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ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
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395
Articles
Fishing Season of Large Tuna from Purse Seine Fishery in Tumumpa, Manado, North Sulawesi

Setyadji, Bram, Chodriyah, Umi

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 23, No 4 (2018): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Knowledge on seasonal fishing pattern is essential in fisheries research in order to increase the effectiveness of fishing and at the same time protecting the fishing ground from excessive fishing practices. Determining the seasonal fishing pattern of large pelagic fishes, namely large tuna (yellowfin and bigeye), small tuna (mackerel) and skipjack tuna were the objective of this study. Data from the 2013-2015 fishing operation time series were used to analyze the fishing season using the percentage average per unit effort (CPUE) method. The main focus of this study was purse seine fishery. The research showed that high fishing season of large pelagic fishes allegedly occurred during May to July, which reached its peak on May. On the other hand, low fishing season occurred during January to April, with the lowest on March. There were similarities between large tuna, small tuna and skipjack in term of their seasonal fishing pattern, although they did not show any good correlation (r<0.5). This might due to fact that even tough large tuna, small tuna and skipjack tuna shared the same ecological niche but apparently, they did not show any interaction (symbiosis) but competition.

Growth, Mortality, and Exploitation Rate of Penaeus merguensis in the North Coast of Central Java, Indonesia

Saputra, Suradi Wijaya, Solichin, Anhar, Taufani, Wiwiet Teguh

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 23, No 4 (2018): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

One of the most-caught shrimp in north coast of Central Java is Penaeus merguiensis. However, little is known on the population biology of the organisms. This study was aimed to investigate length-weight relationship, growth, length at first capture (Lc50), mortality rate, and exploitation rate of P. merguiensis in Western part of Central Java’s northern coastal waters. The study was conducted from May 2016 to July 2017 using survey method. Samples were taken for 15 times (month) from 9 coastal fishing ports. The result shows that the relationship of the carapace length and weight is negative allometry. The growth parameters of CL∞ and K were 52.5mm and 1.3 y-1 (male) and 57.25mm and 1.2 y-1 (female). Total mortality rate (Z), natural mortality rate (M), and fishing mortality rate (F) were 4.51 y-1, 1.86 y-1 and 2.65 y-1 (male), and 5.36 y-1, 1.72 y-1, and 3.64 y-1 (female), respectively. The exploitation rate (E) of male banana shrimp was 0.59, and for female shrimp was 0.68. The result shows that the exploitation level has exceeded the optimum level (E>0.5). Recruitment of P. merguiensis may occur the whole year, but it peaks were in March and August (male), April and August (female). Carapace length of first captured (CLc50) was 20.63mm (male) and 18.28mm (female). It means that the sized of captured P. merguiensis is less than the size of first mature (CLm50) or growth overfishing and as a result, disrupting the availability of adult shrimp. The condition occurs due to the size of cod-end mesh measured 0.75inc.

Chart Datum and Bathymetry Correction To Support Managing Coral Grouper In Lepar And Pongok Island Waters, South Bangka Regency

Adibrata, Sudirman, Yulianda, Fredinan, Boer, Mennofatria, Nurjaya, I Wayan

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 23, No 4 (2018): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Corrected bathimetry data is highly required to improve the quality of sea floor map, for a range of purposes including coastal environmental monitoring and management. This research was aimed to know chart datum values used for correctting bathymetry data at Bar-cheeked coral trout grouper (Plectropomus maculates) fishing ground in Lepar and Pongok Island waters 02o57’00”S and 106o50’00”E and 02o53’00”S and 107o03’00”E, respectively, South Bangka Regency, Indonesia. The study was carried out from November 2016 to October 2017, tidal data used for 15 days from September 16–30, 2017 using simple random sampling technique with the total of 845 points of measurements. To calculate tyde harmonic constituents values this study employed admiralty method resulting 10 major components. Results of this research indicated that harmonic coefficient values of M2, M2, S2, N2, K1, O1, M4, MS4, K2, and P1, were 0.0345 m, 0.0608 m, 0.0276 m, 0.4262 m, 0.2060 m, 0.0119 m, 0.0082 m, 0.0164 m, and 0.1406 m, respectively. Values of mean sea level, chart datum, and F, were 0.9620 m, 0.0500 m, and 0.0664 m, respectively, with diurnal type (F= 6.64). Correcting bathymetry values of surveyed location results a deviation about 1.2 m in depth. The calculated chart datum as well as corrected bathymetry provides information that can be used as vertical refrerence datum for generating sea floor map for determining the fishing ground area of bar-cheeked coral trout grouper. Fishing depth usually ranges between 4.2 and 40.8 m. Average water depth in the fishing ground ranged from 14.7 to 22.5 m.

Population Genetics and Phylogeography of Bigeye Tuna in Moluccas Seas, Indonesia

Akbar, Nebuchadnezzar, Irfan, M., Aris, Muhammad

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 23, No 4 (2018): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

The bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) is a migratory fish which can be found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. This fish has a commercial value and has been exploited worldwide including in Indonesia. The exploitation might affect the genetic diversity and population structure. The fact that the population stock resource is abundant and following fishing activities are increasing, study on population genetic and phylogeography canbe used as information to determine the status of the fish population based on genetic data. The study was conducted to investigate population genetic, and phylogeography of bigeye tuna in the North Moluccas and South Mollucas Seas, Indonesia. A total of 60 tissue bigeye tuna samples were collected from two study sites. The samples were amplified using mitochondrial DNA control region. Within population genetic diversity was revealed of 0.985 and 1.00 in North Moluccas and in south Moluccas, respectively, while between populations was 0.989. The genetic distance within population of North Moluccas (0.029) and South Mollucas (0.24) was very low, and all population was 0.027. The genetic distance between population of North Mollucas and South Mollucas was 0.025, South Mollucas and all population was 0.023, and all population with Norht Mollucas was 0.027. The genetic distance of North Mollucas and Pacific Ocean was 0.029, South Mollucas and Pacific Ocean was 0.023, North Mollucas, South Mollucas and Indian Ocean was 0.32. The Fst value between populations (0.990) showed that the two populations were not genetically different. A similar result showed from the phylogenetic trees analysis which individual of bigeye tuna was randomly clustred between North Moluccas and South Mollucas population, indicating that they were genetically close and from the same population. The population bigeye tuna from the North Mollucas and the South Mollucas exhibits no apparent phylogeographic distribution.

Isolation and Identification of Protease Enzyme Producing Bacteria from Fermentation of Gonad Sea Urchin (Echinothrix calamaris)

Jamaludin, Siani La, Rehena, Johanis Fritzgal, Seumahu, Cecilia Anna, Rumahlatu, Dominggus

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 23, No 4 (2018): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Bekasang of gonad sea urchin is one of the traditional fermentation products which generally involves microorganism spontaneous fermentation. Fermented paste products have a long shelf life and are processed quite easily using protease enzymes. Good exploration of producing protease from bakasang is needed to obtain the protease enzyme-producing microorganism with different characters. The method used in this research is screening with clear zone, measuring the activity of crude extract of protease enzyme characterization of bacteria through gram staining. Identification of potential microorganisms through 16S rRNA sequence. The results showed that there were eight isolates of protease enzyme-producing bacteria (G1, G2, G3, G4, G5, G6, G7, and G8) indicated by clear zones around single-colonic bacterial streaks. Only five bacterial isolates (G1, G4, G6, G7, and G8) were tested for the enzyme activity. These isolates have characteristics of positive gram bacteria. The interpretation of the results of molecular analysis using PCR and BLASTN sequences of 16S rRNA gene from five bacterial isolates, showed the identity of bacteria as: G1 was Staphylococcus piscifermentans strain CIP103958 with 99% similarity; Isolate G4 was Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain ATCC 15305 with 99% similarity; Isolate G6 was Staphylococcus condimenti F-2 strain with 99% similarity; Isolate G7 was Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain FZB42 with 99% similarity; And G8 isolates was Lactobacillus plantarum strain JCM 1149 with 99% similarity.

Mangrove Ecosystem Management Strategy in Maron Beach Semarang

Fithor, Alin, Sutrisno, Joko, Indarjo, Agus

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 23, No 4 (2018): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Management of mangrove ecosystem is an important agenda in conserving tourism spots in coastal area. This research aimed at examining the recreation activities done in mangrove ecosystem area and mangrove forest strategy in Maron Beach, Tambakharjo, Semarang Municipality. This research employed a survey approach using direct interviews and field observations. The repondent included the entire population in the research area. Samples of this study were selected using cluster random sampling technique. Data were collected by observations, interviews and document study, followed by SWOT analysis. The results showed that the opening of Maron Beach recreation area has given some negative impacts to the post-rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems, reducing the function mangrove in protecting the shore from coastal abrasion, reducing ability of wind abrasion protection, weakening the environmental conditions, decreasing the number of visitors and decreasing the production of fish. Mangrove forest management should be progressive, which means that research should be done in poor and unsteady conditions which result allow the market to continuously expand, enlarge the market growth and maximize the progress. Through the implementation of a non-overlapping effort, this condition can be improved.

Spatial Distribution of Dissolved Heavy Metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) on the Surface Waters of Pare Bay, South Sulawesi

Wisha, Ulung Jantama, Heriati, Aida, Ramdhan, Muhammad, Mustikasari, Eva, Mutmainah, Herdiana, Ilham, Ilham

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 23, No 4 (2018): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Pare bay is one of the areas of significance which is utilized for port services, stevedoring, oil distribution, regional industrial development, aquaculture, cultivation and settlement systems. Pare Bay potentially has a good prospect for a gigantic development. Whilst, a very dangerous threat is pollution, especially heavy metal pollution and water quality degradation. This study aims to determine the current condition of heavy metal concentrations and its distribution on surface waters of Pare Bay. Heavy metals were analyzed using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) in which it has a minimum detection limit reached 0.001 ppm so that the heavy metal concentration can be well-determined. Hg concentration is higher in the surface ranged 0.01-0.1 mg.l-1. Cd concentration ranged from 0.018-0.083 mg.l-1. Cu concentration ranged from 0.043-0.078 mg.l-1. Pb concentration ranged from 0.111-2.692 mg.l-1. Zn concentration ranged from 0.004 - 0.112 mg.l-1. Heavy metals content in Pare Bay exceeds the standard quality established by Ministry of Environment. It potentially harms the marine life which indirectly reduces the function value of Pare Bay as a center of maritime in the South Sulawesi. Water quality condition play a role in inducing the toxicity level of heavy metals in the Pare Bay. So that this area need to be monitored the water quality sustainably.

Analysis of Carotenoids and the Identification of Mangrove Sediment Bacteria of Segara Anakan, Cilacap

Riyanti, Riyanti, Rahmawati, Meris, Hidayati, Nuning Vita, Syakti, Agung Dhamar, Radjasa, Ocky Karna

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 23, No 4 (2018): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

The excessive consumption of artificial dyes can lead to negative effects on human body. Thus, the invention of natural dyes, such as carotenoids, is needed in order to reduce the negative impacts. Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and reddish yellow pigments produced by plants, animals, algae, and microorganisms. This study was aimed to analyze the carotenoid pigments of mangrove sediment bacteria in Segara Anakan, Cilacap, and to identify species of bacteria that can produce carotenoids. Carotenoids were analysed by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Meanwhile molecular identification of bacteria was carried by 16S rDNA PCR and DNA sequence was analysed through a program called Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). The kinship of bacteria was shown in Phylogenetic tree by using Bioedit and MEGA 5 software. Qualitative analysis by using TLC produced several pigments like: β-carotene, β-isorenieraten, lycopene, flavonoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and a feofitin with Rf value of 0.36-0.95. Quantitative analysis showed that bacteria KH (greenish yellow), KT (dark yellow) and KM (light yellow) produced carotenoids at 95.30 mg.g-1, 110.34 mg.g-1 and 25.349 mg.g-1. KH, KT and KM were suspected to be bacteria known as Streptomyces chartreusis, Bacillus megaterium and Streptomyces chromofuscus with similarity of 99%. Mangrove sediment bacteria had the potential of producing carotenoids as an alternative of eco-friendly natural dyes.

Coloration Characteristic and Population Genetic Analysis of Wild-Captured Giant Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) from Aceh Timur

Indriatmoko, Indriatmoko, Hedianto, Dimas A., Moria, Sari Budi, Tjahjo, Didik WH

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 23, No 3 (2018): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has become a prime commodity in Indonesia which was produced by aquaculture and capture fisheries activities. Aceh Province, in this case mostly represented by Aceh Timur District, was well-known as the center of wild-captured-adult giant tiger shrimp. Several previous investigations had proved for its high-quality shrimp spawner in producing good eggs in quality and quantity under artificial spawning condition. Two main interesting points of wild giant tiger shrimp from Aceh Timur came from their coloration and population clusters. This report was aimed to provide that information pre-preliminary and highlighted quantitative information of coloration characteristic through RGB (Red Green Blue) and CIE Lab color space data analysis, as well as, 16S rDNA-PCR-RFLP genetic comparison among four population clusters in Aceh Timur Waters. The color analysis resulted in significant differences between wild-captured and pond-cultured giant tiger shrimp which produced R value 0.1524±0.0091 and 0.1268±0.0004, respectively. Total pixel analysis through L* a* b* color space has distinguished detailed differentiation between wild-captured and pond-cultured giant tiger shrimp acquired images. It is known that most of the wild-captured image pixels were concentrated in quadrant I (+a, +b) while pond-cultured in quadrant II (-a, +b) and III (-a, -b).Genotyping of represented samples from 4 population clusters, i.e. Aceh Tamiang, Langsa, Peudawa, and Julok produce 2 haplotype composite, AAA and AAB. Among 4 clusters, it was found that Julok has become the only cluster which has a different haplotype composite ratio (1:1) (D 0.0348, V 0,9501) from the others (4:1)(V 0.9504).

Osmoregulation Pattern of Fingerling Vanname Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Rearing in Three Molt Stage Iso-Osmotic Media

Anggoro, Sutrisno, Suprapto, Djoko, Purwanti, Frida

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 23, No 3 (2018): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Vanname shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is one of euryhaline Crustacean that able to adapt to a wider range of salinities. The need of suitable media for a given size and molting stage of shrimp is a key factor of the success of shrimp culture. In order to ensure the success of fingerling Vanname shrimp (FVS) rearing, it is indispensable to provide suitable osmotic media for the molting process. This research was aimed to examine and determine isoosmotic media that complies with physiological process of FVS. The research was done in laboratory scale with Completely Randomized Design. FVS was acclimated to three salinities level i.e. 15-16 ‰ as the postmolt isosmotic media, 25-26 ‰ as the intermolt isosmotic media, and 29-30 ‰ as the premolt and molt isosmotic media with three replications. The result showed that in the media of 25-26 ‰, the osmotic work revealed the minimal level and it enhanced the growth rate without changing the amino acids composition in the shrimp body tissue.

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