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NILAI GIZI, DAYA CERNA PROTEIN DAN DAYA TERIMA PATILO SEBAGAI MAKANAN JAJANAN YANG DIPERKAYA DENGAN HIDROLISAT PROTEIN IKAN MUJAIR (Oreochromis mossambicus) Haslina, Haslina; Muis, Siti Fatimah; Suyatno, Suyatno
JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA Volume 1. Nomor 2. Juni 2006
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ABSTRACT Introduction: Patilo is one of traditional various snacks from Gunung Kidul that is made of fermented cassava waste and cassava starch. Fermentation is intended to reduce or eliminate the HCN content of cassava and to establish special flavour. The protein content of patilo is very low, therefore it can be enriched with animal protein from fresh water fish in form of fish flour or fish protein hydrolysate (FPH). Enrichment with fish protein hydrolysate has an advantage since it will be easier to digest by human because FPH better functional properties and higher solubility.Method: The study consisted of four activities that were 1) making/producing mujair FPH, 2) producing and enriched patilo with mujair FPH, 3) analyzed the nutritive values and protein digestibility of enriched and unenriched patilo and 4) analyzed the consumers acceptability of the products. The experiments were carried out in the 1) Food Engineering and Chemistry Laboratorium of Faculty of Agriculture Technology Semarang University, 2) Pilot Plan PAU and GMSK Laboratory of Bogor Institute of Agriculture, 3) Sidoardjo Village, Tepus Gunung Kidul. Variables being studied were nutritive value and protein digestibility of unenriched and enriched patilo with mujair FPH in several consumer acceptability in terms of flavour, taste, colour and texture. The study design was a complete random design of one factor in which the FPH was added in 5%, 10% and 15% concentration, each treatment repeated 3 times. Statistical analyses used for nutritive value and protein digestibility were Anova followed by Least Significant Difference test with 0,05 level of significancy Friedman and Wilcoxon Sign Rank test were used to test the organoleptic values both in the laboratory and in the field. Result:1) The nutritive value changes of raw enriched patilo were : a) significant decrease in water and carbohydrate content, b) significant increase in ash, fat and protein content compared to the unenriched patilo, 2) The nutritive value change of fried enriched patilo were : a) significant decrease in water and carbohydrate content, b) significant increase in fat, protein and energy content compared to the unenriched patilo, 3) The protein digestibility in raw and fried enriched patilo was significant higher than that without enrichement, 4) Patilo enriched with 10% mujair FPH was mostly liked by consumer either in the laboratory or in the field in term of taste, flavour and texture as for colour, all consumers prefered the unenriched patilo, 5) The changes of the nutritive values and protein digestibility were statistically significant in the enriched patilo, however from the nutrition point of view, only the increased of protein content (six folds increase) was meaningful. Conclusion: Patilo enriched with 10% mujair FPH is the most/well accepted by laboratory panelists and field consumers, and there was six folds increase in the protein content.   Key Word: Patilo, enrichment and fish protein hydrolysate.   ABSTRAK   Latar Belakang: Patilo adalah salah satu makanan jajanan tradisional Gunung Kidul yang diolah dari ampas singkong yang difermentasi dan dicampur dengan pati singkong. Kandungan protein dalam patilo sangat rendah, untuk itu perlu diperkaya antara lain dengan sumber protein hewani dari ikan air tawar baik dalam bentuk tepung ikan atau hidrolisat protein ikan (HPI). Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk 1). menganalisis nilai gizi patilo 2). menganalisis daya cerna protein patilo 3). menganalisis daya terima patilo goreng tanpa dan dengan penambahan HPI mujair Metode: Penelitian ini terdiri dari empat kegiatan yaitu: 1). pembuatan HPI mujair, 2). pembuatan dan pengkayaan patilo dengan HPI mujair, 3). pengujian nilai gizi dan daya cerna protein patilo tanpa dan dengan penambahan HPI mujair dan 4). uji penerimaan patilo baik di laboratorium maupun di lapangan. Variabel yang diamati adalah kandungan gizi patilo dan daya cerna protein patilo. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan 1 faktor yaitu HPI0=tanpa penambahan HPI, HPI1= penambahan HPI 5% dari berat ampas (b/b), HPI2=penambahan HPI 10 % dari berat ampas (b/b) dan HPI3=penambahan HPI 15% dari berat ampas (b/b), masing-masing perlakuan diulang sebanyak tiga kali. Analisis kandungan gizi dan daya cerna patilo dengan Anova, uji dilanjutkan dengan uji Least Significant Difference (LSD) pada taraf dan 5%. Untuk analisis uji organoleptik baik di laboratorium maupun di lapangan dengan uji Friedman. Perbedaan hasil akan dilanjutkan dengan uji lanjut Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test. Hasil: 1) Nilai gizi patilo mentah dengan penambahan HPI mujair dibandingkan tanpa penambahan HPI mujair adalah : a) terjadi penurunan kadar air dan kadar karbohidrat secara signifikan (ρ<0,05) dan b) terjadi peningkatan kadar abu, kadar lemak dan kadar protein secara signifikan (ρ<0,05), 2) Nilai gizi patilo goreng dengan penambahan HPI mujair dibandingkan tanpa penambahan HPI mujair adalah : a). terjadi penurunan kadar air dan kadar karbohidrat secara signifikan (ρ<0,05) dan b).terjadi peningkatan kadar lemak, kadar protein dan energi secara signifikan (ρ<0,05) 3). Daya cerna protein patilo mentah dan goreng dengan penambahan HPI mujair meningkat secara signifikan (ρ=0,000) dibandingkan tanpa penambahan HPI mujair pada semua konsentrasi, 4). Patilo dengan penambahan HPI mujair 10% paling disukai oleh panelis agak terlatih dan panelis konsumen anak sekolah berdasarkan skor rasa, bau dan tekstur. Untuk warna, panelis agak terlatih dan panelis konsumen anak sekolah memilih patilo tanpa penambahan HPI mujair dan 5). Secara statistik perubahan nilai gizi dan daya cerna protein bermakna kecuali untuk kadar abu patilo goreng, namun dari sudut gizi perubahan yang berarti hanya pada kadar protein yang mencapai 6 kali lipat. Simpulan: Patilo yang diperkaya dengan HPI mujair 10% paling disukai oleh panelis agak terlatih maupun panelis konsumen anak sekolah dan terjadi kenaikan secara signifikan pada kadar protein yang mencapai 6 kali lipat. Kata Kunci : Patilo, pengkayaan dan hidrolisat protein ikan    Permalink : http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/jgi/article/view/3243  
Perbedaan Profil Lipid Pada Peserta Senam Jantung Sehat Murbawani, Etisa Adi; SS, Darmono; Subagyo, Hertanto Wahyu
JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA Volume 1. Nomor 2. Juni 2006
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ABSTRACT Background: Sports or regular physical activities have roles in preventing coronary cardiac disease. Healthy cardiac exercise is one of an aerobic exercises which has complete composition, which are warming up, main exercise , and cooling down. Sports can give best result if it is done at least three times a week. Objective of this study was to determine blood lipid profile differences in healthy cardiac exercise which had been done three times a week and once a week. Covariate factors are sex, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, and fiber intake, other physical activities, BMI, life style, and sport obedience. Methods: This study was observational design. Samples in this study are members of healthy cardiac club in Mugas, Paraga Wonodri, and Kini Jaya, Semarang. Samples were selected with Consecutive Sampling technique and data was analyzed by t test. GLM (General Linear Multivariate ) was used to find out lipid profile difference between two groups with covariate factors. Data were Analyzed by data procesing software. Result: There is no significant difference between two groups in mean energy intake (ρ=0,74), protein (ρ=0,06), fat (ρ=0,43), calcium (ρ=0,39), fiber (ρ=0,09) and cholesterol (ρ=0,24). And there is no significant difference in total cholesterol level (ρ=0,54), HDL (ρ=0,05), LDL (ρ=0,32) and triglyceride (ρ=0,77) either after including covariate factors. Conclusion: There is no difference of blood lipid level between three times a week exercise group and once a week exercise group with considering some influenced factors. Keyword: Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Triglyceride, Healthy cardiac exercise.   ABSTRAK Latar Belakang. Olahraga atau aktifitas fisik yang teratur mempunyai peran dalam mencegah terjadinya penyakit jantung koroner. Senam jantung sehat merupakan salah satu senam aerobik yang mempunyai susunan lengkap, dalam artian format pemanasan, latihan, dan pendinginan dalam satu paket. Olahraga yang memberikan hasil terbaik adalah olahraga yang dilakukan paling sedikit 3 kali perminggu. Tujuan penelitian. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan profil lipid darah pada latihan fisik terprogram yang dilakukan tiga kali seminggu dan satu kali seminggu pada peserta Klub Jantung Sehat dengan memperhitungkan beberapa faktor kovariat, yaitu jenis kelamin, asupan lemak dan energi, aktifitas fisik lain, BMI, gaya hidup, asupan kalsium, asupan serat, kepatuhan olahraga. Metode. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian observasional. Populasi terjangkau dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh anggota Klub Jantung Sehat yang berumur >40 tahun di Semarang. Sedangkan populasi targetnya adalah anggota Klub Jantung Sehat Mugas, Paraga Wonodri dan Perumahan Kini Jaya Semarang. Pemilihan sampel dilakukan dengan teknik Consecutive Sampling dan analisa data dilakukan dengan Uji beda t. Untuk mengetahui perbedaan profil lipid pada kedua kelompok dengan memasukkan berbagai variabel kovariat, digunakan analisis GLM (General Linear Multivariat) dengan program pengolah data. Hasil : Rerata asupan energi (ρ=0,74), protein (ρ=0,06), lemak (ρ=0,43), kalsium (ρ=0,39), serat (ρ=0,09) dan kolesterol (ρ=024) pada kedua kelompok tidak terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna. Selain itu, tidak didapatkan pula perbedaan yang bermakna terhadap kadar kolesterol total (ρ=0,54), HDL (ρ=0,05), LDL (ρ=0,32) dan trigliserida (ρ=0,77) pada kedua kelompok peserta senam jantung sehat. Simpulan : Kadar profil lipid pada kelompok yang melakukan latihan senam jantung sehat 3x seminggu tidak berbeda jika dibandingkan dengan kelompok yang melakukan latihan senam jantung sehat Ix seminggu dengan memperhatikan beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi. Kata kunci : Kolesterol total, HDL, LDL, trigliserida, senam jantung sehat.Permalink: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/jgi/article/view/3242
HUBUNGAN KECUKUPAN ASAM EIKOSAPENTANOAT (EPA), ASAM DOKOSAHEKSANOAT (DHA) IKAN DAN STATUS GIZI DENGAN PRESTASI BELAJAR SISWA Zulaihah, Siti; Widajanti, Laksmi
JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA Volume 1. Nomor 2. Juni 2006
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ABSTRACT   Background: Fish contain of high protein, EPA, DHA needed for the formation of brain cell and improving intelligence. Consuming fish and other sea food make healthy and improve the brain ability to reach optimum study achievement. In 2003, fish consumption in Indonesia is still low 24,67kg/capita/year. Based on BPS 2002, fish consumption in Semarang is 5,38%. The fish consumption has a big influence on nutrition sufficiency especially EPA and DHA, nutrition status and attaining healthy and smart Indonesian human resources. Goal: To analyze the relationship between fish meal frequency, fish EPA and DHA recommended and nutrition status with student´s study achievement. Method: The research used survey method, analytical research, and cross -sectional time approach. This research was conducted on September-October 2004. Sample was 100 subject of SD Taqwiyatui Wathon (grade IV are 54 person, grade V are 46 person) by using Stratified Random Sampling method. The data preparation used NUTRISOFT. Result: Fish frequently consumed by responden was bandeng (Chanos chanos) 5%, tongkol (Euthynnus allitteratus rafmescue) 4%, kembung (Scomber kanoguria russei) 1% and mujair (Tilapia mossambica) 1 %. EPA, DHA % RDA defisit 62%, normal nutritional status 93% and average category of study achievement 55%. There was relation between fish meal frequency and fish EPA, DHA % RDA (ρ=0,000), there was no relation between fish meal frequency and nutritional status (ρ=0,213), there was relation between fish meal frequency and study achievement (ρ=0,000), there was relation between fish EPA, DHA recommendation and study achievement (ρ=0,000), and there was no relation between nutrition status and study achievement (ρ=0.378). Based on Pearson correlation test, there was no relation between fish EPA, DHA recommendation and nutritional status (ρ=0,000). Conclution: Students with frequent fish consumption and high RDA of EPA, DHA % RDA showed better study achievement.   Keywords: Omega 3, EPA. DHA, nutritional status, study archivement, student   ABSTRAK   Latar  Belakang: Ikan mengandung protein, EPA, DHA tinggi, diperlukan untuk pembentukan sel otak dalam meningkatkan intelegensia. Mengkonsumsi ikan dan makanan laut lainnya selain menyehatkan juga meningkatkan kemampuan otak untuk mencapai prestasi belajar optimal. Tahun 2003 konsumsi ikan di Indonesia masih rendah yaitu 24,67 kg/kapita/tahun. Menurut BPS 2002 konsumsi ikan di Semarang 5,38%. Konsumsi ikan tersebut berpengaruh besar terhadap kecukupan zat gizi terutama EPA dan DHA, status gizi dan pencapaian sumberdaya manusia Indonesia yang sehat dan cerdas. Tujuan: Untuk menganalisis hubungan frekuensi makan ikan, kecukupan EPA, DHA ikan dan status gizi dengan prestasi belajar siswa. Metode : Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei, jenis penelitian analitik, pendekatan waktu cross sectional. Penelitian dilaksanakan bulan September-Oktober 2004, termasuk disiplin Ilmu Gizi Masyarakat. Sampel penelitian 100 siswa SD Taqwiyatul Wathon (kelas IV 54 siswa dan kelas V 46 siswa). Pengambilan sampel menggunakan metode Stratified random sampling. Pengolahan data dengan NUTRISOFT dan software pengolah data. Hasil: Ikan yang banyak dikonsumsi responden yaitu bandeng dengan kategori baik 5%, tongkol 4%, kembung 1% dan mujair 1%. Kecukupan EPA, DHA termasuk defisit 62%, status gizi normal 93% dan prestasi belajar kategori sedang 55%. Berdasar uji Spearman ada hubungan frekuensi makan dengan kecukupan EPA, DHA ikan (ρ=0,000), tidak ada hubungan frekuensi makan ikan dengan status gizi (ρ=0,213), ada hubungan frekuensi makan ikan dengan prestasi belajar (ρ=0,000), ada hubungan kecukupan EPA, DHA dengan prestasi belajar (ρ=0,000) dan tidak ada hubungan status gizi dengan prestasi belajar (ρ=0,378). Berdasar uji Pearson tidak ada hubungan kecukupan EPA, DHA ikan dengan status gizi (ρ=0,408). Simpulan: Siswa yang mengkonsumsi ikan dengan frekuensi dan kecukupan EPA dan DHA tinggi prestasi belajar siswa baik. Kata kunci: Omega 3, EPA, DHA, status gizi, prestasi belajar, siswa.Permalink: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/jgi/article/view/3241
HUBUNGAN PENDAPATAN, PENGETAHUAN GIZI IBU DENGAN KETERSEDIAAN IKAN TINGKAT RUMAH TANGGA DAERAH PERKOTAAN Indriana, S; Widajanti, Laksmi
JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA Volume 1. Nomor 1. Desember 2005
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ABSTRACT Background: The role of fish as nutrients source is very important because fish contains nutrients that to be required the body. Many markets in the city that prepare daily consumption should not become barrier for serving fish dish in family menu. Moreover Semarang city is harbour city; the fish is easy to be accessed in Semarang. But until this time role of fish in consumption of traditional food is rare because apart of population less recognize the advantage of fish. The objective of this study is to analize the relationship between income, mothers nutrition knowledge and fish stock at household level. Method: This cross sectional study was conducted to 75 mothers who be educated minimal the end of high school in Jagalan house of village-head, district of Center Semarang, Semarang city, taken by systematic random sampling. Data analyzing with Spearman correlation test. Result: Income/capita/month from mother/household ranged between Rp 99.000,00 until Rp 937.000,00. Stage of income/capita/month that more than equal with Regional Minimum Commision is 16%, less than Regional Minimum Commision is 84%. Score of mothers nutrition knowledge ranged between 50,0 until 100,0 with rate was 83,5. For category of good nutrition knowledge, the percentage is 66,7%, enough category 30,7% and less category 2,7%. For fish stock in household ranged between 0-1 times/day. For category of less stock as much as 29,3%, enough category 53,3% and good category 17,3%. Correlation coefficient for income/capita/month was 0,284 (ρ value 0,014). For mothers nutrition knowledge, correlation coefficient was 0,466 (ρ value 0,000). Conclusion: The higher mother’s Income/capita/month and nutrition knowledge, the higher fish stock in household. Keyword: Income, nutrition knowledge, mother, fish stock, household. ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Peranan ikan sebagai bahan penyedia gizi sangatlah penting karena ikan mengandung zat-zat gizi yang sangat dibutuhkan tubuh. Banyaknya pasar di Kota Semarang yang menyediakan kebutuhan sehari-hari, seharusnya sudah bukan merupakan halangan untuk penyajian hidangan ikan dalam menu keluarga. Apalagi Kota Semarang merupakan kota pelabuhan, ikan mudah didapatkan. Namun sampai saat ini peran ikan dalam konsumsi pangan tradisional masih kecil karena sebagian penduduk kurang mengenal manfaat ikan. Tujuan penelitian untuk menganalisis hubungan pendapatan, pengetahuan gizi ibu dengan ketersediaan ikan di tingkat rumah tangga. Metode: Penelitian menggunakan metode penelitian survei masyarakat, jenis penelitian analitik, pendekatan waktu cross sectional. Pelaksanaan penelitian bulan September-Oktober 2004. Analisis data dengan uji korelasi Spearman. Populasi adalah ibu yang berpendidikan minimal tamat SLTA di Kelurahan Jagalan, Kecamatan Semarang Tengah, Kota Semarang (305 orang) dengan sampel sebanyak 75 orang. Hasil: Pendapatan/kapita/bulan ibu/rumah tangga bervariasi dari Rp 99.000,00 - Rp 937.000,00. Tingkat pendapatan/kapita/bulan yang >UMR persentasenya 16%, yang <UMR 84%. Nilai pengetahuan gizi ibu tentang ikan berkisar antara 50,0-100,0 dengan nilai rata-rata 83,5. Untuk kategori pengetahuan gizi baik, persentasenya 66,7%, kategori cukup 30,7% dan kategori kurang 2,7%. Untuk ketersediaan ikan tingkat rumah tangga, berkisar antara 0-1 kali/hari. Untuk kategori ketersediaan kurang ada 29,3%, kategori cukup 53,3% dan kategori baik 17,3%. Hasil uji korelasi Spearman untuk pendapatan/kapita/bulan diperoleh nilai rs=0,284 (p=0,014). Untuk pengetahuan gizi ibu tentang ikan diperoleh nilai rs=0,466 (p=0,000). Simpulan: Semakin tinggi pendapatan/kapita/bulan dan pengetahuan gizi ibu tentang ikan akan makin tinggi ketersediaan ikan di rumah tangga Kata kunci: Pendapatan, pengetahuan gizi, ibu, ketersediaan ikan, rumah tanggaPermalink: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/jgi/article/view/3240
SCHOOL FEEDING PROGRAM USING RICE-PEA BEVERAGE IN SOME PRIMARY SCHOOLS: DOES IT HAVE BENEFIT? Satoto, Satoto; Rahfiluddin, Z; Sakti, H
JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA Volume 1. Nomor 1. Desember 2005
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ABSTRACT School feeding program is believed to be one effort among others to improve attendance rate, nutritional status and cognitive function of school children, which in turn improve academic performance of them. A study was conducted to evaluate a school feeding program using rice-pea beverage in Bandung, Indonesia. Its objective is to measure effect of the program on attendance rate, nutritional status, cognitive function and academic performance of the children joining the program. A control group design was administered. A number of students of class 3,4 and 5 from schools joining the feeding program were selected as program group, and more or less same number of school children in other schools with similar socio-economic situation were selected as control group. The feeding program was organized for 6 months. Attendance rate was measured by number of absentees, total and due to sickness in one semester. Nutritional status was standardized using WHO-NCHS z-score for weight-for-age (WAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ). Cognitive function was measured by Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM), and score of Mathematics and Indonesian Language (Bahasa Indonesia) were measured using specific scholastic testings. School and home learning environment, certain food consumption frequencies were collected as covariates. GLM analyses were administered. The study found that after being controlled by some covariates, at the end of the study children in the program group showed better attendance rate, nutritional status, cognitive function and school performance. It is assumed that the improvement was due to better attendance rate as the program attracted the children to attend more days in the schools and due to improvement of food consumption provided by the program and at home. More in-depth, more specific and longer study, administering randomized case-control trial is recommended. Comparison of the use of foodstuffs for the purpose is also interesting to be studied. Permalink : http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/jgi/article/view/3239
Hubungan serum seng dengan jumlah CD4 pada lansia di Panti Jompo Sugeng, Maria Widijanti; Adriani, Merryana; Wirjatmadi, Bambang
JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA Vol 2, No 1 (2013)
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Background: Elderly people tend to have higher susceptibility to infections because of immune dysfunction, especially cell-mediated immune system which is related to zinc deficiency. Zinc has an important role in the cell-mediated immune system which can be determined by CD4 count. Objectives: To determine the zinc level in the serum and CD4 count in healthy elderly and the correlation between the zinc level in the serum and CD4 count. Method: This was a randomized cross-sectional study. Twenty seven healthy elderly subjects of both sexes aged 60-90 years were recruited for this study from a senior center. Zinc level in the serum and CD4 count were measured. Result: The average of CD4 count was 710 + 269 cells/ml, and the average of zinc level in the serum was 87,29 + 10,27 μg/dL. Twenty six percent elderly had low CD4 count (<460cells/ml. There was no zinc deficiency among the elderly but 30% elderly had zinc level 70- 80 μg/dL. There was a significant correlation (p<0,05) between zinc level and CD4 count, which was analyzed using Pearson correlation method.Conclusion: CD4 count has correlation with zinc level in the serum in elderlyKeywords: Zinc level, CD4 count, elderly
Determinan kejadian anemia pada remaja putri di Kecamatan Gebog Kabupaten Kudus tahun 2006 Farida, Ida; Widajanti, Laksmi; Pradigdo, Siti Fatimah
JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA Vol 2, No 1 (2013)
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Background : Anemia is one of the most prevalent nutrition problems. Based on a national survey in 1995, the prevalence of anemia was 57.1% among adolescent girls in Indonesia. Adolescent girls have higher risk of anemia compared to the schoolchildren and adults as they are still in the period of rapid growing, while they also start to think about body image. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the determinants of anemia among adolescent girls in Kecamatan Gebog, Kabupaten Kudus. Method : This observational study was conducted cross sectionally by survey method. The population was adolescent girls aged 13-18 years, with a total sample of 163 girls who were chosen from the adolescent girls in four villages by multistage random sampling method. Data were analysed by Rank Spearman correlation and Chi Square test, which then continued to multivariate analysis by logistic regression test (forward method). Result : The results showed that the prevalence of anemia among adolescent girls in Kecamatan Gebog, Kabupaten Kudus was 36.8%. The correlation tests showed that there were associations between parents’ education level, family income, adolescents’ knowledge and attitude toward anemia and food consumption levels (energy, protein, iron, vitamin A and C). Conclusion : There were correlations between food consumption levels (energy, protein, iron, vitamin A and C), menstruation pattern, infection incidence and anemia incidence (p<0.05). The determinants of anemia among adolescent girls in Kecamatan Gebog, Kabupaten Kudus were energy, iron, vitamin A consumption levels, menstruation pattern and infection incidence. Keywords:  anemia incidence, socio-economic status, food consumption levels, menstruation pattern, infection incidence, adolescents
Tidak ada perbedaan respon imun perokok berat dan perokok ringan karena asupan mikronutrien Rahfiludin, Mohammad Zen; Ginandjar, Praba
JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA Vol 2, No 1 (2013)
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Background: Smoking may affect cytokine levels, including IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the difference in levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10) based on the degree of smoking, and how the daily intake of nutrient influence the relationship of smoking with cytokines level. Method: This was a cross sectional study. Study subject consisted of 23 adult, healthy, smoker men. Ethical clearance was issued by Commission of Ethics of Medical and Public Health Research, Faculty of Public Health Diponegoro University. Smoking variabel was obtained from questions. Level of cytokines examined consists of IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 was measured using ELISA (pg/dl). Nutritional intake was measured by method of 2x24-hour recall. The difference of level of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and daily nutrient intake based on smoking degree was analyzed with Mann Whitney (α 0,05). Result: The result showed no difference in level of IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 found between group of light and heavy smokers. In the group of heavy smokers, daily nutrient intake was higher compare to light smokers. However, the significant difference only found in vitamin C (p = 0.042). Conclusion: Immune response, as measured by level of interferon gamma, interleukin 6 and interleukin 10, do not differ betwen light and heavy smokers due to micronutrient intake Keywords: heavy smoker, light smoker, interferon gamma, interleukin 6, interleukin 10
Pengaruh konseling laktasi intensif terhadap pemberian air susu ibu (ASI) eksklusif sampai 3 bulan Ambarwati, Ria; Muis, Siti Fatimah; Susanti, Purwanti
JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA Vol 2, No 1 (2013)
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Abstract

Background : In 2010 within the area of Semarang Municipality, exclusive breastfeeding by mothers to their babies reaches  up to only 20,06%. One of the problems was the lack of lactation counseling especially by the health service institutions. Objectives: To reveal the effect of intensive lactation counseling on exclusive breastfeeding up to 3 months. Method: This research study was designed as a quasi-experiment of non-equivalent control group. The population of this study was a group of mothers who were in the 7th to 8th months of pregnancy bearing the second child or more. The number of the subjects was 25 mothers who were grouped into 2: the experimental groups of 12(n=12) and 27 control group of 13 (n=13). The group underwent a treatment of intensive lactation counseling of 9 times on 2 stages, the first was four-time treatments during the medical examination on their pregnancy of 7th – 8th months. The second stage of treatments was done by home visit for 5 times during week 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 after giving birth by certified lactation counselors for 40 work hours. These counselors had the experience of at least 5 clients counseling. The control group had the usual counseling that they normally received from the midwives at the Health Primary Center and  private midwives nearby. Results: The group without intensive lactation counseling showed no gain of knowledge, attitude towards early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, breastmilk and no increase of the number of exclusive breastfeeding on their babies prior to and during the study. The group with intensive lactation breastfeeding shows a significant gain of knowledge, positive attitude towards early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, breastmilk and significant increase of the number of exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months on their babies that born prior to and during the study from 2(16,7%) to 10(83,3%). Conclusion: Intensive lactation counseling increases the practice of exclusive breastfeeding up to 3 months. Keywords : intensive lactation counseling, exclusive lactation breastfeeding, 3 months
Faktor pelaksanaan kesehatan reproduksi perusahaan dan dukungan keluarga dalam penentuan pola menyusui oleh pekerja (buruh) wanita di Kabupaten Kudus Fatimah, Siti; Martini, Martini; Rostyaningtyas, Dewi; Soemarmi, Amiek
JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA Vol 2, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (265.822 KB)

Abstract

Background: Indonesia still faces problems of health, especially infant and child mortality rate is quite high. One effort to overcome this problem by promotion of breastfeeding. Family problems arise when workers are women workers give birth and breastfeed. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the pattern of breastfeeding on women workers as well as the factors influencing the feeding patterns. Method: This study used cross sectional analytic survey. The research sample included women workers who had toddlers 2-5 years old and working in the industry in Kudus Regency, totaling 75  women workers (laborers) in the Djarum cigarette factory, Aroma and Norojono based and proportional random sampling. Data were collected through interviews using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Results: The results showed that the majority (70.7%) of subjects had a basic level of education (elementary and junior high school), most (74.7%) was classified as less knowledge, most (53.5%) was classified as less supportive stance, the majority (69,3%) of breastfeeding pattern was quite good, although all subjects not exclusively breastfeed their children. Spearman Rank test showed no relation between education, knowledge, attitude, family support and company policies with breastfeeding pattern. It is advised that the company began planning the establishment of child care support coordination with the Ministry of Social Affairs, and that working women to breastfeed exclusively. Conclusion: There were no relation between education, knowledge, attitude, family support and company policies with breastfeeding pattern. Keywords breastfeeding pattern, family support, company support, women workers, cigarette manufacturing