DOI : -
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur as source of information in the form of the results of research and scientific review (review) in the field of various aquaculture disciplines include genetics and reproduction, biotechnology, nutrition and feed, fish health and the environment, and land resources in aquaculture.
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Search results for , issue " Vol 12, No 2 (2017): (Juni 2017)" : 6 Documents clear
KARAKTERISTIK FENOTIPE DAN GENOTIPE IKAN GURAMI, Osphronemus goramy, STRAIN GALUNGGUNG HITAM, GALUNGGUNG PUTIH, DAN HIBRIDANYA Arifin, Otong Zenal; Imron, Imron; Muslim, Nandang; Hendri, Ade; Aseppendi, Aseppendi; Yani, Akhmad
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 12, No 2 (2017): (Juni 2017)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (293.835 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.12.2.2017.99-110

Abstract

Persilangan antara dua populasi yang berbeda secara genetik lazimnya menghasilkan kombinasi genetik baru. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi karakteristik fenotipe dan genotipe ikan gurami strain Galunggung Hitam, Galunggung Putih, dan Hibridanya. Perkawinan dalam galur (GP X GP dan GH X GH) dan persilangan dua arah antara betina GH dan jantan GP (GH X GP), dan resiprokalnya (GP X GH) telah dilakukan di BPBIGN Singaparna. Fenotipe dianalisis berdasarkan metode truss morfometrik dan meristik, sedangkan karakteristik genotipe diamati menggunakan metode PCR-RAPD. Hasil analisis menunjukkan berdasarkan 21 karakter truss morfometrik, centroid hibrida GH X GP lebih tinggi dari centroid ketiga populasi lainnya pada PC-1 yang dicirikan oleh karakter B3, B4, B5, A3, A4, dan A6, dan bersifat intermediate pada PC-2, PC-3, dan PC-4. Berdasarkan delapan karakter meristik, centroid hibrida GH X GP lebih tinggi dari kedua tetua dan hibrida GP X GH pada PC-1 yang dicirikan oleh karakter SPR dan SDA, lebih rendah dari kedua tetua, tetapi lebih tinggi dari populasi GP X GH pada PC-2, dan lebih rendah dari ketiga populasi lainnya pada PC-3 dan PC-4. Polimorfisme dan heterozigositas pada populasi hibrida GH X GP dan GP X GH lebih tinggi daripada kedua tetuanya GH X GH dan GP X GP. Hibridisasi yang dilakukan meningkatkan variasi genetik yang dapat berguna dalam peningkatan produktivitas budidaya.Hybridization between two genetically different populations is expected to generate a population carrying new genetic combinations which may be expressed in both phenotypes and genotypes. This study was carried out to explore the phenotype and genotype characteristics of reciprocal hybrids of goramy of Galunggung black (GH) and Galunggung white (GP) with respect to their parental lines. Matings within the same line producing GP X GP and GH X GH, and reciprocal mating producing hybrids GH X GP and GP X GH, were conducted at BPBIGN Singaparna. Samples representing the four populations were analyzed for their morphology using truss morphometric and meristic methods, while genotypes were analyzed using PCR-RAPD method. The results showed that based on the 21 morphometric characters, the centroid of hybrid GH X GP was higher than those of the other three populations at PC-1, which was marked by the characters B3, B4, B5,A3, A4, and A6, and was intermediate at PC-2, PC-3, and PC-4. Based on the eight meristic characters, the centroid of GH X GP was also higher than those of their parents and hybrids GP X GH at PC-1, which was marked by the characters SPR and SDA, lower than those of their parents but higher than that of hybrid GP X GH at PC-2, and lower than those of the other three populations at PC-3 and PC-4. The genetic diversities in terms of polymorphism and heterozygosity levels in hybrids GH X GP and GP X GH were higher than those found in the pure-line (GH X GH and GP X GP). Hybridization conducted in this study had resulted in the enhancement of genetic variations which could be useful in increasing aquaculture productivity.
KERAGAAN REMATURASI GONAD INDUK TERIPANG PASIR, Holothuria scabra DENGAN PEMBERIAN JENIS PAKAN BERBEDA Sembiring, Sari Budi Moria; Wardana, Ida Komang; Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Haryanti, Haryanti
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 12, No 2 (2017): (Juni 2017)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (432.302 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.12.2.2017.147-159

Abstract

Rematurasi gonad induk teripang pasir Holothuria scabra yang sudah memijah masih banyak masalah, padahal rematurasi diperlukan untuk keberlanjutan pemijahan dan penyediaan benih. Tujuan penelitian adalah memperoleh jenis pakan yang dapat mempercepat proses rematurasi gonad terhadap induk alam yang sudah dipijahkan sehingga dapat memenuhi kebutuhan untuk pembenihan teripang di hatcheri, serta mengetahui performa benih yang dihasilkan secara fenotipe dan genotipe. Penelitian rematurasi gonad dengan pemberian pakan berbeda telah dilakukan di Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut, Gondol. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode eksperimental secara rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan perbedaan jenis pakan, yaitu: A) Ulva sp. dan bentos; B) Gracilaria sp. dan bentos, dan C) bentos saja. Dosis pemberian pakan sebanyak 4% dari bobot badan dengan frekuensi pemberian 1 kali/hari. Setiap perlakuan terdiri atas tiga ulangan. Jumlah induk setiap ulangan sebanyak tiga ekor dengan ukuran panjang dan bobot 13,08 ± 2,04 cm dan 182,75 ± 47,74 g. Benih yang dihasilkan sebelum induk dirematurasi dan setelah rematurasi diamati performa fenotipe dan genotipenya. Analisis genotipe menggunakan metode mikrosatellit dengan empat lokus (Hsc-11; Hsc-28; Hsc-49; dan Hsc-59). Parameter yang diamati meliputi frekuensi pemijahan induk teripang, tingkat kematangan gonad, indeks gonadosomatik, fekunditas, diameter telur, pertumbuhan benih F-1 sebelum dan sesudah rematurasi, serta performa genotipe benih tersebut. Data indeks gonad somatik dan diameter telur dianalisis dengan ANOVA, sedangkan data pertumbuhan, pemijahan, dan fekunditas disajikan dalam bentuk tabel dan grafik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semua perlakuan dapat mempercepat rematurasi gonad dan induk teripang memijah setelah dua bulan pemeliharaan. Jenis pakan bentos menghasilkan indeks gonadosomatik dan diameter telur lebih baik dibandingkan dengan perlakuan pakan lainnya (P<0,05). Keragaman genetik benih dari induk sebelum rematurasi (0,719) berbeda nyata (P<0,05) dengan sesudah rematurasi (0,634); sedangkan secara fenotipe, pertumbuhan panjang, dan bobot benih hingga umur 150 hari tidak berbeda (P>0,05).Successful rate of gonad re-maturation of sea cucumber, H. scabra broodstock after spawning still faces some problems presumably due to lack of essential nutrients to support the process. However, re-maturation is vitally important to speed up the fingerling production. The aim of the research was to determine the best feed composition able to induce gonad re-maturation of sea cucumber natural broodstock which had been previously spawned. In addition, this research was also aimed to study the fingerling genetic performance, both phenotypically and genetically. The research on gonad re-maturation was carried out using different feeds at the Institute for Mariculture Research and Development, Gondol. The research was designed in a completely randomized design with three different feed compositions as treatments: A) Ulva sp. and benthos; B) Gracilaria sp. and benthos, and C) only benthos. The amount of given feed was 4% of the total biomass and once daily. Each treatment has three replicates. The number of broodstock in each replicate was three individuals with the averages of total length and body weight were 13.08 ± 2.04 cm and 182.75 ± 47.74 g, respectively. Fingerlings produced from natural maturation and re-maturation broodstock were phenotypically and genetically analyzed. Microsatellite method was used for the genetic analysis of four loci (Hsc-11; Hsc-28; Hsc-49; and Hsc-59). The parameters measured were gonad maturity level, gonadosomatic index, spawning frequency, fecundity, eggs diameter, phenotypic, and genetic performance of F-1 fingerlings produced from both natural maturation and re-maturation broodstock and compared to each other. Data on gonadosomatic index and eggs diameter were statistically analyzed using Anova-test, while growth rate, spawning, and fecundity were descriptively compared using tables and figures. The results showed that all feed treatments were able to induce gonad re-maturation and all sea cucumber broodstock re-spawned after two months. Benthos feed had a significant effect in increasing gonad somatic index and eggs diameter compared to the other feed treatments (P<0.05). Genetic variance of F-1fingerlings produced from the natural maturation broodstock (0.719) was significantly different (P<0.05) compared to the fingerlings produced from the re-maturated broodstock (0.634). However, phenotypically, the growth of length and weight after 150 days old fingerling was not significantly different (P>0.05) between the two fingerling generations. 
KARAKTERISASI DAN EVALUASI POPULASI ABALON Haliotis squamata SECARA MOLEKULER, MORFOMETRIK, DAN BIOLOGI Permana, Gusti Ngurah; Gustiano, Rudhy; Rusdi, Ibnu; Khotimah, Fitriyah Husnul; Susanto, Bambang; Solihin, Dedi Duryadi
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 12, No 2 (2017): (Juni 2017)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (852.148 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.12.2.2017.111-119

Abstract

Abalon merupakan salah satu komoditas penting gastropoda laut. Tingginya permintaan abalon ini mengakibatkan menipisnya stok di alam. Oleh karena itu, upaya keberhasilan budidaya abalon perlu didukung oleh jenis unggul. Indikasi awal suatu jenis unggul dapat dilakukan dengan menganalisis potensi genetik yang dimiliki. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan analisis gen 16S rRNA, karakter morfolologi, dan biologi dianalisis secara deskriptif dengan metode kajian pustaka. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan keragaman inter populasi Haliotis squamata mendeteksi adanya tujuh haplotipe yang terbagi dalam dua kelompok. Penyertaan H. diversicolor sebagai outgroup dalam pengujian memperlihatkan bahwa populasi H. squamata dari Pulau Bali dan beberapa lokasi di Pulau Jawa berada dalam satu kelompok yang terpisah dengan outgroup. Hasil ini kongruen dengan analisis morfometrik terdapat perkembangan pertumbuhan cangkang yang asimetri pada populasi Banten. Pertumbuhan asimetri merupakan indikasi spesifik untuk populasi Banten atau merupakan gejala abnormalitas yang dapat diakibatkan oleh faktor penurunan kualitas genetik atau lingkungan. Karakter biologi terlihat proporsi daging dan gonad berbeda pada populasi Banten dengan indikasi adanya pertumbuhan asimetri. Rasio gonad dan daging populasi Banyuwangi berbeda nyata (P<0,05) dengan populasi lainnya.Abalone is arguably one of the highly valued and sought-after marine gastropods. However, the over-exploitation of this species has exhausted its wild stock. To overcome this challenge, the culture technique and management of this species must be established and continually improved. One of the ways is through producing superior broodstocks. An initial assessment of a genetically superior broodstock can be done using the potential genetic analysis. This recent research employed the analysis to study the species’ 16S rRNA gene. To complement the study, the morphometric and biological characteristics of the species were analyzed descriptively with the aid of scientific literature. The results showed that the interpopulation diversity of Haliotis squamata was detected by the presence of seven haplotypes divided into two groups. The inclusion of H. diversicolor as an outgroup within the test showed that the populations of abalone in Bali and several other sites in Java were genetically separated from the outgroup. This finding can be backed up with the result of the morphometric analysis where there was asymmetric shell growth in Banten abalone population. This asymmetric growth is considered as a symptom of abnormality caused by genetic or environmental degradation factors. The biological characteristics showed the different ratios of meat and gonad in the Banten population due to the asymmetric growth. Banyuwangi population was significantly different (P<0.05) from other populations in terms of meat and gonad ratios.
LAJU RESPIRASI INDUK IKAN BLACKHEAD SEABREAM Acanthopagrus schlegelii PADA SUHU PEMELIHARAAN YANG BERBEDA Prakoso, Vitas Atmadi; Chang, Young Jin
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 12, No 2 (2017): (Juni 2017)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (120.962 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.12.2.2017.161-167

Abstract

Laju respirasi hewan akuatik memiliki hubungan yang erat dengan metabolisme. Tingkat metabolisme hewan merupakan variabel yang dapat dipengaruhi faktor dalam maupun luar, salah satunya adalah suhu. Pada ikan, proses metabolisme juga berkorelasi dengan suhu. Salah satu jenis ikan yang perlu dikaji laju respirasinya adalah ikan blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii yang merupakan spesies ikan laut yang popular di Korea Selatan, sehingga diperlukan lebih banyak informasi lagi mengenai laju respirasi ikan ini untuk mengoptimalkan metabolisme ikan ini dan berdampak kepada produktivitas budidaya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi laju respirasi induk ikan blackhead seabream pada beberapa tingkatan suhu. Ikan blackhead seabream (panjang total 29,3 ± 2,2 cm dan bobot tubuh 538,3 ± 43,0 g) diteliti menggunakan respirometer dalam sistem resirkulasi. Tiga kelompok percobaan dilakukan untuk mengukur laju respirasi berdasarkan perubahan suhu pemeliharaan (15°C, 20°C, dan 25°C). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kecenderungan laju respirasi meningkat secara linier dengan peningkatan suhu perlakuan, dengan nilai tertinggi sebesar 164,8 ± 30,7 mg O2/kg/jam pada 25°C dan nilai terendah sebesar 72,4 ± 8,1 mg O2/kg/jam pada 15°C. Sementara itu, frekuensi pernapasan berkorelasi positif terhadap kenaikan suhu. Berdasarkan penelitian ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa perubahan suhu dari 15°C ke 25°C menyebabkan peningkatan laju respirasi pada induk ikan blackhead seabream.It is well known that a close relationship exists between respiration rate and metabolism in aquatic animal. In fish, the metabolic rate is influenced by internal or external factors, such as temperature. This research observed the respiration rate of blackhead seabream, Acanthopagrus schlegelii, which is one of the popular marine fish species in South Korea. Despite the fish popularity, very few information are available about the fish’s respiration rate which is important in order to optimize its metabolism and increase its aquaculture productivity. This study aimed to evaluate the respiration rate of adult blackhead seabream reared in media with different temperature settings. The fish (total length of 29.3 ±2.2 cm and body weight of 538.3 ± 43.0 g) were observed using a respirometer placed inside the recirculation systems. Three groups of experiments were set up to measure the fish’s respiration rate according to different rearing temperatures (15°C, 20°C, and 25°C). The results showed that there was a tendency of respiration rate increased linearly with the increase of temperature. The highest respiration rate was 164.8 ± 30.7 mg O2/kg/hour at 25°C and the lowest value was 72.4 ± 8.1 mg O2/kg/hour at 15°C which indicated that the respiratory rate positively correlated to the change in temperature. According to this study, it can be concluded that temperature changes from 15°C to 25°C led an increase in respiration rate of adult blackhead seabream  
PERFORMA PEMBESARAN IKAN MAS RAJADANU (Cyprinus carpio) GENERASI KETIGA HASIL SELEKSI “WALKBACK” Himawan, yogi; Syahputra, Khairul; Ariyanto, Didik
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 12, No 2 (2017): (Juni 2017)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (208.747 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.12.2.2017.121-129

Abstract

Timbulnya wabah penyakit KHV (Koi herpesvirus) pada budidaya ikan mas telah menurunkan produksi ikan mas nasional secara signifikan. Beberapa langkah dilakukan untuk mengatasi penyakit tersebut, salah satunya pembentukan ikan mas Rajadanu tahan KHV melalui seleksi. Dalam rangka memperoleh varietas unggul ikan mas tahan KHV pada tahun 2014 telah dilakukan pembentukan populasi F-3 melalui program selective breeding dengan metode walkback selection. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis performa pertumbuhan ikan mas Rajadanu generasi ketiga hasil seleksi melalui uji skala lapang pada fase pembesaran, serta kegiatan uji tantang pada skala laboratorium. Benih F-3 merupakan hasil pemijahan F-1 betina dan F-2 jantan hasil seleksi positif MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex), sedangkan kontrol berupa benih ikan mas Majalaya dari pembudidaya, masing-masing tiga ulangan. Uji tantang KHV dilakukan di akuarium berukuran 60 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm di hatchery ikan mas dengan suhu permissive 21°C melalui metode kohabitasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa populasi F-3 ikan mas Rajadanu hasil seleksi memiliki performa pertumbuhan relatif lebih baik 6,20% dibandingkan dengan kontrol pada karakter panjang total (18,14±4,90 cm), 5,80% lebih baik pada karakter panjang standar (14,76 ± 4,39 cm); 38,39% lebih baik pada karakter bobot rata-rata (393,98 ± 3,53 g); 16,83% pada karakter laju pertumbuhan spesifik (2,29 ± 0,04%); dan 3,80% pada karakter sintasan (49,13 ± 6,88%). Hasil uji tantang KHV menunjukkan sintasan populasi F-3 lebih tinggi (96,6 ± 3,3%) dibandingkan dengan kontrol (51,1 ± 8,3%).The outbreaks of KHV (Koi herpesvirus) disease in carp culture have significantly reduced Indonesia’s national carp production. Several strategies have been devised to combat the outbreaks including the development of KHV resistant carp varieties such as selective carp breeding program in 2014. The purpose of this study was to analyze the growth performance of the third generation (F-3) Rajadanu through field-scale test (grow out) and challenge test (laboratory-scale). The study was designed in a completely randomized design with two treatments (F-3 populations) and carp seed from the local small-scale fish farmers as control, each with three replicates. F-3 seed was produced from spawning between F-1 females and F-2 males which had a Major Histocompatibility Complex positive selection. The challenge test was carried out in the aquarium sized 60 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm at the hatchery with the permissive temperature of 21°C. The results showed that F-3 Rajadanu population had relatively higher total length (18.14 ± 4.90 cm) of 6.20%, standard length (14.76 ± 4.39 cm) of 5.80%, weight average (393.98 ± 3.53 g) of 38.39%, specific growth rate (2.29 ± 0.04%) of 16.83%, and survival rate (49.13 ± 6.88%) of 3.80% than that of control population. The result of the challenge test on KHV in the laboratory showed that F-3 population had higher survival rate (96.6 ± 3.3%) compared to that of control (51.1 ± 8.3%).
INDUKSI OVULASI DAN PEMIJAHAN IKAN AGAMYSIS (Agamyxis albomaculatus) MENGGUNAKAN HORMON YANG BERBEDA Nur, Bastiar; Permana, Asep; Priyadi, Agus; Mustofa, Siti Zuhriyah; Murniasih, Siti
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 12, No 2 (2017): (Juni 2017)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (227.142 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.12.2.2017.169-177

Abstract

Ikan agamysis (Agamyxis albomaculatus) merupakan ikan hias air tawar introduksi yang memiliki potensi cukup bagus untuk dikembangkan di Indonesia, namun masih bermasalah dalam budidayanya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas kombinasi hormon berbeda dalam menginduksi ovulasi dan pemijahan ikan agamysis. Jumlah ikan yang digunakan sebanyak 30 ekor (15 jantan dan 15 betina) dengan ukuran panjang 10-15 cm dan bobot 50-200 g. Ikan uji dipelihara dalam akuarium sistem resirkulasi dan diberi pakan cacing tanah dua kali sehari secara ad libitum. Perlakuan yang diberikan berupa penggunaan beberapa jenis hormon yaitu: (A) LHRHa dan antidopamin (ovaprim) dosis 0,7 mL/kg; (B) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) dosis 500 IU/kg; (C) aromatase inhibitor (AI) dosis 10 mg/kg; (D) kombinasi AI dosis 10 mg/kg + ovaprim dosis 0,7 mL/kg; serta (E) kombinasi hCG dosis 500 IU/kg + ovaprim dosis 0,7 mg/kg. Hormon diberikan melalui penyuntikan secara intramuskuler. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan kombinasi hormon hCG dosis 500 IU/kg + ovaprim dosis 0,7 mL/kg; memberikan respons pemijahan terbaik dengan waktu laten 7-12 jam; bobot telur ovulasi 7,3–9,4 g; derajat pembuahan 5,71%-34,7%; dan derajat penetasan 32,5%-50,44%. Penggunaan kombinasi hormon hCG dan ovaprim efektif menstimulasi proses ovulasi telur sehingga dapat menjadi acuan untuk peningkatan produksi larva ikan agamysis dalam pemijahan buatan.Agamysis (Agamyxis albomaculatus) is an introduced freshwater fish that has the potential to be developed in Indonesia. Yet, the fish has not been successfully cultivated. This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of different hormone combinations to induce ovulation and spawning of agamysis. This research used 30 fishes (15 male and 15 female) ranged 10-15 cm in length and 50-200 g in body weight. The fish were stocked in aquaria equipped with recirculation system and fed with earthworm by ad libitum twice a day. The treatments were: (A) LHRHa and antidopamin (ovaprim) dose of 0.7 mL/ kg, (B) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) dose of 500 IU/kg, (C) aromatase inhibitor (AI) dose of 10 mg/kg, (D) a combination of AI dose of 10 mg/kg + ovaprim dose of 0.7 mL/kg, and (E) a combination of hCG dose of 500 IU/kg + ovaprim dose of 0.7 mg/kg. The hormones were given through intramuscularly injection. The results showed that the combination of ovaprim dose of 0.7 mL/kg and hCG dose of 500 IU/kg produced the best spawning response, with the latent period of 7-12 hours, weight of ovulated eggs of 7.3-9.4 g, fertilization rate of 5.71% to 34.7% and hatching rate between 32.5% - 50.44%. In conclusion, the combination of hCG and ovaprim was found to be more effective to stimulate egg ovulation of agamysis and could be used in improving larvae production.

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