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Indonesian Aquaculture Journal
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal is a peer-reviewed and open access journal based in Indonesia that globally/internationally accepts and publishes scientific articles in the field of aquaculture. The journal is hosted and managed by the Center for Fisheries Research, Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and serving as a scientific platform to share research information in and contribute to the development of various disciplines of aquaculture including genetics, reproduction, nutrition and feed, fish health and diseases, engineering, and environmental assessment.
Articles
224
Articles
GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF NEWLY ISOLATED INDONESIAN MICROALGAE UNDER DIFFERENT SALINITY

Iba, Wa, Rice, Michael A., Maranda, Lucie, Wikfors, Gary H.

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 13, No 2 (2018): (December, 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the growth characteristics of microalgae strains isolated from Kendari Bay and the Wanggu River estuary, Indonesia. The growth of the isolates, denoted as Kb1-2, Kb1-3, Kb1-5, and Kb2-6, were evaluated under controlled conditions. A batch culture experiment of these strains except Kb2-6 was conducted for 15 days under salinity levels of 20, 25, 30 and 35 gL-1. Tetraselmis chui, Tisochrysis lutea and Chaetocero sneogracile were also culture and used as the growth references. Cell density was measured every day and cell size was measured from 50 live cells during the logarithmic phase. The cell sizes of three of the four Indonesian microalgae ranged from 1.2-11.8 µm, considered suitable for shrimp larvae. The Indonesian strains started the logarithmic phase of growth at all salinities tested from day 0 to day 3 after inoculation except for Kb1-3 that started the phase after a 3-day lag. Increased cell density over the culture period and division rate of Indonesian microalgae during the logarithmic phase of growth were similar at all salinities tested and similar to T. chui, Ti. lutea and C. neogracile. However, the final biomasses after 15 days of culture of all microalgal strains were affected by culture salinities tested. Indonesian microalgal strains showed similar dry weight and ash free dry weight to smaller-cell strains, Ti. lutea and C. neogracile. Indonesian strains (other than Kb2-6) are suggested as suitable live food candidates for mass culture in shrimp hatcheries based on their cell size, ability to survive long culture periods, and wide salinity tolerance.

THE EFFECTS OF WEANING TIME ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF MUD CRAB (Scylla olivacea)THE EFFECTS OF WEANING TIME ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF MUD CRAB (Scylla olivacea)

Haryati, Haryati, Fujaya, Yushinta, Septiningsih, Early

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 13, No 2 (2018): (December, 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Abstract

Live foods such as rotifers and Artemia are commonly used as foods in larval rearing of mud crab (S. olivacea). However, the continuous availability and nutritional consistency of live foods are difficult to control. Thus, the development of artificial diets to partially or fully replaced live foods is needed to overcome the limitations of live foods. The purpose of this research was to determine the best stage at which mud crab larvae can be weaned from live foods to artificial diets. The research experiment consisted of: treatment-1, the larvae were fed with live foods from zoea-1 to megalopa stages as the control treatment; treatment-2, the larvae were fed with artificial diet from zoea-2 to megalopa stages; and treatment-3, the larvae were fed with artificial diet from zoea-3 to megalopa stages. In treatment-4, artificial diet was given from zoea-4 to megalopa stages. The growth and survival rate of larvae in treatment-1, 3, and 4 were not significantly different (P>0.05) but significantly different with treatment-2. Based on the present results, this study suggests that artificial diet can be given to mud crab larvae (S. olivacea) from the third zoea stage.

CORRELATION OF MICROSATELLITE DNA MARKERS WITH GROWTH TRAITS IN STRIPED CATFISH (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

Marnis, Huria

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 13, No 2 (2018): (December, 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Abstract

Marker-assisted selection in genetic improvement of striped catfish is useful in the breeding program of the fish. Five microsatellite markers were characterized in the largest (4.03 kg ± 1.67 kg) and smallest (1.41 kg ± 0.22 kg) individuals. Five polymorphic loci were then used to genotype 160 individuals and the associations between their genotypes and growth traits were examined. The result showed that twenty-seven alleles were detected in striped catfish. The number of alleles per locus (NA) ranged from 4 to 7, with an average of 5.4 alleles per locus. The effective number of alleles per locus (NE) ranged from 3.940 to 6.939, with an average of 5.32 alleles per locus. HO and HE ranged from 0.125 to 0.944 (mean value of 0.472) and from 0.564 to 0.775 (mean value of 0.697), respectively. PIC ranged from 0.573 to 0.799 (mean value of 0.706), showing that they were highly polymorphic loci. Only one microsatellites loci (Pg13) that showed significant differences (P<0.01) in the associations between their genotypes and growth traits, while Pg3 and Pg14 were significantly associated with the standard length (P<0.01) and body weight (P<0.05). However, the Pg1 and Pg2 were not significantly associated with the body weight and standard length. Four genotypes of three loci were positively correlated with the growth traits (body weight and standard length) i.e. genotypes 194/194 for Pg3, 227/227 and 229/229 for Pg13, 279/279 for Pg14. These four genotypes can be used to identify growth traits in the molecular marker-based selection of a breeding program.

ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND IDENTIFICATION OF PROTEOLYTIC BACTERIA TO IMPROVE PROTEIN DIGESTIBILITY OF FISH FEED INGREDIENTSISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND IDENTIFICATION OF PROTEOLYTIC BACTERIA TO IMPROVE PROTEIN DIGESTIBILITY OF FISH FEED INGREDIENTS

Mulyasari, Muyasari, Sunarno, Mas Tri Djoko, Suryaningrum, Lusi Herawati

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 13, No 2 (2018): (December, 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Abstract

Protease is one of the potential enzymes used to improve the quality of local raw materials as fish feedstuff. The aim of this research was to find high protease activity-bacteria isolates in improving protein digestibility of fish feedstuff. Isolation was conducted on various growth substrates such as water and sediment of hot springs, mangrove sediment, and shrimp head waste. The parameters used in the selection and characterization of potential proteolytic bacteria were qualitative and quantitative tests of proteolytic activity. Microbes that have the highest enzyme activity were then selected and characterized based on their growth curve, production time of protease, and determination of optimum condition (temperature and pH) of protease activity. The result showed that there are only 18 isolates from 44 isolates positively had protease activity (qualitatively). Three isolates with the highest activity (RGL1.1, PL1.1, and PL1.2) qualitatively and quantitatively were then selected to be tested for their pathogenecity on tilapia. The results showed that only RGL1.1 was not pathogenic and therefore, potentially used as a protease producer candidate. The characterization of RGL1.1 isolates showed that the exponential phase of RGL1.1 was thirty-sixth hour in line with the optimum activity of enzyme production. The optimum pH and temperature of RGL1.1 isolate were 6 and 50°C, respectively. RGL1.1 isolate is a Gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that has 99.53% of resemblance to Bacillus cereus.

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT pH SETTINGS ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF COMMON CARP RAJADANU STRAIN

Prakoso, Vitas Atmadi, Radona, Deni

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 13, No 2 (2018): (December, 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Abstract

pH is one of the important water quality parameters in aquaculture. This study aimed to observe the growth performance and survival rate of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Rajadanu strain reared in culture media with different pH levels. Fish (length: 3.60 ± 0.18 cm; weight: 1.68 ± 0.18 g) were stocked in nine aquariums (40 cm x 40 cm x 30 cm) for 10 days with a stocking density of 25 fish per aquarium. The treatments used were (A) pH 4-5, (B) pH 5-6, and (C) pH 6-7, with three replications. A commercial feed containing 28% protein was given daily and as much as 3% of the total biomass. The observed data were analyzed using variance analysis (ANOVA), followed by Duncan test. The results showed that the pH treatments did not affect the growth (length and weight) and survival rate of common carp Rajadanu strain (P>0.05). The best growth was achieved by the fish group reared in water with a pH range of 6-7 (length = 0.38 cm; weight = 0.17 g). The highest survival was attained by the fish group reared in water with a pH range of 5-6 (90.66%).

USE OF DIFFERENT PROBIOTICS FOR PREVENTION OF VIBRIOSIS DISEASE ON TIGER SHRIMP LARVAE REARED IN FIBERGLASS TANKSUSE OF DIFFERENT PROBIOTICS FOR PREVENTION OF VIBRIOSIS DISEASE ON TIGER SHRIMP LARVAE REARED IN FIBERGLASS TANKS

Nurbaya, Nurbaya, Atmomarsono, Muharijadi

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 13, No 2 (2018): (December, 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Abstract

To counter disease problems caused by vibriosis in shrimp hatchery, this recent study used three different probiotics to be tested on tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) postlarvae. The study arranged four treatments as follows: A: a combination of three liquid-form probiotics Brevibacillus laterosporus BT951, Bacillus subtilis BM12, and B. licheniformis BM58; B: a combination of three powder-form probiotics Brevibacillus laterosporus BT951, Bacillus subtilis BM12, and B. licheniformis BM58; C: a commercial powder probiotic containing Bacillus subtilis; and D: control (without probiotic), each treatment with three replications. This study was set up in a completely randomized design experiment using twelve fiberglass tanks filled with 750 L sterile sea water and stocked with 30,000 nauplii in the Awarange shrimp hatchery of the Research Institute for Brackishwater Aquaculture and Fisheries Extension Installation in Barru. Variables observed in this study were the survival rate of the shrimp postlarvae at the end of the experiment, total vibrio count (TBV) and total plate count of common bacteria (TPC) in the culture water. The results showed that the survival rate of tiger shrimp applied either in liquid (A: 61.5±4.7%) or powder form (B: 48.6±6.8%), and control (without probiotic) (D: 51.2±4.4%) were not significantly different (P>0.05). However, survival rates in these three treatments differed (P<0.05) with that of the commercial probiotic (C: 21.7±9.9%). TBV/TPC ratio in the tank waters treated with the commercial probiotic (2.26-37.52%) was much higher than that of the liquid form probiotic (0.86-1.98%), powder form probiotic (1.25-8.37%), and control (1.93-2.84%). Ammonia-nitrogen in treatment C (1.462-2.989 mg/L) was relatively higher than that of in treatment A (1.595-2.435 mg/L), treatment B (1.644-2.115 mg/L), and treatment D (1.051-1.858 mg/L).

METABOLIC RATES (SMR, RMR, AMR, AND MMR) OF Oplegnathus fasciatus ON DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY SETTINGS

Prakoso, Vitas Atmadi, Chang, Young Jin

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 13, No 1 (2018): (June, 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

The metabolic rate of aquatic animals is closely related to oxygen concentration and influenced by internal and external factors. Despite its high value as marine fish species in South Korea, information on rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus metabolism is scarcely available. This study observed the standard metabolic rate (SMR), routine metabolic rate (RMR), and active metabolic rate (AMR) of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus subjected to different temperature settings. Another observation was performed to find out the maximum metabolic rate (MMR) on rock bream subjected to different salinity settings. Fish (TL: 26.86 ± 0.29 cm and BW: 469.40 ± 38.21 g for SMR, RMR, and AMR measurement; TL: 26.7 ± 0.4 cm and BW: 451.0 ± 44.4 g for MMR measurement) were observed using respirometer (dimension = 30 cm ? 20 cm ? 20 cm; volume: 10.4 L) inside a recirculation systems. SMR, RMR, and AMR were measured at 15°C, 20°C, and 25°C. Meanwhile, MMR was measured at 15, 25, and 35 psu. The results showed that SMR, RMR, and AMR increased linearly by increasing the temperatures (SMR: 58.7 ± 3.2, 102.7 ± 4.3, and 157.1 ± 4.1 mg O2/kg/h at 15°C, 20°C, and 25°C, respectively; RMR: 66.0 ± 8.6, 112.6 ± 10.2, and 175.2 ± 21.3 mg O2/kg/h at 15°C, 20°C, and 25°C, respectively; AMR: 73.4 ± 7.4, 122.0 ± 6.3, and 196.7 ± 15.4 mg O2/kg/h at 15°C, 20°C, and 25°C, respectively), whilst MMR decreased by lowering salinity (48.5 ± 5.2, 61.1 ± 5.5, and 89.3 ± 14.7 mg O2/kg/hour at salinity of 15, 25, and 35 psu, respectively).

EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS OF MILKY HEMOLYMPH DISEASE IN SPINY LOBSTER Panulirus homarus

Sudewi, Sudewi, Widiastuti, Zeny, Slamet, Bejo, Mahardika, Ketut

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 13, No 1 (2018): (June, 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Milky hemolymph disease of spiny lobster (MHD-SL) is categorized as the most destructive disease in farming spiny lobster. Therefore, it is required to investigate the routes of milky disease infection in spiny lobster as a basic knowledge in order to prevent milky disease transmission. The aim of the present study was to perform an experimental infection of milky disease in spiny lobster Panulirus homarus. Experimental infection of milky disease was carried out by several modes of infection which were injection, immersion and per os exposure. Injection of each 0.2 mL undiluted and diluted hemolymph from the diseased lobster resulted in a cumulative mortality of 100% at 15 days post-infection (dpi), and 75% at 16 dpi, respectively. Experimental infection through water immersion caused in a cumulative mortality of 50% at 7 dpi. In contrast, no mortality was observed in per os exposure as well as in control groups. Results of this experimental study provided evidence for horizontal transmission of MHD-SL among P. homarus. Histopathological analysis exhibited that there were masses of Rickettsia-like bacteria (RLB) in the connective tissues of the gill, hepatopancreas, gonad, midgut, and muscle tissues of the affected lobsters. Mass of RLB was not only found in the moribund lobsters but also in the surviving lobsters with milky hemolymph appearance.

GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF the first and second generations OF FAST-GROWING STRIPED CATFISH (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage,1878) USING MICROSATELLITE ANALYSIS

Marnis, Huria, Tahapari, Evi, Darmawan, Jadmiko

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 13, No 1 (2018): (June, 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Genetic diversity is an important aspect of a selective breeding program to produce fish broodstock carrying superior traits such as fast-growing, disease resistant, and other traits. We have carried out a breeding program to produce a fast-growing striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) since 2010. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic variation of the first (G-1) and second (G-2) generations of fast-growing striped catfish using microsatellite analysis. The G-1 and G-2 populations were selected individually from populations. DNA samples were collected from 40 ind. fish of each population and analyzed using five microsatellite loci (Pg1, Pg2, Pg3, Pg13, and Pg14). The results showed that the number of alleles per loci in the G-1 and G2 populations ranged from 4 to 7 alleles, with an average of five for each generation. The average of observed heterozygosity of the G-1 population (0.420) was lower than the G-2 population (0.495). Inbreeding level showed that the G-1 population was more inbred than the G-2 population. The study also found that both striped catfish populations had relatively low genetic variation. This result suggests that monitoring of genetic variation and better scheme of good spawning were needed on the next selection program to produce the intended fast-growing striped catfish.

IDENTIFICATION AND LIFE CYCLE OF MARINE LEECH ISOLATED FROM CULTURED HYBRID GROUPER IN THE NORTHERN BALI WATERS OF INDONESIA

Mahardika, Ketut, Mastuti, Indah, Sudewi, Sudewi, Zafran, Zafran

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 13, No 1 (2018): (June, 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

The aims of this study were to identify and to determine life cycle of marine leech isolated from cultured hybrid grouper ??cantik? (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus fx E. polyphekadion m) in the northern Bali waters of Indonesia under laboratory conditions. Observation of the life cycle of the marine leech was done using petri-dishes (9 cm in diameter) arranged into two groups. In group-1, a petri-dish was filled with sterile seawater (with water exchange of 50%-60% every two days) and in group-2, a petri-dish was filled with continuous running water. DNA sequence was aligned with the sequences from GenBank by BLAST program. Results of similarity index with GenBank sequence exhibited that the nucleic acid of the marine leech isolated from the hybrid grouper ??cantik? showed high similarity (99%) with Zeylanicobdella arugamensis. One adult leech could produce 1-63 eggs. The eggs were developed into morula, blastula, and gastrula within five days. The early phase of the embryo with daily water exchange treatment started on day-6 and hatched into larvae on day-10. The eggs incubated with continuous running water had hatched faster (eight days). However, not all eggs hatched at the same time. Some of the eggs hatched 1-3 days after the first one. Hatching rate of eggs varied from 2.70% to 100%. The newly hatched Z. arugamensis larva has transparent color and length of 1.0-1.5 mm. On day-6, Z. arugamensis larvae were already seen attaching to the body of the fish. The size of the Z. arugamensis larvae ranged between 3-11 mm on day-9. In that stage, they were able to produce eggs. Therefore, we argue that Z. arugamensis only requires 17 to 22 days to develop into the adult stage.